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forming several strange antics, he placed his head down- difficult position, he balanced so steadily that not one of wards, with his heels in the air, raised his arms, and crossed the pieces fell. He then crossed the taper column with a the mover upon his breast, balancing himself all the while flat bar of copper, half an inch wide and four inches long; upon his head. A cup, containing sixteen brass balls, was upon this he fixed one of his little cylinders, and on the now put into his hands; these he took and severally threw top of that a slight spear; the whole of which he balanced them into the air, keeping the whole sixteen in constant with periect steadiness, finally taking off every separate motion, crossing them, and causing them to describe all piece and throwing it upon the ground: thus concluded kinds of figures, and not allowing one of them to reach the this extraordinary performance. Grasping hands as before, ground. When he had thus shown his dexterity for a few the little man sprang upon his feet, and made his obeisance minutes, a slight man approached, climbed up his body to the gallery. with singular agility, and stood upright upon the inverted feet of the performer, who was still upon his head. A
BRAHMINEE BULLS. second cup, containing sixteen balls, was handed to the Upon quitting Salem, we crossed the Cavery and proceeded smaller man, who commenced throwing them until the towards Seringapatam. On the banks of the river, in the whole were in the air. Thirty-two balls were now in motion, neighbourhood of a small pagoda, we saw a couple of Braband the rays of the sun falling upon their polished surfaces, minee bulls, so sleek and fat as to form a perfect contrast the jugglers appeared in the midst of a shower of gold. with the population around them, everywhere suffering The effect was singular, and the dexterity displayed by from the sad scarcity of grain, while the bones of these sathese men quite amazing. They were as steady as if they cred animals were loaded with an encumbrance of consehad been fixed into stone, and no motion, save that of their crated flesh. It was melancholy to see, that while thousands arms and heads, was visible. At length, the upper man, of human beings were starving, the bulls dedicated to the having caught all his balls and replaced them in the cup, stern divinity, Siva, were so pampered that they would eat sprang upon the ground, and his companion was almost as nothing but the most delicate food, and this was generally quickly upon his legs.
taken with a fastidious and palled appetite. These bulls were After a short pause, the man who had before exhibited very small, but very beautiful; the dewlap of one of them himself with his body reversed, planted his feet close toge. hanging from his throat and between his fore-legs, almost ther, and standing upright like a column, the smaller touched the ground. I could not help feeling deeply the sad juggler climbed his body as before, and placing the crown fact that the miseries of their fellow-creatures were looked of his own head upon that of his companion, raised his legs upon with cruel indifference by the wealthy members of the into the air, thus exactly reversing the late position of the Hindoo community; while before the dumb creatures de two performers. At first they held each other's hands until voted to their gods, and those senseless blocks which formed the libration was complete, when they let go, the upper the disgusting effigies of their divinities, that food was man waving his arms in all directions to show the steadiness scattered, which would have saved whole families frora of his equilibrium. The legs were kept apart sometimes, perishing with hunger. one being bent, while the other remained erect; but the The Brahminee bulls are generally about the size of body did not seem to waver for a single instant. After calves of two years old, except in some districts, as in they had been in this position for about a minute, the Guzerat, where they are sometimes found as large as the balls were again put into their hands, and the whole thirty- Durham ox. Upon their haunches there is an emblem of two kept in motion in the air as before. It was remarkable the fabulous god Siva, to whom they are devoted; and they that, during the entire time they were thrown, neither of are held in such high reverence, that no one is permitted to them once came in contact,-a proof of the marvellous strike them, or to prevent them from feeding precisely where skill displayed. It is certain that the manual dexterity of and upon what they please. They are almost always to be these men is not exceeded, if approached, by the jugglers seen in the bazaars, where they unceremoniously enter the of any other country in the world.
shops, begin to munch the grain exposed for sale, and freWhen they had done with the balls, the upper man took quently turn over everything in their way, to the great a number of small cylindrical pieces of steel, two inches annoyance of the sedate Hindoo, who nevertheless bears it long; several of these he placed upon his nose, producing | all with a religious patience, allowing the sacred intruder a slender rod full a foot in length, which, in spite of his to continue its freaks as long as it may fancy agreeable.
UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATI ON
APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.
MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF THE CHINESE,-MILITARY AND COMMERCIAL STATION.
MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF THE CHINESE. , boats,' which are generally skulled by women, not
unfrequently with infants at their backs. The figure No. II.
with two baskets suspended from a bamboo, shows MANUFACTURES AND PRODUCTS.—Military STA- the manner in which pedlars, and retail dealers in TION.–TEMPLES.—SUPERSTITIONS.—Boats.—
general, as well as porters and others, carry articles PAGODAS.
of light burden. The accompanying engraving gives us a sketch of On the top of the adjacent hill is erected a sixthe entrance of the river at Yang-Tseou, in the prostory Tă, or 'pagoda,' with a house for the resident vince Chě-Keang, which is situated on the eastern priest. The Budhists were the introducers of this coast of China. The province of Chë-Keang is one kind of building. In each story they place the of the most flourishing in China, and is supposed to image of a god. On the days kept in honour of these derive its name from the river Chë-Keang. The gods, the Tă, or “pagoda,' is illuminated, and hence people are described as being very industrious, trading becomes an object of notice and attraction wherever to all parts of the empire; that literature and the it can be seen. According to the notions of the arts prevail very generally among them; that they Fung-shwŭy, professors of a kind of geomancy, deduced produce silks of every kind, cotton, lead, and paper; from the climate and aspect of the country, &c., these and that the country abounds with salt, coals, iron, buildings are said to be the cause of great prosperity and even gold
to every place from whence they can be seen; hence Yang-Tseou, which is situated at the mouth of they are generally built on an eminence like the one the river, is a military station, and the original of our under notice, or near rapids, to prevent calamity, or Engraving (which is copied from one of Mr. Alex- at the commencement of a town which is rising into ander's illustrations of China) has been so faith- notice. fully drawn, in respect to what is peculiarly Chinese, Dr. Morrison informs us, “that some Tà consist that one seems to be actually on the spot. The of three, five, seven, nine, and even thirteen stories; two buildings, one on the left, whereon the national that they are very common in the interior of China ; flag is flying, and the other with windows, im- and are generally placed on some eminence, often on mediately opposite, are military forts. The build the tops of high bills. Withinside they are hollow, ing within the wall is a military temple, divided having windows in each story, and often a winding off into several departments, in each of which i staircase leading to the top, contained in the wall of are placed representations of one more of the building, like the Monument of London, which the fabulous gods of the country; it also con is, indeed, a kind of Tă. The pagoda, half-way to tains a public hall, wherein the priests dine toge- | Kwang-poo, where European ships moor, is called ther*, and probably, rooms for the use of the Chih-kang-tă. The Second Bar pagoda, a spire known commander of the fort. Over the principal entrance to all those who have visited China, is called Sze-szeis the inscription YU-LING-JH. Yuě-ling implies yang-tă, “The lions' foreign pagoda ;' or Shih-le-tă, a certain period in the year, but having the word 'The grinding-stone pagoda.' Pa-chow-tă, is a famous jih, 'day,' following, its import is not very clear. pagoda in the province of Canton, built about A. D.
the attendant deity of the temple. The little building print, which he obtained at a temple at Canton; it meaadjoining, is where paper-offerings are burnt, by sures several feet in length, and represents a pagoda, those who sail from the port to any great distance, consisting of seven stories, in each story of which, exor on their return, or when a favourable wind is cept the fourth, is placed a representation of Budha. desired. These minor temples being on the outside The whole building, with its ornaments, is formed of the enclosure of the larger temple, persons can from the contents of the Budhists' book of incanat all hours invoke the deities, whether the chief tations, or prayers. The flight of steps, with its temple be open or not. These burnt-offerings are chequered pavement, window-supporters, and the supposed to be passed into the invisible state, for front of the building, contains characters, kept sepathe use of the spirits of the departed. They chiefly rate or distinct by faint lines; the whole being consist of paper made np into the form of wearing- very legible. On the basement is a representation apparel, houses, and furniture, but more frequently into of the goddess Kwan-she-yin, sitting cross-legged those of boats and boatmen, and are offered for the on the water-lily.
