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Berlin, the capital of the monarchy of Prussia, the seat of | Netherlands, after having subdued the barbarous tribes of government, and of the chief courts of judicature, is built pagans who had previously overrun the country in which on the banks of the river Spree, in the midst of a sandy he established them. To this circumstance the name of plain, at a height of nearly 130 feet above the level of the Cologne, Köln, or Colonia, is said by some to be attributa

It is the chief town of the province of Brandenburg, ble; others, however, hold that it is derived from the word and is comprised within the administrative circle of Pots- Kollnen, signifying piles, it having been built with those dam, which, with that of Frankfort, constitute the province. on which the Vends, who were driven out by Albert, had Excepting Vienna, Berlin is the largest town in Germany; fixed their huts amidst bogs and morasses. Opinions are and, in point of population, it holds the fifth rank among also various as to the etymology of Berlin, --some tracing the cities of Europe,—the number of its inhabitants being it from Bär, a bear, as Albert, the founder of the capital, upwards of 250,000, about a sixth of the number of the was called, and others, with more probability, deducing it inhabitants of London,

from a word used in the language of the Vends, to denote Berlin consists of six quarters, and four suburbs, within an uncultivated country, such as that in which the settlement the walls, and one suburb without them. The six quarters was formed. The exact period at which these two towas bear the names of Berlin, Old Köln or Cologne, New were founded is unknown; the reign of Albert as Mar Cologne, Friedrichs-werder, Dorotheen-stadt, or Neu-stadt, grave extended from about the middle of the twelfth (the New Town) and Friedrichs-stadt, or Frederick's Town. century to the year 1168, and different authorities fix upon The four suburbs within the walls are those of Spandauer- the years 1142 and 1163. vorstadt, Stralager-vorstadt, Königs-stadt or Königs-vor Under following princes, they rose gradually towards stadt, (King's town or King's suburb,) and Luisenstadt, or importance; in the reign of Albert the Second (between Louisa's town; the last has borne this name only within | 1206 and 1222), they are supposed to have attained the the present century, having been formerly called Köllni- rank of towns, and by his successor, John the First, they schen or Köpenicken-vorstadt, the Suburb of Cologne, or were strengthened with fortifications. About 1261, they of Köpenick; the one suburb without the walls is that of became the ordinary residence of the Margraves, a circumOranienburg, or New Vogtland.

stance which marks them from that tirae as places of some This city lies on both banks of the Spree, in nearly equal interest. During the wars which followed the extinction divisions. On the north of the main stream-or rather, on of the Anhalt line, in 1319, their rising importance was the north-east, for the course of the river through the city checked; but when the margraviate passed into the hands is from south-east to north-west, there is one quarter only, of Frederick, count of Hohenzollern (the present reigning that of Berlin, and four suburbs, namely those of Stralau,

house of Prussia), they quickly regained their prosperity. Spandau, King's, and Oranienburg ; on the south-west are His successor, Frederick the Second, laid the foundations the remaining five quarters, and one suburb. The oldest of the castle, upon the site of which the present royal of the quarters of this metropolis is either Berlin or Old palace is built, in the quarter of Old Cologne. The resiCologne; the most modern, as well as the largest and the dence of the margraves had been previously in the town of handsomest, is that of Friedrichs-stadt, which dates its Berlin, in the Kloster-strasse, or Cloister-street, near the origin from the early part of the eighteenth century. The spot now occupied by the Lager-haus, a “store-bouse" concircumference of Berlin is about ten miles; the surface taining several royal manufactories, and other establishwhich it occupies is between ten and eleven square miles. ments; but Frederick had been so much annoyed by the The number of houses which Berlin contains, is variously turbulence of the citizens of that quarter, and by some estimated at from 9000 to 12000,--that is, from eight to ten disputes which he had with their magistrate, that he times as many as it contained about two hundred years resolved to pass over to the other side of the river. He ago. In 1645, Berlin and the quarter of Old Cologne, there obtained a site, and erected a Castle, about the the only portion of the present city then existing, had year 1444; the ground on which it stood was the same together 1236 houses--according to statements of good on which is now built one of the wings of the present authority. In 1747, the number in Berlin and the two palace, which opens upon the Long Bridge, as seen in our quarters of Cologne, was 1743, -showing an increase of engraving. 507; the number of houses which had been built in the The principal growth of this capital is, nowever, of three new quarters raised it to 3762,—and of those in the modern date; for till the middle of the seventeenth censuburbs to 5513. In the year 1800, the three quarters tury, its extent was confined to the three quarters of Berbefore-mentioned, contained 1818 houses, -or, with the liri, and Old and New Cologne-which form but a small other quarters, 4331,-and, with the suburbs, upwards of portion of the existing city. In the year 1640, Frederick 7000.

