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and plated over with two thousand six hundred and whole of the abbey being consumed by fire, that forty pounds' weight of silver, and sixty-four pounds' monarch sent Ralph Fitz-Stephen to take measures weight of gold," beside many rich and valuable orna for rebuilding what the fire had destroyed. This ments. He also bestowed on the abbey a large work was completed with great expedition, and the extent of territory, and a royal charter (dated 725), new church of St. Mary was dedicated by Reginald, granting to it various immunities.
Bishop of Bath, on the Feast of St. Barnabas, in the Succeeding monarchs withheld not their bene- year 1186. This appears to have been the very factions, but were zealous in ratifying, confirming, building, the remains of which now exist. and adding to, the grants before made. In short, In the mean time, the abbots of this monastery
Kings and queens, not only of the West Saxons, advanced in influence in the kingdom. They were but of other kingdoms of the Heptarchy, several at length mitred, became lords of Parliament, and archbishops and bishops, many dukes, and the almost rivalled in their table and retinue, even their nobility of both sexes, thought themselves happy in monarchs themselvest. We may form some idea, increasing the revenues of this venerable house, to however, of the benefits derived to the country from obtain them a place of sepulchre therein.”
such establishments, in the encouragement of learning During the dreadful incursions of the Danes, it is and education, and in the work of hospitality and known that their chief depredations fell on the monastic charity, when we learn the following particulars. establishments, partly, perhaps, from their being the The last Abbot Whiting's apartment was a kind of strong-holds of a religion which they hated, but well-disciplined court, where the sons of noblemen more probably from the valuable plunder which and gentlemen were sent for their virtuous education, there presented them an easy prey. Nor did the and returned thence excellently accomplished. After Abbey of Glastonbury escape the violence of these this manner he bred up nearly 300 pupils, beside rapacious plunderers. It was deprived by them of others of a lower rank, whom he fitted for the no small portion of its splendour, and was soon universities at home. His table, attendants, and doomed to exhibit a most melancholy picture of ruin officers, were an honour to the nation; he is said to and distress.
have entertained 500 persons of consideration at one Happily, however, this sad state of things in Eng- time; and on Wednesdays and Fridays weekly, all land did not continue. The destructive course of the the poor of the country around were relieved by his Danes was, by the bravery of King Alfred, effectually peculiar charity I.
D. I. E. arrested: and on the elevation of Edmund to the throne, he was enabled to direct his efforts to restore
+ The Abbot of Glastonbury was always a member of the Upper
House of Convocation, and a parliamentary Baron, being summoned this religious house, amongst others, to its ancient by a particular writ to sit amongst the elders and barons of the dignity. He appointed over it as abbot, the notorious, i realm.
$ Collinson's Somersetshire. but talented, St. Dunstan, and permitted him to make free use of the royal treasury to rebuild the fabric. Born in the immediate neighbourhood, and
DIFFERENT KINDS OF EXERCISE educated from early years within the walls of the abbey, he entered, as might be expected, readily on DIFFERENT kinds of exercise suit different constithe work. Under his auspices, a new foundation tutions. The object, of course, is to employ all the was laid, according to model brought from France: muscles of the body, and to strengthen those espefrom the same country, also, a congregation of Bene- cially which are too weak; and hence, exercise ought dictine monks was introduced into it, and by the to be often varied, and always adapted to the peculiberality of Edmund, and of one of his successors, liarities of individuals. Speaking generally, walking Edgar, Dunstan was enabled to leave the abbey at agrees well with everybody, but as it exercises chiefly the close of the twenty-two years which he pre- the lower limbs, and the muscles of the loins, and sided over it, possessed of privileges, power, and affords little scope for the play of the arms, and emoluments, at least equal to those which it had muscles of the chest, it is insufficient of itself to before enjoyed*.
constitute adequate exercise, and hence the advantages At the period of the Norman Conquest, however, of combining with it movements performed by the the abbey suffered a reverse of fortune. Its Abbot upper part of the body, as in rowing a boat, fencing, Egelnoth, being esteemed one of the principal men shuttlecock, and many other useful sports. Such in the nation, was for this reason deposed from his exercises have the additional advantage of animating office, and carried over into Normandy by King Wil- the mind, and, by increasing the nervous stimulus, liam, who was jealous of his newly-acquired subjects. making exertion easy, pleasant, and invigorating. The Abbey was also deprived by the rapacious con. Nature, indeed, has shown her intention that the queror, of a very considerable portion of its endow- upper part of the body should always partake in the ments. But even after this spoliation, the possessions exercise of the lower, by rendering it impossible of the establishment were still most magnificent, and for us even to walk gracefully, without the arms by the good care of some of its abbots, and the keeping time as it were with the movements of the liberal benefactions afterwards bestowed upon it, the legs. wealth of the abbey became immensely great.