On each side are representapurpose of exciting, or influencing, those spirits to be tions of Budha priests, erect, in the act of repeatpropitious to the party offering them. All boats on ing the King, or book of incantations. At the foot passing a temple salute it by sounding the gong, or of the altar of Kwan-she-yin is a priest of Budha by burning offerings of paper. If this ceremony be kneeling in his sacred dress, formed of small squares omitted, and any calamity befall the boat or its of deep red and white woollen cloth, alternately. inmates, it is attributed to the anger of the gods on Even the bells, which are suspended from each story, account of the omission.
intended to be acted on by the wind, have also chaThe larger vessel is of that class called by Euro racters on them. The book of prayers, or incantapeans chop-boats, chop signifying a permit; hence such tions, when printed by itself, forms an ordinary sized boats should be called permit-boats, or vessels. They | Chinese volume.
P. P. T. are so built as to form two or three rooms, and gentlemen go in them to and from Canton; on other occasions these boats carry goods between one port THELWALL thought it very unfair to influence a child's and another. The second sized vessel is a fishing- mind, by inculcating any opinions before it should have smack, in which whole families live together all the come to years of discretion, and be able to choose for itself. year round. The upper part is so constructed as to I showed him my garden, and told him it was my botanical slide one part within the other, and thus, by the aid garden. “How so," said he, “it is covered with weeds :" of a head-piece, they effectually keep out foul weather. "Oh," I replied, " that is only because it has not yet come The little boats are commonly called Tan-Keă, 'egg have taken the liberty to grow, and I thought it unfair in
to its age of discretion and choice. The weeds, you see, * At a temple near, Canton, upwards of 300 priests annually me to prejudice the soil towards roses and strawberries."dine together in one hall.
THE ABBEY OF GLASTONBURY, uncultivated, its inhabitants rude and inimical to strangers;
yet withal its king Arviragus could foster a few itinerants,
whom he knew not how to hate, nor wished to love. In I.
consideration of their hard and laborious journey, he disFew and dilapidated as are now the remains of the posed their habitation in a small island then waste and once magnificent Abbey of Glastonbury, various cir- untillaged, and surrounded by bogs and morasses; assigncumstances tend to invest them with a high degree of ing
to each of the twelve a certain portion of land called a
hide, sufficient for one family to live upon, and composing interest, and to attract visiters to the spot which they in all a territory denominated to this day, Tue TWELVE occupy. As ruins, they are very picturesque, and inde- Hides Of GLASTON. pendent of the instruction they convey to the archi This spot was, at that early period, called by the natives tectural student, as specimens of our early English YnIsWYTRYN, or the Glassy island, either because its taste and art, it should be remembered that these frag- because it abounded with the herb called glast
, or woad,
surface represented a glasten or blue-green colour, or ments are the last reminiscences of an abbey, which, with which they were used to tinge their bodies. according to tradition, was the earliest of its kind in
Here, according to the monastic annals, St. Joseph our island,—which, in different ages of the church, has erected to the honour of the blessed Virgin Mary, of afforded to some of the most learned and pious of) wattles and wreathed twigs, the first Christian oratory in their day a retreat and asylum whilst living, and a England. resting place for their mortal remains when they were
It must immediately strike us how much there is no more, and which enjoying, with the exception of mixed up in these statements, which, if not actually Westminster Abbey, the most splendid patronage and absurd in itself, is certainly the fabrication of afterrevenue of any similar establishment in Europe, for times, so that it is scarcely possible to imagine that centuries held a distinguished place in the eccle
any portion of them can be true. In most of those siastical annals of Britain. No doubt, these histo- points of history which have been blended and interrical remembrances have their weight with some woven with fond and foolish fables, it is possible to who visit the ruins ; but I imagine the majority of trace at least some ground-work, on which cunning those who now resort thither, are influenced rather and superstition may have raised their ridiculous by a desire, in many instances it is to be feared, not superstructures. But really, in the present instance, altogether free from superstition, to witness the ex
we cannot discover anything like a probability to traordinary property of the long-famed Glastonbury commence with. What connexion there could possibly Thorn. For my own part, I confess that, though have been between Joseph of Arimathea and our by no means insensible to the other attractions of the island, and what could have given rise to the idea place, the thought which would there chiefly occupy of his having been the first to preach the Gospel my mind, would be that I was then probably viewing amongst us, it is difficult to conjecture. Nor, indeed, the very spot on which stood the first Christian church would it have been worthy of serious notice, if it erected in this country.