William, “the Great Elector," as he is called, began to The growth of the population of Berlin is equally re rule; and during the eight-and-forty years of his brilliant markable. About the year 1690, the number of its inha reign, the prosperity of the city was uninterruptedly probitants did not exceed 14,000; ten or twenty years before, gressive. To this prince are owing the two-quarters of it was smaller by 2000, in conseqence of the wars which Friedrichswerder and Dorotheen-stadt; and by him forhad prevailed. Under the Great Elector, and especially tifications were built round the former, as also round Berlin after the establishment of the colony of French Protestants, and Cologne. His successor, the Elector Frederick the who emigrated from their own country to avoid religious Third, or as he afterwards became, King Frederick the persecutions, the population increased so rapidly, that in First, was also the founder of a quarter which was called the year 1700, the number became 29,000, more than after himself, Friedrichs-stadt or Frederick's Town; in his double what it had been ten years before. In 1747, ac reign, too, the suburbs originated, and the title of König. cording to the enumeration of the police, the whole num liche Residenz-stadte, or Royal Residence-towns, was first ber of inhabitants was 107,380; and in 1775, it was conferred on the different quarters of the capital. Frederick 135,580. Since the commencement of the present cen William the First, and his son Frederick the Great, both tury, the increase has been going on at a still more rapid extended its limits, and improved its appearance; the rate; and at present, the population cannot fall far short latter, indeed, bestowed much care and expense upon the of 253,000 persons.

embellishments of the city, giving opportunities of distinc

tion to its native artists, and bringing to it others from ITS ORIGIN AND GROWTH.

forign countries. “The vast number of edifices constructed

by his orders," says a Prussian, who wrote in his reign, NOTHING certain is known of the origin of Berlin, or “will be so many monuments of the great progress which indeed, of its history, before the thirteenth century. It architecture, sculpture, and painting, have made among us; is commonly supposed that it consisted, at first, of two the excellence of the taste of the king has influenced that distinct villages—Berlin and Cologne-which were both of the nation." His example was imitated by the succeedfounded at the same time, in the twelfth century, by ing monarch, Frederick William the Second, under whose Albert the Bear, the first Margrave of Brandenburg of auspices was erected the Brandenburg-gate-a work alone the Anhalt line ; this prince is thought to have peopled his sufficient to cast lustre upon any reign; and the present new settlements with colonies of Christians whom he drew king, Frederick William the Third, has continued in the together from the borders of the Rhine, and from the same path.


gratification which he experienced on his first entry. During

his approach to this capital, he had noticed for some time BERLIN fell into the hands of the French under Napoleon, the gradual disappearance of the German mode of buildin 1806; the year in which that short campaign took place ing, and the substitution of an elegant ornamental style, whieh ended in the almost total extinction of the monarchy formed with peculiar taste on the Italian models. In the of Prussia. On the 1st of October, a declaration of war,

first streets he was particularly struck with some of the or what was considered equivalent to it, was issued by the chastest and most elegant specimens of this character; king, Frederick William the Third, against Napoleon ; on “ each house was a model.

Still," he says, as we prothe 14th of that month, after some partial actions, the cesded, at every step we gazed with fresh delight, when great

battle of Jena and Auerstadt was fought, in which the first opening of the Linden Strasse burst upon the the Prussians were completely defeated, with immense view, eclipsing whatever we had hitherto seen, and preloss. On the 21st, the Prussian garrison withdrew from senting one of the finest architectural vistas in the world. Berlin,

and retreated to Custrin, whither the king had No imagination can conceive a scene in the strict sense of repaired; a provisional administration was left behind to the word, more beautiful than what is here presented." maintain the public tranquillity, until the arrival of the

It would appear that like St. Petersburgh, Berlin derives French. This was not long delayed ; for on the morning its chief attractions, in an architectural point of view, from of the 25th, the corps of Marshal Davoust took possession the regularity of its plan, and the uniform style of its of the city. Napoleon himself reached Potsdam on the buildings,-advantages mainly owing to the comparatively 24th, and he stopped to examine the apartment, and visit modern date of the greater part of it