Pedestrian excursions, in pursuit of mineralogical It appears
that at various periods large sums were or botanical specimens, or in search of scenery, comexpended on the church, and other buildings belong- bine in their results all the advantages which welling to the society. Soon after the conquest, about conducted exercise is capable of yielding, and are the year 1101, an entirely new fabric seems to have much resorted to in the German seminaries, for the been raised by Abbot Herlewin, who is said to have purpose of developing the mental and bodily powers: spent four hundred and eighty pounds solely on the and on the Continent, in many institutions, a regular foundation, Henry de Blois, afterwards Bishop of system of useful manual occupation is substituted for Winchester, amongst other buildings, erected, from mere play, and with decided advantage. For not the foundation, a belfry, chapter-house, and cloister. only is the physical organization thereby strengthened But in the reign of Henry the Second, nearly the and developed, but the mental energy and dignity of
Glastonbury Abbey was the scene of the same Dunstan's most character are increased, and the mind becomes better celebrated miracles, as they have been represented.
fitted for independent action.
Exercise, however, must always be proportioned in occasionally, from their weight being disproportioned extent to the constitution, and previous habits of the to the weak frames which use them; in which case individual. Even a single day of excessive fatigue they pull down the shoulders, by dint of mere will sometimes suffice to interrupt growth, and pro- dragging. When this or any other exercise is resorted duce permanent bad health; and an instance has to in the house, the windows ought to be thrown occurred of a strong young man, who brought on a open, so as to make the nearest possiblc approach to severe illness, and permanent debility, by sudden the external air. return to hard exercise for a single day, although Reading aloud and recitation are more useful and some years before he had been accustomed to every invigorating muscular exercises than is generally species of muscular exertion, in running, leaping, and imagined, at least when managed with due regard to walking.
the natural powers of the individual, so as to avoid Riding is a most salubrious exercise, and where the effort and fatigue. Both require the varied activity lungs are weak, possesses a great advantage over of most of the muscles of the trunk to a degree of walking, as it does not hurry the breathing. It calls which few are conscious, till their attention is turned into more equal play all the muscles of the body; to it. In forming and undulating the voice, the and, at the same time, engages the mind in the muscles in constant action communicate to the frame management of the animal, and exhilarates by the a healthy and agreeable stimulus; and consequently, free contact of the air, and more rapid changes of where the voice is raised, and elocution rapid, the scene. Even at a walking pace, a gentle but universal muscular effort comes to be even more fatiguing than and constant action of the muscles is required, to the mental, especially to those who are unaccustomed preserve the seat, and adapt the rider's position to
to it. When care is taken, however, not to carry the movements of the horse; and this kind of mus- reading aloud, or reciting, so far at one time as to cular action is extremely favourable to the proper and excite the least sensation of soreness or fatigue in the equal circulation of the blood through the extreme chest, and it is duly repeated, it is extremely useful vessels, and to the prevention of its undue accumu- in developing and giving tone to the organs of respilation in the central organs. The gentleness of the ration, and to the general system. To the invigoaction admits of its being kept up without accelerating rating effects of this kind of exercise, the celebrated respiration, and enables a delicate person to reap the Cuvier was in the habit of ascribing his own exemption combined advantages of the open air, and proper from consumption, to which, at the time be was exercise, for a much longer period than would other appointed to a professorship, it was belived he would wise be possible.
otherwise have fallen a sacrifice. The exercise of Dancing is a cheerful and useful exercise, out has lecturing gradually strengthened his lungs, and imthe disadvantage of being used within doors, in con- proved his health so much, that he was never afterfined air, often in dusty rooms, and at unseasonable wards threatened with any serious pulmonary disease. hours.
