Imágenes de páginas


since the English parliament, both out of their own

PROVERBS VIII. zeal for the worship of God, and for the honour of

81. Call me Cousin, but Cozen me not. their nation, could never admit of a treaty of resi

Some amusement is here afforded by a play upon dence, till those two articles be first agreed on."

the words, between which, however, though like in sound, Here the matter seems to have dropped.

there is no connexion; the former being derived from a The modern city of Bruges is described as a clean, Latin compound, whence comes consanguinity; whereas quiet, dull town; “ the streets are wide," says Malte Cozen, to cheat, is taken from cose, signifying, in the old Brun, " but the houses with triangular gables, give Scotch dialect, to chop or change. Now let us proceed to

the moral of the sentence, which implies, Use no deceit in them a Gothic aspect ugly enough." Our engraving

your tongue. will convey a general idea of the character of its

Dare to be true! Nothing can need a lie, architecture; its appearance from a distance has been

A fault that needs it most grows two thereby. likened to that of a “ forest of cones." The tower seen in our view is that of the old town-hall; it is so much for falsehood, which is the principle and fountain

. about 300 feet in height, and is ascended by means But there are instances, though they are probably of 533 steps. The view from the summit is very rare, in which a person may be deceived by means of fine; the spectator is rewarded for the trouble of the words spoken in truth and a good conscience. Lucius, ascent “not only by a panorama of the city, but by an Arian persecutor, was, according to Eusebius, thus 80 extended and unbroken a map of the country fairly cozened. This violent an, being bent on mischief, around it," to use the words of a female writer, as

approaching a boat in which was Athanasius, asked if

he knew where Athanasius was? Yes, said Athanasius, leaves a more graphic impression of Flemish scenery (who was known to Lucius only by name and not by face,) on the memory than can be obtained by any other he is hard before you, and if you make haste you may means.” The chimes of this tower are celebrated ; overtake him: whereupon Lucius, being hot in his pursuit, the machinery of them is very interesting, especially rushed past the very object of his search. But the proverb the enormous barrel on which the tunes are arranged condemns that deceit which is the corruption of truth and in great variety. These carillons play incessantly,

justice. indeed every three quarters of an hour; “ they have

82. Full of COURTESY, full of Craft. the sweetest tones,” says the writer of the Family Sincere and true-hearted persons," observes Ray, Tour through South Holland, “of any we had heard.” are least given to compliments and ceremony. I suspect he

hath some design upon me who courts and flatters me."

And the Italians say, The dog wags his tail, not for thee SONNETS.

but for the bread.

Flattery injures many whom sincere treatment would

improve. It is often the case with flatterers, according to MONARCH of day, who from thy burning throne

an old writer, that “they have the voice of Jacob but the Bidd'st the close valleys melt, the mountains blaze

hands of Esau. They are smooth in their words but rough Beneath thy tyranny, as o'er each zone

in their actions." So much danger is there in flattery, that Thy dazzling sceptre flashes far its rays

Sigismund, Emperor of Germany, struck a man who praised Of quenchless fire! thou whom in ancient days

him too much, saying, he bit him! On the other hand, Our fathers kneed with vain idolatry,

we are told of a plain-speaking schoolmaster, who had in And gorgeous pomp, and solemn hymns of praise,

one of his rooms a large glass, in which he caused bis And altars deck'd with impious blazonry.

scholars to behold themselves. If they were handsome, Oh! still belov'd! with morn's “sweet hour of prime,”

he would tell them “What a pity it was such goodly bodies I greet thy beams, but thine the knee no more.

should be possessed with defective minds." If they were plain A brighter sun, a worship more sublime,

or deformed, he would tell them “They should make their Claims now the heart, and bids the tongue adore.

bodies more beautiful by dressing their minds."- Let not Thy day no more, the sabbath's hours we bless,

this Proverb, however, be supposed to forbid courtesy, or And hymn the Christian's God,—the Sun of Righteousness.

to encourage that coarse and rude kind of sincerity which

goes under the name of bluntness, in which there is often THE CLOUD.

not a little of affectation. With courtesy, say the Arabs, the See'st yon light cloud the wind is hurrying by ?