. Mr. Russell, howthe tomb of the Great Frederick. He seized on the sword, ever, complains that this uniformity is carried too far,“ belt, and hat of that celebrated monarch, and ordered them, indeed to a tiresome degree,—there being too frequent a together with the ribbon of his order, the black eagle, and repetition of the same forms and combination “it is easily all the colours which he took in the “Seven Years' War," to seen," he observes," that it has sprung up in a great be sent to the Hotel of the Invalides, at Paris, as a present measure, in lumps on one wholesale plan." "The general to the old soldiers who had served in the Hanoverian war, style of the public edifices is an Ionic portico, placed before and a memorial of one of the greatest generals whom a very plain front, and raised on a projection of rustic-work, history mentions. He afterwards had another opportunity which generally forms what may be called the ground-foor; of gratifying the vanity of his subjects, by taking down the pillars seldom extend along the whole front. The effect, the monument of victory which had been erected by as Mr. Russell says, is not so pleasing or imposing to the Frederick, in commemoration of the defeat of the French eye as when the pillars clothe the whole or nearly the and Austrians, at the battle of Rosbach, in 1757, and whole of the front; " and even if the style possessed more ordering it to be conveyed to Paris, as a proof that the dis- merit than it really does, it looks like poverty of imaginagrace which that day had brought on the French arms, tion, to have so much of it, and so little of anything else." was at length effaced.

Two other travellers may be mentioned, whose judgment On the 27th of October, thirteen days after the victory of is equally favourable. Mr Hodgskin speaks strongly of Jena, Buonaparte made his public entry into Berlin, and the surprise which seized upon him, when he crossed the on the following day he gave audience to the foreign minis- bridge leading into the square of the Arsenal, and beheld ters of powers in amity with France, resident in that city, at one view so many magnificent edifices; in his opinion, to the judicial bodies, which he instructed in the mode of other capitals may contain a larger absolute number of administering justice, and to the local authorities of the fine buildings than Berlin, but none has so many brought city, whom he recommended strongly to maintain a vigilant together in so small a space, with such admirable effect. police. Ascribing the war to the unrepressed audacity of Dr. Neale institutes a comparison between Berlin and the young nobility, he declared, in one of his proclama- Hamburg ; we have already given our readers a short tions, that he would permit no more rioting in Berlin: “I notice of the general character of the latter place*. No will not suffer any windows to be broken,” said he,“ my two things can present a greater contrast than the two brother, the king of Prussia, ceased to be a king from the cities in question. None of the offensive peculiarities in day when Prince Louis Ferdinand was bold enough to the appearance of the latter city are here visible; the trabreak the windows of his majesty's ministers : his majesty veller, in the course of sixty miles, seems to have borrowed should have ordered him to be hanged.” He alluded here the wings of time, and outstripping the slow and gradual to some little incidents, by which, previous to the war, the progression of the arts for four centuries, finds himself young Prussian noblesse had indicated their eagerness for

on a sudden, placed, as it were, in the midst of an Italian hostilities, such as breaking the windows of the ministers city, surrounded with wide and dry streets, spacious supposed to be in the French interest, and going to sharpen their sabres on the threshold of the French ambassador's arches, statues, and cupolas, and, instead of the jutting

squares, avenues, bridges, porticoes, palaces, triumphal door. The whole conduct of Napoleon during his occupation abutments of mean brick buildings, beholds on all sides, the of Berlin was indeed rather that of the sworn and impla- ample proportions of stately edifices—the triumph of cable enemy," to use the expression of Sir Walter Scott, than

human industry over the sterility of nature, a moderm of the “generous conqueror." His example was followed

Palmyra raised by the wand of an enchanter, amidst the by his officers and soldiers, who pursued an unremitting hyperborean deserts of Brandenburgh. system of vexation towards the Prussians, which was bitterly felt at the time, and afterwards sternly revenged.

THE SPREE, AND ITS BRIDGES. Buonaparte remained in Berlin until about the 25th We have already mentioned that Berlin is built upon the of November, when he quitted to conduct a campaign Spree: that river rises in Lusatia, and about six miles after against the Russians in Poland. Four days, however, before it has passed through the capital, it enters the stream his departure, he issued those celebrated “Berlin decrees" of the Havel, under the walls of the fortress of Spandau. for interdicting all commerce between Great Britain and Besides the advantages it affords as a means of cleanliness, the Continent, which formed an introduction to the famous this river is highly valuable to the inhabitants, for the purproject afterwards called the Continental System, or “the poses of commerce; a canal, which joins it about fifty miles first link of a long chain of arbitrary ordinances," by above Berlin, communicates with the Oder, and thus which Napoleon sought to undermine the prosperity of brings down the mineral riches of Upper Silesia, and the Great Britain.

corn and manufactures of the middle and lower districts of

that province. This canal was constructed by that great GENERAL APPEARANCE.