had not been more than once made use of as a fact The early introduction of Christianity into Great of some weight in the history of the English church, Britain is one of those events in our history which But it is curious that the English bishops, at the are veiled in considerable obscurity.
council of Basil, in the year 143 says our excellent church-historian, Fuller,
cedency before those of Castile in Spain, on the certainty can be extracted who first brought the ground of “Britaine's conversion by Joseph of Gospel hither; 'tis so long since, the British church Arimathea ş." And, what is infinitely more extraorhath forgotten her own infancy, who were her first dinary, even our protestant Queen Elizabeth, and godfathers. We see the light of the word shined Archbishop Parker, ventured to claim Josovh as the here, but we see not who kindled it*.” It is certain, first preacher of Christianity in England ||. however, that this light had shone amongst us in
Be this, however, as it may, there is one point in primitive purity, some time before it had been any- the history which seems to bear on it something more where darkened by the vain superstitions of popery, of the stamp of truth than the rest, I mean the and long before the bishop of Rome had usurped claim which is set up for Glastonbury, that the first any authority in the land.
The honour of first Christian church was there erected. “This tradition," evangelizing England has, indeed, been confidently observes Mr. Southey,“ may seem the more deserving ascribed to various individuals, and amongst others of credit, because it is not contradicted in those ages to Joseph of Arimathea. As those legends which when other churches would have found it profitable to attribute this work to Joseph, have a particular advance a similar pretension [." There can, indeed, reference to Glastonbury, and may be at least be no doubt that this tradition was one of the great amusing to readers in general, it may be well to give
causes of the high patronage and rich endowments an outline of their contents in the form in which they which the abbey possessed from a very early period: are collected by Collinson in his History of Somerset- and we may rest assured, that if in behalf of any shiret.
other church in England an equal claim could have When St. Pbilip the apostle, after the death of our been advanced to the assumption of such titles as blessed Saviour, was in Gaul, promulgating the doctrine of those conferred on Glastonbury, as “the first ground the Christian Religion, he was informed by certain refugees, of God;"
;" “the first ground of the saints in England," that all those horrid superstitions which he had observed and “the rise and fountain of all religion in Eng. in the inhabitants of the country, and which he found so
such a manifest advantage never would have much labour and difficulty in overcoming, originated from a little island, at no great distance from the Continent, been conceded to this establishment without many a called Britain. Thither he immediately resolved to extend struggle. It may also be observed by the way, that the influence of his precepts, and in the place of barbarous the description here given of the character of the and bloody rites, long exercised by bigoted and besotted sacred edifice, being formed of wattles and wreathed Druids, to introduce the meek and gentle system of Christianity. Accordingly he despatched twelve of his com In after-times it received the fancied name of Avalon, or the panions and followers, and appointed Joseph of Arimathea, / Isle of Apples, or the land where Avalloc, a British chief, first who not long before had taken his Saviour from the cross, pitched his residence. The Saxons finally called it Glasteinbyri. to superintend the sacred embassy. Britain was wild and Fuller's Church History, b. iv.
