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church, which was erected between the years 1663 and ship.” The building stands by itself in the form of a square, 1666, is the loftiest in Berlin; its height is between 290 having each of its faces nearly 300 feet in length; it was and 300 feet. The church of St. Nicholas is, perhaps, the founded in 1695, by the Elector Frederick the Third, afteroldest in Berlin, having been in existence in 1202; it is wards King Frederick the First. It consists of only two also remarkable for its tower, and for the ancient monu- stories, the uppermost of which is surmounted by a balusments which it contains.
trade; the lower story is in the rustic style, and over the The French church, of which we have already spoken key-stone of each of its arched windows, is a bronze helmet. generally, is one of five which exist in Berlin for the use The chief entrance is ornamented with four allegorical of the French protestants in that city, or, as they are called, statues, representing Arithmetic, Geometry, Mechanics, ard “the French colony." So early as the middle of the Pyrotechny,—the work, we are very needlessly told, of an seventeenth century, there was a considerable number of inferior sculptor,-a French artist. "There is a little portico the subjects of France settled in Berlin, where they then over this entry, presenting a bronze portrait of the King possessed a church of their own, and enjoyed the free Frederick the First,—and a bas-relief of the God of War, exercise of their religion; but after the revocation of the reposing on military emblems, and surrounded by chained edict of Nantes in 1685, they resorted thither by thousands, slaves. These, and other equally significant decorations, to escape the cruel persecutions of Louis the Fourteenth. announce with sufficient clearness the character and uses of Several privileges were granted to them, and in the year the building; but all possibility of doubt is removed by the 1747, their number was estimated at 7193; it is now string of half-buried cannons, which are stuck at short upwards of 15,000.
intervals all round its four sides, to form a support like so The church represented in our engraving was built in many posts to an iron chain. The interior is well supplied; the year 1705; its plan is in the form of a cross, having the basement story contains the great guns, mortars, howthree sides ornamented with Corinthian columns. The itzers, and all their necessary accompaniments, while the portico attached to the principal front consists of six pillars rooms on the upper floor are appropriated to the reception of the same order; under it is the great entrance, with two of muskets, and small arms,-sabres, swords, bayonets, &e. niches on either side, containing the colossal statues of There were at one time some specimens of ancient armour, four apostles, above which are bas-reliefs representing the and trophies of early victories gained by the Prussians; principal events in the life of our Saviour. The pediment, but the Russians destroyed them all in 1760, or carried which is large, rests on an unadorned frieze and cornice, them away. Malte Brun says that this is supposed to be the “and is in keeping," says Dr. Granville,“ with the rest of largest arsenal in Europe, as it can contain arms and amthe elevation;" it is decorated with statues referring to munition for an army of 200,000 men. scriptural subjects. Immediately behind it is the square base Not far from the arsenal is a colossal statue of Blücher, which forms the commencement of the tower, and which placed on a pedestal, bearing on its front the inscription, is also decorated with statues of the Evangelists. Above "Frederick William III. to Field-Marshal Prince Blücher this is a circular Corinthian colonnade, surmounted by a of Wahlstadt, in the year 1826." It was erected on the balustrade; and higher still is the dome itself, crowned anniversary of the Battle of Waterloo, amidst the enthuwith an allegorical figure of religion, of colossal size, and siastic applause of the whole population of Berlin: for that formed of bronze richly gilt. The height of this dome and marshal was the greatest military favourite of the Prussians tower, which were only completed in the year 1785, is 230 since their Great King. “They seldom gave him any feet including the statue. “For grandeur and magnificence other name," says Mr. Russell, “than · Marshal Forward, of exterior," says Dr. Granville, “this noble elevation is and love to place him and Guiesenau in the same relation far superior to any of the modern churches lately erected in to each other in which the Romans set Fabius and MarLondon."