Elector, Frederick William the Second, between the years BERLIN is unquestionably one of the finest capitals in the 1662 and 1668. To the west of Berlin, the navigation is world; Malte Brun calls it the best-built town in Germany, uninterrupted into the Havel,--the Havel leads into the "not that the buildings display great taste, or much of Elbe, and thus the communication with the sea is complete. elegant and fine architecture, on the contrary, it is easy The Spree is about 200 feet broad ; in its course through to detect that German style which is the reverse of Berlin, it bears the only character, according to Mr. the really beautiful; but the whole is imposing, and the Russell, which a small stream can bear in a large city--that streets are broad and straight; everything, indeed, in this of a broad, deep, muddy ditch. The only point at which capital, bespeaks the genius of Frederick, who laid out it has something of the dignity of a river, is where it considerable sums on its embellishment." Bishop Heber sweeps boldly round the palace. speaks of it as being, next to St. Peterburgh *, the finest city Berlin has upwards of forty bridges,-several of them cross be had ever seen; and Bishop James expresses strongly the the principal arm of the Spree, but the greater part by far ► See Saturday Magazine, Vol. V., p. 210.

* See Saturday Magazine, Vol. VII., p. 50.

page 128.

serve merely to traverse the canals which communicate with gate, the famous bronze figure of Victory, beating the it. The principal bridge is that which bears the name of Prussian eagle in triumph, in a car drawn by four horses. Langen-brücke or Long Bridge; it connects the quarter of The work is said to be very spirited; it is of large dimenBerlin with that of Old Cologne, and opens on the side of sions, the horses being twelve feet in height. In 1807, the latter into the Schloss Platz, or Square of the Palace. when Napoleon was in Berlin, it was sent to France “ not The bridge which originally stood here, was built of wood; more on account of its own merits than to insult the and in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries the town-house Prussians;" in 1814, on his downfall, it was returned, like of Berlin and Cologne was situated on it. The present many other spoils, to its rightful owners, and the restoration structure, which is of hewn stone, was erected between the of so sacred a monument, as Bishop James tells us, was years 1692 and 1695, in the reign of the Elector Frederick accompanied with the most interesting ceremonies. It had the Third, or King Frederick the First; its length is 165 been removed from the Place de Carousel at Paris, and feet, and it consists of five arches, which are decorated with being conveyed hither was replaced at once in its former figures of Naiads, and other aquatic divinities. The road situation, but kept carefully concealed from sight by a way is paved, and has on either side a raised footpath for covering of linen. At an appointed day the king, accompedestrians. Above this rises a simple balustrade of iron. panied by his chief officers and guards, entered in solemn In the Thesaurus Brandeburgicus of Laurent Beger, who procession, on his return from the war; as he passed under was librarian and keeper of medals to King Frederick the the gate, the veil of the chariot of victory was lowered, and First, there is given a view of the royal palace of Berlin, this trophy of Prussian valour again met the eyes of the taken from the Long Bridge; in this, the place of the iron people. At this moment the peals of ordnance echoed balustrade supplied by a breastwork of stone, on which through the air, the martial music struck up, and the loud stand, at intervals, six statues upon each side. Whether acclamations of the crowd were raised with a din that these really existed at the time of his publication (1696), overwhelmed every other demonstration of public joy. or whether they are to be ascribed to the fancy of the On either side of this gate there extends, as our readers artist, we cannot tell.

will perceive from the engraving, a range of building, in On an abutment projecting from the centre of the south- | the same general style; these structures have their roofs eastern side of the bridge, or that looking up the Spree, supported by eighteen smaller columns, of the height of stands a colossal equestrian bronze statue of Frederick the twenty-four feet. Taking them into account, the whole “Great Elector." It was modelled by André Schlüter, breadth of the Brandenburgh-gate becomes very nearly and cast in 1700, by John Jacobi, in the Royal foundery; two hundred feet. One of these buildings is used as a and in 1703 was fixed in its present position. It is said by guard-house; the other belongs to a branch of the excise Mr. Russell to be a spirited but somewhat clumsy work, department. They do not seem to add much to the general and Dr. Granville says that he cannot speak_highly of its effect of this noble portal; according to Mr. Russell they execution. The elector is represented in the Roman habit, look insignificant, and somewhat encumber the imposing with the staff of authority in his hand; his horse rests forms to which they are attached. upon a pedestal of white marble, ornamented with a variety