U Suort's Sketch of the History of the English Church. * Fuller's Church History.
SOUTHEY's Book of the Church. + To this work we are greatly indebted for the present paper. ** See Camden's Magna Britannia; GLASTONBURY.
- We see,
twigs, agrees well with the general nature of the and accordingly, on his death, his body here found a buildings in this country at that rude period.
The next event presented to us in the history of In the year 605, this establishment was formed Glastonbury, is the erection of a more substantial into a still more regular society, by the famous St. structure in the place of this humble and primitive Augustine, who was sent into England by Pope chapel, which had then fallen into decay. This is Gregory the Great, to convert the heathen Anglodescribed as having taken place under the auspices Saxon inhabitants of Britain. Twenty-five years of Phaganus and Diruvianus, two Christian mission after this, St. Paulinus, Bishop of Rochester, resided aries, whom Eleutherius, the twelfth bishop of Rome, in the monastery, and was a great benefactor to the is represented as having sent over into this country abbey, which he considerably enlarged. He also at the request of King Lucius, to re-illumine the built the old church with timber, and we are told expiring embers of Christianity in the land. Lucius covered it without, from the top to the bottom, with seems to have reigned, if, indeed, there were such a lead. About this period, also, the place adopted the British king, about the year 180. These missionaries name of Glasteinbyri, by which title, with little variare also said to have built another oratory on the tion, it has been since known. summit of the hill now called the Tor, and dedicated Celric, Ceolwulph, Kenwalch, Kentwine, Cedwalla, it to St. Michael the Archangel, " that he there and other kings, were in their day liberal benefactors might have honour on earth of men, who, at the com to the establishment, and enriched it with valuable mand of God, should bring men to eternal honours lands and possessions. But when King Ina ascended in heaven."
the throne of the West Saxons, he excelled all his In the year 439, we are told that St. Patrick, the predecessors in his munificence. He, in the year 708, patron saint of Ireland, visited the holy spot, and pulled down the old ruinous buildings of the monathat he repaired the two chapels before erected. It stery, rebuilt it in the most sumptuous and magis added, also, that he disciplined the body of clergy nificent manner, and dedicated it to the honour of into something of a monastic society, and became Christ, and of the Apostles St. Peter and St. Paul; himself the first Abbot. St. Benignus, his successor “adorning the edifice with a costly chapel, garnished in the see of Armagh, is represented as following his example, in returning to this place, then newly in the reign of Henry the Second, 640 years after he was buried, is
The following account of the opening of the grave of Arthur, named Avalon, where he presided over a few religious taken from Camden's Britannia, as he gives it on the authority of till his death. About the year 530, St. David, Arch
Giraldus Cambrensis, “an eye witness." “ When Henry the
Second, King of England, had learned from the songs of the British bishop of Menevia, accompanied by seven of his bards, that Årthur, the most noble heroe of the Britains, whose suffragan bishops, took a journey to Avalon, and expended large sums of money in adding to the bury between two pyramids, he orderd search to be made for the
body: and they had scarce digged seven foot deep, but they light buildings of the church. St. David was uncle of the upon a cross'd stone, (cippus,) or a stone in the back part whereof renowned king Arthur, who in his time, (A.D. 543,)
was fastened a rude leadencross, something broad. This being
pulled out, appeared to have an inscription upon it, and under it having been mortally wounded in the rebellion of his almost nine foot deep, they found a coffin made of hollow'd oak, cousin Mordred, at the battle of Camlan, was carried wherein were deposited the bones of the famous Arthur. The letters to this abbey, that he might prepare himself for his
have a sort of barbarous and Gothic appearance, and are a plain
evidence of the barbarity of the age, which was so involved in a departure out of life in the society of the religious, fatal sort of mist, that no one was found to celebrate the name of and be interred amongst such a number of saints as
King Arthur. That strong bulwark of the British government may had reposed there from the beginning of Christianity: not afford a panegyrist equal to his virtues.”
justly reckon this amongst his greatest misfortunes, that the age did