fracture is repaired; that is, with gentleness and urbanity

a reconciliation can be effected in quarrels. And we have The eagle's scarce more rapid in his flight, 'Tis thus the years of youth-hope-rapture fly,

better oracles than these,-Holy Scripture instructs us to

“ be courteous." Clad in attractive hues and robes of light, Swiftly they fly, but ah! a weary night

83. The Crow thinks her own bird the fairest. Their reign succeeds,-a more than midnight gloom

Naturally enough too. The old and well-known That gives no peace to morn's uprising bright,

fable of the Eagle, the Owl, and the Owlets, has a pretty Nor bids sweet Hope her wonted sinile resume.

general application in the world; and within due limits the Ah! yes; though dark our night and drear the tomb,

partiality alluded to in the proverb is the effect of a Through its long vista, lo! the glorious star, Whose rays from heaven's bright vestibule illume

wise and providential ordinance. It would be well, hov

ever, for parents who blindly dote upon the imagined perDeath's deepest vaults with radiance from afar,

fection of their young ones, to remember the meaning of Sun of immortal day! victorious faith

the word Fond, as defined by Johnson. Eyes thy uprising blaze, and triumphs over deatlı.

The moral before us extends also to the offspring of the G. M. J.

brain. Each author is apt to think the subject he has chosen,

and his mode of handling it, to be the best. This infatuation, As he that lives longest lives but a little while, every man

like the one alluded to above, is well expressed in an may be certain that he has no time to waste. The duties Arabian proverb, The beetle is a beauty in the eyes of its of life are commensurate to its duration, and every day mother. The beetle is cited by the present Egyptians as brings its task, which if neglected is doubled on the remarkable for its ugliness. morrow. But he that has already trifled away those months 84. Cut your Coat according to your cloth. and years in which he should have laboured, must remember that he has now only a part of that of which the whole is a

" This proverb," says Bailey in his Dictionary, little, and that since the few moments remaining are to be

"contains good advice to people of several ranks and considered as the last trusts of heaven, not one is to be their income, and not to let their vanity lead them, as we

degrees, to balance accounts betwixt their expenses and lost. - DR. JOHNSON.

say, to outrun the constable." Plutarch speaks of the vice

of being in debt;" and by Cicero frugality is put in oppoIt is no strange thing for men left to their own passions, sition to wickedness, as if he thought it impossible for the either to do much evil themselves, or abuse the overmuch improvident and careless to be otherwise than bad. An goodnoss of others. — Icon Basilike.

ounce of prudence, say the Italians, is better than a pound


of gold: and some writer of our own admirably remarks, widows sitting : These are the deputies of the God of the Économy is income. Here again we turn to the Arabic, Christians,' said the woman, 'they will receive your money which may be called the language of proverbs, for a further and pay you interest.' The man, not much pleased with illustration:

his security, yet over-persuaded by his wife, lets the poor

widows have the money, who, not knowing the man's in85. If thy CAMEL break down, put on an ass-load.

tent, thankfully received it. Which Burckhardt thus explains: "Suit thy business “A quarter of a year after, the man, finding himself to thy circumstances.". The substance of this is contained pinched for want of provisions, bids his wife go and demand in two nervous lines by Fairfax, (a poet of our own who a quarter of a year's interest; to which she replies, That if wrote in the reign of James the First,) in his translation he would go to those poor widows and demand the same, she of Tasso.

did not doubt but he might have it. He goes and expostuThey make their fortunes, who are stout and wise, lates with these persons; but what he had given them was

Wit rules the heavens, discretion guides the skies. consumed, and they were so far from paying interest, that And Johnson remarks, “Those who, in the confidence of they were ready to beg more of him; with that he goes sad

and sorrowful out of the church; but going, he spies a superior capacities or attainments, neglect the common maxims of life, should be reminded that nothing will piece of gold, which it seems he had accidentally dropped

on the floor in his first distribution of the sum to the poor. supply the want of prudence; but that negligence and irregularity long continued will make knowledge useless, cheat those pour widows had put upon him. She bids him