STREETS AND HOUSES. of reliefs in bronze, and with four figures of slaves of the same material, and of a size larger than life. A view of THERE is the same general contrast to be observed in Berlin, this statue and of the bridge is given in the engraving in between the ancient and modern quarters, as in every other

large city. In the older parts of the capital, the streets are

not so spacious and regular, nor their buildings so impoITS GATES.

sing, but they present a more lively and industrious apThe whole of the different quarters and suburbs of Berlin, pearance than the generality of the modern thoroughfares. with the exception of the Oranienburg, or Neuvoigtland The latter are straight and broad, but dull; the buildings suburb, are surrounded by a wall sixteen feet in height. are not monotonous, for the houses were not erected on any Through this there are entrances from the surrounding regular plan, but “ there is no life," to use Mr. Russell's country, to the number of fourteen; and more than one of expression, " in these long straight stone alleys, some of the gates which are erected at these spots possess archi- them a mile in length, piercing the city from one gate to tectural merits. Dr. Granville notices the Potsdamer, or another." The finest street in Berlin, and in Germany," is Leipziger Thor, (the Potsdam or Leipsic Gate,) as remark- Unter-den-Linden, or Street of Limes, which runs for the able for its chaste and beautiful design; it consists of ten distance of three-quarters of a mile from the Brandenburg insulated pilasters fourteen feet in height, placed at short Gate to the Royal Palace. “On the right,” says Bishop distances, and connected together by a light iron railing. James, speaking of this strect, we looked down a It has two lodges, and leads through a large octagonal splendid street, shaded with a double avenue of lime-trees space into the Leipzig or Potsdam Street, (the Leipziger or to the majestic portals of Brandenburg; on the left, to the Potsdamer Strasse.)

Royal Palace, along a line of lofty façades, ornamented with But the finest gate of Berlin is that which bears the porticoes, statues, and every variety of sculptural deconame of Brandenburgh. This, the Brandenburger Thor, ration." as it is called, is placed at the western extremity of the This celebrated street, “ which presented to my view," Unter-den-Linden, and thus opens into the quarter of says Dr. Granville," a scene far more beautiful than I had Dorotheenstadt. It is highly praised by travellers; Mr. hitherto witnessed in France, Flanders, or Germany," is Russell calls it the most simple and majestic portal in divided into five parallel walks by rows of lime-trees and Europe, and Dr. Granville terms it the most imposing and chesnuts; the central walk is fifty feet in width, and is magnificent specimen of modern architecture in Berlin, 1 appropriated to pedestrians; carriages generally confine and without exception the most colossal structure of the themselves to the outermost on each side, formed by the kind in Europe. It was built in 1789 or 1790, by an last row of trees and the houses. The most splendid shops architect of the name of 'Langhaus, who formed it upon are here to be found ; and here, at particular hours, are to the model of the famous Propylæa existing in ancient be seen crowds of all classes, who resort thither for the times at Athens. Six lofty columns of fluted Doric, on benefit of air and exercise, or idleness and curiosity. The each side, support a well-proportioned entablature, without space immediately in front of the houses in this street, as a pediment, but surmounted by an attic; and between in most of the streets of Berlin, is paved; but these prethese pass five gateways, of which the central one is tended pavements, as they are called, are characterized as eighteen feet in width, and the others twelve feet four the worst of all causeways, being formed of so many small inches. The height of the columns is about forty-five feet, rough sharp stones, that walking becomes exceedingly inand their diameter five feet nine inches; the metopes (as convenient, and,“ with the thermometer at 800," exquithe little divisions into which the space immediately above sitely painful. the pillars is marked out, are called,) are ornamented with This street is described as the scene of all the bustle of bas-relief's representing the combats of the Centaurs and Berlin, but not the bustle of business, that being confined Lapithæ, and the attic is decorated with a similar work, to the older parts of the city. “The strangers who freexhibiting the Margrave Albert Achilles, or Albert the quent this walk," says Dr. Granville, “may in the course Third, (who lived between 1414 and 1486, and ruled over of two or three days' residence, pass in review every succesthe Electorate from 1470 till the day of his death,) in the sive gradation among the different classes of society in act of carrying off a standard with his own hand, in one of Berlin." During ihe greater part of the day, especially on the many battles which he fought against the people of the holidays, it is filled with crowds of well-dressed comfortablefree town of Nüremberg. On the entablature stands the principal ornament of the

looking people, streaming merrily along in both directions, or with an ice in their hands, sheltering themselves from