But of course this happy result followed only because Gymnastic and callisthenic exercises are now rather the exertion of lecturing was not too great for the sinking in public estimation, from overlooking the then existing condition of his lungs. Had the delinecessity of adapting the kind and extent of them cacy of which he complained been further advanced, to the individual constitution. It is certain, indeed, the fatigue of lecturing would only have accelerated that many of the common gymnastic exercises are fit his fate, and this must never be lost sight of in praconly for robust and healthy boys, and not at all for tically applying the rules of exercise. improving those who are delicately constituted, and It appears, then, that the most perfect of all exerwho stand most in need of a well-planned training. cises are those sports which combine free play of all Here, again, the general principle comes to our assist the muscles of the body, mental excitement, and the ance; carefully to avoid great fatigue, and always to unrestrained use of the voice, and to such sports, adapt the kind, degree, and duration, of every gym- accordingly, are the young so instinctively addicted, nastic exercise, so as to produce the desired results of that nothing but the strictest vigilance, and fear of increased nutrition and strength; and to remember that punishment, can deter them from engaging in them the point at which these results are to be obtained, the moment the restraint of school is at an end. is not the same in any two individuals, and can be Many parents, absorbed in their own pursuits, discovered only by experience, and careful obser- forgetful of their own former experience, and ignorant vation.
that such are the benevolent dictates of Nature, For giving strength to the chest, fencing is a good abhor these wholesome outpourings of the juvenile exercise for boys, but the above limit ought never to voice, and lay restrictions upon their children, which, be exceeded, as it often is, by measuring the length by preventing the full developement of the lungs and of a lesson by the hour-hand of a clock, instead of muscles, inflict permanent injury upon them in the its effects upon the constitution. Shuttlecock, as an very point where in this climate parents are most exercise which calls into play the muscles of the anxious to protect them. chest, trunk, and arms, is also very beneficial, and But enough has been said to enable any rational would be still more so, were it transferred to the parent or teacher to determine the fitness of the open air. After a little practice it can be played with different kinds of muscular exercise, and to adapt the the left as easily as with the right hand; and is, time, manner, and degree of each to every individual therefore, very useful in preventing curvature, and under his care. giving vigour to the spine in females. It is an excel
[Abridged from Combe's Physiology applied to Health, &c.] lent plan to play with a battledore in each hand, and to strike with them alternately. The play called the graces is also well adapted for expanding the chest, Though you may look to your understanding for amuseand giving strength to the muscles of the back, and ment, it is to the affections that we must trust for happiness. has the advantage of being practicable in the open air. These imply a spirit of self-sacrifice; and often, our virtues
, Dumb-bells are less in repute than they were some
like our children, are endeared to us by what we suffer for years ago; but when they are not too heavy, and the to govern our conduct, can disturb our peace of mind. Yes
them. Remember, too, that conscience, even when it fails various movements gone through are not too eccentric it is neither paradoxical
, nor merely poetical to say, “That or difficult, they are very useful. They do harm seeking other's good, we find our own." -SHARPE
ADVANTAGES OF BIOGRAPHY.
WILD BEAST FIGHTS. TAE Christian community at large owes a great debt The following is a striking, but melancholy picture of cruelty of gratitude to the recorded examples of its purest
towards the brute creation, mingling itself in what are called
national sports. In perusing accounts such as these, we cannot and holiest members. Individually exhibiting the but reflect with satisfaction, that, in this country, all public beauty and excellence of the gospel principles by
exhibitions in which the inferior animals are made to bleed for the
mere amusement of man, may be said to be entirely abandoned, which they are governed, and collectively embodying
as unmanly and unbecoming a Christian people. a living and substantial representation of that fulness
Being on a visit to the Coorg Rajah, the author was invited of stature to which a disciple of Christ may attain; to witness some of the contests with ferocious animals, they grow into an exhaustless treasury of motives and
which form a part of the amusements of that prince. The inducements to holy living, and of models of Christian Rajah, it appears, prided himself on the possession of deportment, which diffuses its richness over the savage creatures, having sundry lions and tigers, in cages, church, and counteracts the persevering endeavours some of which were under such control, that it was said, of the world to debase the standard of Christian faith he was in the habit of introducing them into his palace
before his guests, without even the restraint of a keeper. and holiness.
On the day appointed the party repaired to the palace of To such sources, blessed by the fertilizing influences the Rajah, and after a liberal repast, proceeded to a gallery of that Holy Spirit which works in us to will and to that overlooked an area full a hundred yards square, and do, many have owed their first religious impressions, as soon as the prince arrived the sports commenced. many more have been advanced and strengthened in The first contest was between a boar and three goats in the way of peace; and while the church lasts,
and A man entered the arena, armed only with a Coorg knife,
The next was of a far more awful character. the stores of Christian example increase, still more
and clothed in short trousers, which barely covered his extensive and salutary effects may be expected to flow hips, and extended halfway down the thighs. The instrufrom the lives of the servants of God.