He takes it up, goes home, and complains to his wife of the wit ridiculous, and genius contemptible."

trust in that God to whom he had lent the money, and take 86. A Cat may look at a King.

the piece he had found, and buy necessaries for their family. We have scarcely ever heard these words quoted He goes to the market-place, and, among other things, buys but as a pert defence of insolent behaviour. “It is," says some fish, which were to be dressed for dinner. His wife Bailey, “ a saucy proverb, generally made use of by prag- opening one of the fish, finds in the belly a precious stone, matical people, who must needs be censuring their supe which betrayed its worth by its unusual glittering. The riors, who take things by the worst handle, and carry them man carries to a jeweller, who presently gives him £300 beyond their bounds." . Persons in an humble lot of life for the jewel, at which the man, transported, falls a praising ought indeed to look at great and distinguished characters the God of the Christians, and himself becomes a Christian, with honour and respect, but not view or judge of them

astonished with the Providence which had so miraculously familiarly and offensively. “ To order myself lowly and disposed of second causes for his signal profit and emo

lument." reverently to all my betters" is a portion of duty to our

There is that scattereth and yet increaseth; and neighbour which is well understood, but too often neglected there is that withholdeth more than is meet, but it tendeth in practice by all, particularly by the young.

to poverty.- Prov. xi. 24.

We may wind up our present paper with an old English 87. CONSCIENCE is as a thousand witnesses.

saying, which, after the above inspired passage, will need “ Labour," says Lord Bacon, “ to keep a good con no commentary. science; for he that is disfurnished thereof hath fear for his

90. All cover, all lose.

M. bedfellow, care for his companion, and the sting of guilt for his torment."

The next upon our list has much the same force and signification.

WHILE we duly appreciate the important advantages which 88. A guilty Conscience needs no accuser.

must result to a community, from the general diffusion of

education among all classes, we ought always to bear in The following story, cited from an old book which mind, that men whose condition is daily labour, have very probably few of our readers have seen, may serve to illus little time to devote to the purpose of mental cultivation. trate this excellent proverb.

The great problem, therefore, is to discover what is that Ferdinand, Emperor of Germany, possessed a great species of instruction which will produce the largest sum number of watches, in collecting of which he had a fancy. of good result with the least possible demand of time. " It pleased him once," says our quaint author,

Now the communication of religious knowledge appears this, his variety of speaking gold, upon a table, as if he incomparably the best calculated of any other means that would expose it to sale: he then stepped aside. A stander can be devised to answer this end. Intellectual cultivation by, driven by a desire of stealing, filched one of them, (a is desired as the means of moral improvement. But that repeater,) which the emperor espying aslant, called him to

effect which the inculcation of other than religious knowhim, and, without accusation, kept him in various discourse ledge would produce only mediately and instrumentally till the watch striking disclosed the hour and his theft! religious instruction would bring about directly, and in a He that deceiveth with unjust weight or measure may much higher degree. And while the former may be effec apply this. What he has done hath, like the watch, a tual to make men good subjects, and good citizens, and to tongue to discover him: besides, his conscience betrays him; promote their happiness in this present world; the latter, and though he be his own judge, he cannot be acquitted. ! equally, or rather still more conducing to this effect, is at His own iniquities shall take the wicked himself, and he

the same time preparing them for that existence to which shall be holden with the cords of his sins.- Prov. v. 22. the interests of the present life ought always to be held 89. COVETOUSNESS brings nothing home.

subservient. We shall give to this, as we endeavour to give to all our proverbs that will admit of it, an enlarged and Christian There are few difficulties that hold out against real attacks ; meaning ; and, instead of dwelling on the odious vice of they fly, like the visible horizon, before those who advance. covetousness, we will try to shame those who are guilty

A passionate desire, and an unwearied will, can perform herein by showing the beauty of the opposite quality. There impossibilities, or what seem to be such to the cold and are many examples of men, who, by consecrating a great

feeble. If we do but go on, some unseen path will open part of their means to pious and charitable uses, have in among the hills. We must not allow ourselves to be discreased their fortunes, and by casting their bread upon the couraged by the apparent disproportion between the result waters, have found it again with interest after many days. of single efforts, and the magnitude of the obstacle to be In Dr. Anthony Horneck's Treatise “on Consideration is encountered. Nothing good or great is to be obtained a story to this point, which shall be told in his own words.