cellus." The figure is eleven feet in height; and the old The church of the garrison, which is situated in the Berlin veteran is represented in the act of pressing his left foot on quarter, was built by the king Frederick William the First a dismounted cannon, and grasping a sabre in his right in the year 1722, in the room of the smaller edifice origi- hand. The work is spoken of very highly; its design, nally built by his predecessor King Frederick the First in says Dr. Granville, is chaste, and generally correct. It is 1701, and afterwards destroyed in 1720. The nave of this the work of the most famous German sculptor of late years, church was at one time decorated with a number of banners Rauch, who is particularly remarkable for the improveand trophies, captured by the Prussians in the wars of ments which he has introduced upon the style of his Silesia, but in 1806, after the entry of the French into predecessors, in the drapery of his figures. In the present Berlin, all of them were sent off to Paris. For eight years instance, by the skilful disposition of a military cloak they continued to adorn the church of the Invalides in that thrown over the shoulder, he has avoided the necessity city; they were then destroyed on the first invasion of which encumbered previous artists, of copying with seru. France by the allies, “ in order," says Malte Brun, “ that pulous fidelity, the hussar-jackets, the Prussian pantaloons, their armies might not carry off the fruits of a conquest the Hessian boots, and all the other multifarious trappings dearly bought with the blood of France." The organ of of the military uniform, in which the living heroes whom this church used to be celebrated.
their art was to commemorate were usually decked. OTHER PUBLIC BUILDINGS.
We may here speak of the military monument which is
erected without the walls of Berlin, at the distance of about Ar the head of the other public buildings of Berlin, may half a mile from the Halle-Gate; it was raised by the king be placed the splendid museum which has been recently in 1820, to commemorate the exertions of his people in the erected in the gardens, at the back of the Royal Palace. triumphant campaigns which terminated the late war. It The front of this magnificent edifice is 280 feet in length; is a Gothic structure of iron, resting upon a terrace, which a noble portico of eighteen Ionic columns extends along commands an extensive view of the surrounding country; the whole of it, and is approached by a broad flight of steps. and it contains twelve chapels, or recesses, which are conAbove the portico, is a part of the body of the building, secrated to the memory of the twelve principal battles rising in the form of a square, and ornamented at each of of the campaigns of 1813, 1814, and 1815 ;-those of the the corners with a group of man and horse, something “Liberation War," as it is commonly called. The inscripsimilar to the famous statues in the Monte Cavallo at Rome. tion placed upon this monument is to the following effect ; This building rests entirely on piles, the soil being too “The sovereign to his people, who, at his summons, mag. swampy to afford a firm foundation. The interior is rich in nanimously poured forth their blood and treasure for their treasures of art, containing selected portions of the several country. In memory of the fallen-in gratitude to the collections previously preserved in the different royal living—as an excitement to every future generation." palaces of Berlin and Potsdam. The picture-gallery is very fine, as are also the collections of ancient sculpture,
&c. coins, medals, cameos, mosaics, and other articles of rarity The University of Berlin was founded in the year 1810, and value. This museum is a recent erection, having only principally at the instance of Professor Wolff, the wellbeen completed in 1829.
known philologist. This learned person formerly filled a The arsenal of Berlin is a very handsome building; chair in the University of Halle; and when Bonaparte Malte Brun calls it the finest after the palace, and Mr. suppressed that establishment after the battle of Jena, the Russell gives it the very first rank,—even above that, professor repaired at once to Berlin, intent upon establishing “ Though it has neither porticoes nor pillars," it is, he says, à new university in the capital. The king favoured the the finest building in Berlin; the extent and simplicity of proposal, “ but Stein," says Mr. Russell
, who was then its fronts are majestic, and its military trophies, and em- minister, could not reconcile his ideas of academical tranblematical groups, display a great deal of good workman quillity with the bustle and pleasures of a large capital;