ment, which he wielded in his right hand, was a heavy There each member of the church, alike the pastor blade, something like the coulter of a plough, about two and the flock, may contemplate a variety of bright feet long, and full three inches wide, gradually diminishing and shining patterns of active piety, and devoted love towards the handle, with which it formed a right angle. of God; he may behold after what manner the being swung round in the hand before the blow is inflicted,
This knife is used with great dexterity by the Coorgs, worthiest of his kindred men have lived and breathed and then brought into contact with the object intended to the gospel. He may calmly and profitably examine be struck, with a force and effect truly astounding. the trials and temptations they endured, the armour The champion who now presented himself before the with which they were provided, the victories they Rajah was about to be opposed to a tiger, which he volungained, and their last great triumph as more than con
teered to encounter almost naked, and armed only with the
woepon I have described. He was rather tall, with a querors. He may learn a lesson scarcely less instructive from the records of their weaknesses, deficiencies, slight figure; but his chest was deep, his arms long and
His legs were thin; yet the action of the and falls, which, like buoys floating over perilous muscles was perceptible with every movement, whilst the shoals in the ocean, give warning of the course in freedom of his gait, and the few contortions he performed which danger is to be apprehended. And by the whole preparatory to the hazardous enterprise in which he was survey of their characters, he may be excited to renewed about to engage, showed that he possessed uncommon diligence and watchfulness, and stimulated to grow in activity, combined with no ordinary degree of strength.
The expression of his countenance was absolutely sublime the Christian gaces of faith, hope, and charity.
when he gave the signal for the țiger to be let loose: it was There the pastor may discern the solemn views of the very concentration of moral energy--the index of a ministerial obligation, which have been entertained high and settled resolution. His body glistened with the by holy men, bound by the same vows to watch for oil which had been rubbed over it in oriler to promote the souls, and the conscientious manner in which they elasticity of his limbs. He raised his arm for several mohave executed the trust committed to them. He may
ments above his head when he made the motion to admit be present at their studies and their prayers, may instantly lifted from above ; a huge royal tiger sprang for
his enemy into the area The bars of a large cage were observe the workings of their plans of usefulness, ward and stood before the Coorg, waving his tail slowly may sympathize in their successes and disappoint- backward and forward, erecting the hair upon it, and utterments, their trials and consolations. And thus the ing a suppressed howl. The animal first looked at the flame that glowed within them, may kindle a man, then at the gallery where the Rajah and his court spark in his own heart, and impel him to greater in its present state of freedom:-it was evidently con
were seated to see the sports, but did not appear at all easy labour and prayer, in feeding his Master's flock, in hedging them about against the assaults of evil, and
founded at the novelty of its position. After a short sur
vey, it turned suddenly round, and bounded into its cage, in preparing to deliver up the sheep intrusted to his from which the keepers, who stood above, beyond the reach care, as his joy and crown of rejoicing, in the of mischief, tried to force it, but in vain. The bars were presence of our Lord Jesus Christ at his coming. then dropped, and several crackers fastened to its tail, And there the Christian bishop may trace the foot
which projected through one of the intervals.
A lighted match was put into the hands of the Coorg; steps of those who, from the primitive times down
the bars were again raised, and the crackers ignited. The wards, have most magnified their apostolic office by tiger now darted into the arena with a terrific yell; and their manner of discharging its duties; who have while the crackers were exploding, it leaped, turned, and given special attendance to reading, to exhortation, to writhed, as if in a state of frantic excitement. It at length doctrine; who have been examples of the believers, in crouched in a corner, gnarling as a cat does when-alarmed. word, in conversation, in charity, in spirit, in faith, in Meanwhile its retreat had been cut off by securing the purity; who have taken care of the church of God, as
cage. During the explosion of the crackers, the Coorg stewards for him; labouring to render their function stood watching his enemy, and at length advanced toinstrumental in the highest degree, to the spiritual itself and retreated, the fur on its back being erect,
wards it with a slow but firm step. The tiger roused efficiency of the church, of which they are the and its tail apparently dilated to twice the usual size. responsible overseers.