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the heat, on the benches which are ranged along beneath | length; having been erected at different periods, it is the shade of the lime-trees. “Now and then," says a neither regular in plan, nor in the style of its architecture. writer we have already quoted, “the king comes lounging The building is lofty, consisting of two principal stories up the alley, attended, if attended at all, by a single and an attic, besides the basement; it has four large courts servant, in a very sober livery, his hands behind his back, within, and is said to contain 500 apartments. Dr. Granand his eyes commonly turned towards the ground, enjoy- ville says that this palace forms an imposing and striking ing the shade with as much plain-heartedness as the object, from its massive and colossal dimensions. Mr. Rusmeanest of his subjects. The loungers rise from their sell thinks that it has nothing to recommend it but its huge benches as he passes; the gentlemen take off their hats ; size, and its splendid furniture. The interior is, indeed, the ladies make their best curtsey. The king has a nod or very magnificent,_all, with the exception of the simple a smile for everybody, and passes on in the well-grounded apartment of Frederick himself, is as gorgeous as royalty assurance, that every one he sees would shed his blood for could make it. According to Dr. Granville, the most him to-morrow."

favourable point of view for this edifice, is from the quay,

a little below the Langen Brücke; in which not only are two SQUARES.

whole sides of the building perceived at the same time, but BERLIN has many squares, not very extensive indeed, but the equestrian statue of Frederick William, (which we often surrounded by fine buildings. The want of all orna have already described.) standing on a projecting arch of ment, however, generally reduces them to mere vacant

the bridge, is brought into the view, “adding considerably areas; they seldom present anything but a dead surface

to the grandeur and striking effect of the whole." Though of loose parched sand, without pavement, turf, or shrub- this building is termed the Royal Palace, it is not the usual bery, and the only decoration of which they can ever boast, residence of the king; he lives generally in a much more is a row of stunted trees. " Wilhelmsplatz," says Mr. modest-looking house in the Linden-street, and assigns the Russell, “ the finest of them all, the abode only of princes great palace to the heir apparent and his uncle. and peers, plunges you at once ancle-deep in sand." This

Among the apartments of the interior there are two square is decorated with statues of five heroes of the Seven deserving notice; the one is the White Hall, which is 90 Years' War, Schwerin, Winterfeld, Seidlitz, Keith, and

feet long, 50 feet in width, and 40 in height; it is decoZiethen; the first four were erected by Frederick the

rated with statues of the Electors of Brandenburg, and Great, the last by Frederick William II.

serves as the room in which are held the festivals given by The Gendarmes Platz, on the New Market, is another

the court on great occasions, particularly on the marriage remarkable square. The chief buildings which it con

of any member of the royal family. The other is the tains are the two churches and the new theatre. The Knights' Hall, so called from having been used by Freformer are both handsome, somewhat resembling, each derick the First for the installation of knights. This room other in their porticoes and steeples; but that which is is splendidly decorated, and contains a superb throne. The most imposing is said, by Dr. Granville, to be the “French great library is also preserved in this palace, with collections church," as it is called, or the one belonging to the French of natural history and the mechanical arts. The pictureservice. The porticoes are said to be almost large enough gallery, about 200 feet in length, contains nearly 300 to conceal the churches themselves. “I hesitated," says paintings, mostly belonging to the Flemish and German Mr. Hodgskin,“ to mount one of these elegant flights of schools. steps, thinking it would only lead to a sanctuary ; I did,

CHURCHES. however, and found that it was little better than a receptacle for dirt; the other was appropriated as an office to The churches of Berlin are about thirty in number; none that part of the police which looks after vagrants and of them are particularly remarkable for architectural beggars." Our readers will perceive a representation of merit. There is a church of St. Hedewige, which this church in our view of the square ; we shall speak of is built upon the model of the Pantheon at Rome; it was it more particularly afterwards.

erected between the years 1747 and 1755. It is one of the

few Roman Catholic churches in Berlin,—the greater part THE ROYAL PALACE.

belonging to the Lutheran persuasion; many years elapsed The edifice which goes by this name, is situated in the after the period of its erection, before the interior was quarter of Old Cologne: we have alluded to its foundation finished. The church of Saint Mary is said to have stood already, in speaking of the growth of the city. It is an since the thirteenth century; it is remarkable for a fine oblong building, the longest side of which is 460 feet in marble pulpit of exquisite workmanship. The tower of this

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