and with his customary violence, at once pronounced the coffee-houses, rustic-benches and tables are fixed beneath scheme to be mere madness," Humboldt and Müller, the the shade of umbrageous limes and elms; beer, coffee, and well-known historians, warmly supported it, and the mi- tobacco, are the sources of enjoyment; crowds of pipes, nister then proposed Potsdam, asking Wolff to go there. ready to be stopped, are piled up like stands of arms. “With all my heart," was the reply, "if you promise to Numerous itinerant venders wander from room to room send us your libraries, your museums, and above all, your and tree to tree, displaying seductive layers of segars from botanic garden." It was, indeed, the possession of these the genuine Havannah down to the homely Hanoverian or treasures—which could not have been collected elsewhere, Bavarian." On the southern boundary of the park are a but in the lapse of years and at a great cost—that rendered number of small villas, the summer residences of the Berlin so desirable. Stein yielded at last, and entered higher class of citizens. upon the accomplishment of the design with as much The gardens of Charlottenburg are the grounds attached ardour, as he before displayed in opposing it; the king to the palace of that name, which stands about two miles bestowed funds and a palace with great liberality,--profes- from Berlin; they are better laid out than the Thier Garten, sors of the highest learning and reputation were quickly and are much resorted to on holidays. The palace itself is found and the new institution started into active life, with a huge building; it was built between 1696 and 1699, by advantages seldom equalled. It was, indeed, as is observed the wife of the Elector Frederick the Second. It was enby a writer we have already quoted, the first experiment larged at the beginning of the last century by King of setting down a crowd of wild German academicians in Frederick the First, who gave it its present appellation the midst of a large capital ; but the consequences have after his Queen. Frederick the Great deposited in this fully justified the sagacity of those who recommended it. palace the collection of ancient statues which he purchased The students, instead of being more disorderly than Ger- of Cardinal Polignao; and in the year 1760, when the man students usually are, exhibit less unruliness than else- united armies of Russia, Austria, and Saxony ventured to where ; however much they may be inclined to tyrannize, march to Berlin, while the king was facing other enemies after the fashion prevailing in towns which have been in another province, the Saxons, who took possession of formed by the presence of the University, and are wholly Charlottenburg, broke the statues in pieces, in revenge for dependent upon it, they feel that in a large capital they the bombardment of Dresden, and continued pounding the are but “ as a drop in the ocean,"—not sufficiently nume very limbs into powder " till the terrific intelligence that rous, in reference to the population, to be personages of Frederick with his little army was in full march from importance.
Silesia, left Austrians, Russians, and Saxons, no other At present, the University of Berlin, -" the Univer- object of emulation except who should most readily get out sity of Frederick William,"" as it is called—is one of of his way." Frederick was highly grieved at the loss of the first on the continent; in one department of his statues; "the monsters !" he cried, “but how could learning--philology—it is perhaps unrivalled, and as they know the value of such things! we must forgive a medical school, Dr. Granville 'thinks it probably the them !" a resolution not so generously kept as taken. first in Germany, though some may consider Göttingen One of the chief attractions of the garden of Charlottenas disputing with it the palm of pre-eminence.
The burg is a small Doric temple lurking in a retired corner number of professors and teachers is between 120 and beneath "the melancholy shade of cypresses and weeping 130; in the year 1826, the number of students was 1642, willows." It is the tomb and monument of Louisa the including nearly 400 foreigners,--and in 1829 it was 1705. late Queen of Prussia, who died soon after the battle of A slight increase has since taken place. The juridical Jena, weighed down by grief at the degradation of her faculty is that which is attended by the greatest number of husband's kingdom; the Prussians idolized her, and long sturlents; the same circumstance has been already noticed afterwards bestowed on Buonaparte their enthusiastic as occurring at Göttingen*. In connexion with the uni- execrations for the unfeeling insolence with which they versity, are several establishments affording great ad assert him to have treated her, when she went to Tilsit in vantages in the pursuit of learning; we may particularize the hope of softening the conqueror. The monument is an observatory, a botanical garden,-anatomical museum, plain on the outside, and within there is little attempt at a zoological museum, containing in the department of splendour of decoration; on an elevated portion of the floor ornithology, 7000 individual birds, of which 500 are distinct is a full-length statue of Louisa, reclining on a sarcophagus. species,-a collection of rninerals,-one of surgical instru This is said by some to be the best statue in Berlin. ments,-a clinical institution, and a lying-in hospital.
MANUFACTURES AND COMMERCE. Berlin contains also the royal library, which occupies a portion of the Royal Palace; it comprises upwards of 160,000 The manufactures of Berlin are very important, and of a volumes. Its scientific societies are numerous; there is miscellaneous character; few branches of industry, as the Royal Academy of Sciences, the Academy of Fine Malte Brun observes, are wholly neglected ; and able workArts, Mechanical Sciences, and Architecture,-societies of men are to be found in almost every department. That of natural history, natural philosophy, geography, horticulture, woollen is carried to a considerable extent; the manufacand various branches of medicine and surgery.
turers are supplied with fleeces of the finest quality, from
the Spanish breed of sheep in Silesia, and their best cloths, PUBLIC WALKS.