It was not at all disposed to commence hostilities; but (From Hone's Lives of Eminent Christians.]
its resolute foe was not to be evaded. Fixing his eyes intently upon the deadly creature, he advanced with ihe
same measured step, the tiger retreating as "before, but What is the best security for the happiness of life, and still presenting its front to its enemy. The Coorg now the most to be depended upon for making us contented stopped suddenly; then moving slowly backward, the tiger with ourselves, and respectable to others ?-Equanimity: | raised itself to its full height, curved its back to the necesWhat are the best means of attaining this ?--Piety and sary segment for a spring, and lashed its tail, evidently resignation,-DANBY.
meditating mischief. The man continued to retire; and the enclosure it began to bellow and plunge violently, throw as soon as he was at so great a distance that the fixed ing the dirt from its heels into the air at least a dozen feet expression of his eye was no longer distinguishable, the high. It was a bony animal, as large as a Durham ox, ferocious brute made a sudden bound forward, crouched, though not, perhaps, quite so tall, its legs being short in and sprang with a short, sharp growl. Its adversary, proportion to its size. It had an immense head, with long fully prepared for this, leaped actively on one side, and as horns, that curled like those of a ram, whilst its large prothe tiger reached the ground, swung round his heavy knife, jecting eye and dilated nostril gave it an expression of and brought it with irresistible force upon the animal's extreme fierceness. There was scarcely any hair upon its hind-leg, just above the joint. The bone was instantly body, except on the neck and tail: at the extremity of the severed, and the tiger effectually prevented from making a latter appeared a large tuft, very thick and coarse. It was second spring. The wounded beast roared; but turning altogether a very noble creature, full of strength and fury, suddenly on the Coorg, who had by this time retired several
Crook-knee'd and dewlapped, like Thessalian bulls. yards, advanced fiercely upon him, its wounded leg hanging loose in the skin, showing that it was broken. The tiger, raised, and the kingly animal bounded forward. °It was
After a few moments the bars of the lion's cage were now excited to a pitch of reckless rage, rushed forward
one of the finest I had ever seen. A Hindoo sage has upon its three legs towards its adversary, who stood with his
said that “the elephant, the lion, and the wise man, seek heavy knife upraised, calmly awaiting the encounter. As soon as the savage creature was within
his reach, he brought die in their nest.
their safety in flight; but the crow, the deer, and the coward,
In the present instance, however, the down the ponderous weapon upon its head with a force
lion was fully vindicated from the obloquy of such vulgar which nothing could resist, laid open the skull from ear to
wisdom, as will be presently seen. ear, and the vanquished foe fell dead at his feet. He then
It stalked majestically forward, but, seeing the buffalo, coolly wiped the knife on the animal's hide, made a dignified salaam to the Rajah, and retired amid the loud accla-dropped upon its belly, swept the ground with its tail, and mations of the spectators.
then uttering a short growl, made two or three leaps, and His Highness informed us that this man had killed
sprang upon its adversary's neck without further prelimiseveral tigers in a similar manner; and that, although upon
naries. The sụdden shock brought the buffalo upon its
knees; but immediately recovering, the latter threw back one or two occasions he had been severely scratched, he
its head with a violence that dislodged the lion, casting it had never been seriously wounded. The Coorgs, moreover, are known often to attack this terrible animal in the with prodigious force against the strong wooden palings of
the enclosure, at the same time striking one of its horns jungles with their heavy, sharp knives, and with almost unfailing success. Upon the present occasion, nothing The lion was for a moment stunned; nevertheless, before
into the flank of its assailant and opening a hideous gash. could exceed the cool,
cautious, and calculating precision its enemy had time to take advantage of its condition, it with which the resolute Hindoo went through his dangerous
was on its legs, and had again sprung upon the buffalo's performance. The sports of the first day concluded with wrestling, in which some extraordinary instances of strength neck, which it lacerated dreadfully. There was now a
deadly struggle; but the latter, repeating the same action and agility were displayed. hour; the Rajah was ready to receive us, and after a slight violence than before, and there gored it with an animation Next morning we again repaired to the palace at an early which had before disengaged it from the gripe of its tawny
foe, threw the lion against the palings with still greater refreshment, we took our station in the gallery to witness
that soon entirely disabled the noble beast from renewing the second day's sports. We were prepared for an unusual sight. A lion was to be turned into the arena with an
the contest. The buffalo was by this time so exhausted
that it fell by the side of its prostrate enemy. After some African buffalo, purchased by his Highness some months before, and which still remained uncommonly wild and
exertion the keepers got it upon its legs and led it from
the scene of combat. The lion was with difficulty dragged fierce. We had not long taken our station in the gallery, before
into its cage, but in a few days appeared little the worse. the buffalo was driven from its stall. The moment it entered
[From the ORIENTAL ANNUAL.]
LONDON: Published by JOHN W. PARKER, WEST STRAND; and sold by all Booksellers.