their kerseymeres, &c., are, according to Bishop James, Berlin has several public walks or gardens; neither labour
equal in appearance to those of England, though by no nor money has been spared, to convert the parched levels means in texture and durability. This branch of industry of its sandy environs, into something “which apes park and was first established in Berlin by Frederick William the forest," by planting trees, and making straight walks among First, who strove to foster it by forbidding the exportation them. The Lust-Garten, or Royal Garden, is at the back of wool, and by extending encouragement to native and of the palace, occupying a large space in the centre of the foreign workmen. The Royal Manufactury was established town; the recently-erected museum, of which we have in 1714, for the purpose of furnishing clothing for the army. spoken above, stands at one end of it exactly opposite to As it soon came to produce more than was needed for this the palace at the other. There is a statue of Prince object, the surplus was sold to the private traders. The Leopold of Anhalt Dessau, which was erected by the present manufacture of silk owes its existence to the same monarch, king opposite the palace. An alley of poplars and chest who issued an edict in 1716, enjoining all classes of his nuts runs round the whole “ garden;" and the space which
subjects to aid in promoting its advancement. The ramthey enclose is used daily for military parades.
parts of the city were soon planted with mulberry-trees at The Thier Garten is an extensive plantation, immediately the instigation of the Academy of Sciences, or rather of outside of the Brandenburg; it is laid out in parterres and its rector, John Leonard Frisch, upon whose suggestion, shrubberries, "somewhat in the form of an English park," also, the cemeteries throughout the country were turned to says Dr. Granville, “but wants its luxuriance of vegetation
a similar account; and at last, he himself founded a large and fine trees. It commences immediately outside of the plantation in the suburb of Spandau. The first manufacgate, without the intervention of suburbs; from between tory was established about 1730, by a French refugee; in the Doric columns of the portal, you at once enter the wood, 1755 there were 443 machines at work; in 1799, the numwhere carriages and pedestrians toil along in the same deep ber had risen to 2788, with 5085 workmen. sand, for the walks are not even gravelled." The northern
The cotton manufacture is of somewhat later date than bou ndary of this park opens upon the Spree; and the portion the silk or woollen, having originated in the reign of of it in the neighbourhood of the river, is "the Vauxhall of Frederick the Great; under him, too, the art of printing on Berlin.” “ The bank,” says Mr. Russell, “is lined with cotton was first practised. At present, both these branches * See Saturday Magazine, Vol. VI., p. 242.
of industry afford employment to many individuals. In
the working of gold and silver, the artisans of Berlin have is the skill of the Berlin artisans confined to the production attained great skill
, as also in the making of watches, of of these small wares. We have spoken of the large Gothic gloves, carriages, and in the preparation of leather, gun- monument which has been erected about half a mile from powder, and the colour known by the name of Prussian- the walls of the capital to commemorate the exertions of his blue. But the two manufactures for which they are most people in the triumphant campaigns which terminated the remarkable, are those of porcelain and cast-iron ware. late war; this, with its statues and decorations, is wholly of
The porcelain of Berlin is very celebrated; "it rivals cast-iron. The iron bridges of Berlin are another proof of that of Saxony," says Malte Brun. Bishop James states their ability. There is one leading accross the Spree to the it to be infinitely superior in beauty to any which he had Oranienburg suburb, which weighs four hundred tons, and seen, the colours being dark and harmonious, the forms is wholly of cast-iron; it is nearly two hundred feet in elegant and classical: yet, according to Dr. Granville, length. The material used in the founderies of the city is although the Prussian artists excel those of Paris and derived from the famous mines of Jarnowitz, in Upper Dresden in the flower painting, their landscape productions Silesia, and is brought down thence by the canal which are not so good as those to be found on the Warwickshire joins the Oder and the Spree. china. There is a “ Royal Manufactory" of porcelain in The Great Foundery of Berlin is situated without the the Friedrichstadt quarter; it originated in the year 1763, walls, in the suburb of Neuvoigtland, at a short distance under Frederick the Great, having been for a few years from the Oranienburg Gate; it supplies cast-iron monupreviously in the hands of a private individual. The ments to all Germany. In this establishment medallions establishment is a very extensive one, and is furnished after the antique, cameos, and intaglios, are cast with great with a steam-engine, which sets in motion the machinery precision; copies in relief of celebrated pictures are also required in the preparation of the materials. Frederick made. “I saw the Last Supper of Da Vinci," says Mr. was not very scrupulous as to the means which he em- Russels, “cast in a space of about six inches by four, with a ployed to promote this manufacture. During the conquest neatness and precision which could not have been expected of Saxony he is said to have forcibly carried off several from such materials and on so small a scale. Larger busts of the best workmen from the Great Porcelain Manufactory are excellently well done; the favourite ones are those of at Meissen, a town about twelve miles from Dresden, and the late Queen and Blücher, for every Prussian will taken them to Berlin, to promote the success of his in- sacrifice a good deal to possess a memorial of either the tended establishment in that city. The flint and clay used one or the other. The director seemed to entertain little in Berlin are derived from the valley of Gatach above doubts that in a few years the Prussians would leave all Haussach, in Wirtemberg; or, according to other state- Europe, except ourselves, far behind them in ornamental ments, the clay is from Banstädt, near Halle, and the flint iron-work." The same gentleman adds that the directors from quartz found at Lonuntz in Silesia. Upwards of 500 of the foundery had even ventured to make a steam-engine workmen are employed in this Royal Manufactory. for the purpose of blowing their bellows; they had suc
The manufacture of cast-iron ware is of comparatively ceeded in constructing one which would work, but at a recent growth in Berlin; and the perfection which it has greater cost than one ordered from this country. now reached, especially in the fabrication of small articles, Berlin is a place of considerable importance in a comsuch as trinkets and female ornaments, is truly astonishing. mercial point of view. We have already spoken of the " Portraits, garlands of tlowers, urns, nay, even lockets means by which it enjoys an easy commimication with and necklaces, are cast here," says Dr. Neale, “ with as parts of the interior of the Prussian dominions on the one much precision as gold, silver, or bronze ornaments." For side, and the German Ocean upon the other. There are beauty of workmanship these cast-iron wares are compared several commercial companies in this city, most of which by Dr. Granville to the silver filagree work of the Chinese, were established in the last century, and in the reign of the or the Venetian and Maltese chains. Their cheapness is Great Frederick; there is also an exchange at which the remarkable too; for the sum of twenty-one rix-thalers, or merchants assemble every day, as in other cities. The three pounds sterling, a lady may furnish herself with two Royal Bank, and an Assurance Company, both of which handsome chains and crosses, a pair of bracelets, a pair of were founded in the same year, and the Royal Company ear-rings, and a brooch, of a very superior description. Nor for Maritime Commerce are the chief public establishments.
LONDON: Published by. JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND; and sold by all Booksellers.
UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,
APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.
MOHAMMED ALI, PACHA OF EGYPT. enterprise failed, the Mamelukes were on their guard; The history of individuals is of all histories the and Mohammed returned, without his prize, to face most valuable, for experience is the guide of life; the disappointed and indignant Pacha. No man disand of all the histories of individuals, those are the sembles more profoundly than the Turk. The Pacha most valuable which exhibit them forcing their way received him with open arms, and put on his shoulders to distinction by the higher powers of our being, a pelisse of honour; but, in a few days, he exhibited for they add encouragement to experience. The first to him an order to leave Egypt without delay. Mohonours are due to eminent learning and exemplary hammed had already felt his ground, and he detervirtue; but man is the better for every triumph of mined to cling to Egypt. He at length obtained mind. Even the ruder faculties of courage and leave to stay for two months, and even a small promptitude, mistaken perseverance, and resolute government, to occupy him until the time was ex. sagacity, possess a moral rank. The conquest of" pired. great obstacles always leaves the conqueror in a
To overpower the resistance of the Roumeliote loftier position, excites the ardent mind to the cul- troops in Cairo, the Pacha ordered the advance of a tivation of its nobler qualities, and, by giving us an corps of Turkish cavalry from the neighbourhood of ample confidence in human resources, enlarges and Aleppo. The Roumeliotes murmured at the affront, invigorates the capacities of human nature. No ray
No ray and demanded their pay, the usual demand of mutiof public honour ever fell on the head of genius, neers in the Oriental armies, and of all demands the without casting its light into the lowest depths and most overwhelming to the Pacha. Kourshid Pacha crevices of society. Great examples are the pre- had not a dollar in his treasury, and his only resource scribed instruments by which the character of man was to hasten the march of the cavalry: the Roukind is recalled from time to time to its true eleva- meliotes were now ferocious, and they wanted only a tion. The fame of the philosopher, the patriot, and leader, to storm the citadel: they soon found one. the hero, is the seed of national glory.
Mohammed Ali had continued a vigilant observer of The life of the present Pacha of Egypt is among the growing discontent, he now came forward as the the most remarkable instances of the distinction avenger of the wrongs of his countrymen, marched which may be attained by a strong original determi- for Cairo with all who would join him, seized the nation of mind. The habits of Islamism place him gates, beat the Pacha's guard, and made himself out of the pale, as an example of morals ; his career master of everything but the person of the Pacha. exhibits a superiority to prejudice, a zeal for national His arrival was popular, for the Turks had lived at improvement, and a respect for civilized polity, which free quarters, and Mohammed threatened to hang make him a phenomenon among his countrymen. the first man who stole a loaf or a flask of date A Mohammedan without superstition, a Turk without brandy. Kourshid again received him with honour, ferocity, an Oriental adopting the arts, the science, gave him a new pelisse and a new government, and and the civilization of Europe, is at once a philo- invited him to the feast of inauguration in the citadel. sopher, a patriot, and a hero; a reproach to his If he had accepted this invitation, the first day of race, and an honour to his age.
his new government would have been the last. But Mohammed Ali was born in the year 1769, a year Mohammed was too familiar with Oriental arts to made memorable by the births of Napoleon and throw himself within the talons of the Turk; he Wellington. He was the son of a Roumeliote, and absolutely refused to enter the citadel, and demanded born in Roumelia. The early part of his life was
that the investiture should take place in the house of spent in the usual pursuits of the young Moslem.
one of his friends: he was accordingly appointed He hunted, became expert in the management of the Pacha of Jiddah. horse and the use of arms, and on being employed
His views extended with his elevation. Kourshid in the service of one of the officers of the district, was inactive, unpopular, plagued with Albanians, exhibited traits of intelligence and activity, which whom he could neither discipline nor pay, aud with recommended him to the favour of his superior.
enemies whom he could neither subdue nor deceive. It is one of the characteristics of the Turk, that Mohammed was active, popular, the favourite of the with a contempt of commerce he unites a resistless Albanians, and the terror of the Mamelukes. The passion for gain. The soldier became a seller of Pachalic of Egypt was a tempting prize to the amtobacco, and marrying an opulent widow, seemed to bition of this gallant rebel: a sudden cry arose in be fixed in his reluctant trade for life.
But the Cairo for the deposition of the Pacha, and the appointFrench invasion of Egypt changed his destiny, and ment of Mohammed in his stead. Partisanship was led this brave and extraordinary man to the spot on vigorously applied, and while Kourshid remained which he was to achieve such eminence. Joining the sunk on his sofas, and waiting till the firman from Turkish army with the Roumeliote contingent, he Constantinople and the lightning from heaven should signalized himself so much at the head of a small extinguish the mutineer, a divan was suddenly corps, as to attract the notice of the commander-in-assembled, which proclaimed Mohammed Ali, Pacha chief, by whom he was especially honoured, confirmed of Egypt. The Pacha was doubly indignant, declared in his rank of colonel, and transferred to the service the whole divan rebels and traitors, as well as his rival. of the governor of Egypt.
But he had neither troops nor money: his rival had On the re-conquest of Egypt, and capture of the both. The Pacha shut himself up in the citadel: French, a new enemy excited the vigilance of the Mohammed advanced to its wails, and besieged him Pacha, and gave another opportunity for the distinction there. But the more effective siege was carried on, in of Mohammed. The Mamelukes, who were expelled the mean time, at Constantinople. At the end of two by the French, had returned, and making themselves months, an order signed by the Sultan arrived, masters of the open country, had shut up the Pacha deposing Kourshid, and appointing Mohammed Ali in Cairo. Mohammed was employed to relieve the to the pachalic! viceroy of these formidable assailants. He began, All governors who affect popularity in the East, in the Oriental style, by an attempt to dupe them in begin by cutting off the heads of bakers and bankers, a negotiation, but this process advancing but tardily, two classes of men obnoxious to the highest rank his next attempt was to quicken it by force of arms, and the lowest, and both being pre-eminent for He attacked the Mameluke camp at night. The plundering all classes of the community. The new