courage or industry; but courage and industry must “ In Nisibis there was a religious woman, who had a man

have sunk in despair, and the world must have remained that was a heathen for her husband. They were poor, yet the effect of a single stroke of the chisel with the pyramid

unornamented and unimproved, if men had nicely compared by hard labour had got fifty pounds together; whereupon the husband thought good to put it out to interest, that they

to be raised, or of a single impression of the spade with might not consume the main stock. . His wife, being a

the mountain to be levelled. - SHARPE's Letters and Christian, readily told him, that none paid greater interest

Essays. for money lent him than the God of the Christians. The man, pleased with the news, demands, where was this God | As it is no strange thing for the sea to rage, when strong to be met with? The woman told him at such a church, winds blow upon it, so neither for multitudes to become where He had deputies to receive the sum. They take the violent, when they have men of some reputation for parts money, and to church they go, where they saw some poor and piety to lead them on.-Icon Basilike.

to put


PREPARATION FOR ANOTHER WORLD This formidable insect is rather more than half an WERE any other event, of far inferior moment, ascer. inch in length, of an oval form, and grayish colour. tained by evidence, which made but a distant apIt feeds chiefly on Solomon's emblem of industry, proach to that which attests the certainty of a life to and has hence received the name of Formica-leo, or come, had we equal assurance that, after a very Lion-ant. Its head, which is very small, is armed limited, though uncertain period, we should be with two strong mandibles, which look like horns, called to emigrate into a distant land, whence we but it is with them that the larva seizes upon its were never to return, the intelligence would fill every

prey; and as they are pierced breast with solicitude ; 'it would become the theme of at the extremity, they no every tongue, and we should avail ourselves with the doubt also act as suckers. utmost eagerness of all the means of information As the form of the insect respecting the prospects which awaited us in that does not admit of active mo- unknown country. Much of our attention would be

tion, nature has made amends occupied in preparing for our departure; we should LION-ANT IN THE LARTA STATE. by endowing it with admi- cease to consider the place we now inhabit as our

rable skill and cunning. home, and nothing would be considered as of moIt is only in the larva state that the lion-ant ex- ment but as it bore upon our future destination. hibits this peculiar instinct; when in its perfect form, How strange is it then, that with the certainty we it is a winged insect, and like most others of the all possess of shortly entering into another world, we same class, it now requires but little if any nourishment, avert our eyes as much as possible from the prospect, the latter part of its existence being chiefly occupied that we seldom permit it to penetrate us, and that in perpetuating its species.

the moment the recollection recurs, we hasten to dismiss it, as an unwelcome intrusion. Is it not surprising that the volume we profess to recognise as the record of immortality, and the sole depository of whatever information it is possible to obtain respecting the portion which awaits us, should be consigned to neglect, and rarely, if ever, consulted with the serious intention of ascertaining our future condi

tion ?—ROBERT Hall. THE LION-ANT IN ITS PERFECT STATE. It constructs, in a dry or sandy soil, a funnel. It is, indeed, a matter of great patience to reasonable men, shaped excavation, the sides and edges of which are to find people objecting against the credibility of particular loose and crumbling, and at the bottom, with body cessity or expediency of them. For, though it is highly

things revealed in Scripture, that they do not see the neclosely covered, but with jaws projecting upwards, he right, and the most pious exercise of our understanding, to lies concealed. No sooner does an industrious ant, inquire with due reverence into the ends and reasons of laden perhaps with its provision, approach the edge God's dispensations, yet when those reasons are concealed, of the slope, than the finely-poised sand gives way, to argue from our ignorance that such dispensations cannot and the entrapped victim, rolling to the bottom, is be from God is infinitely absurd. The presumption of this instantly seized, and sucked to a shadow by the lurk. And the folly of them is yet greater, when they are urgent,

kind of objections seems almost lost in the folly of them. ing tyrant, who, soon after, by a jerk of his head, as usually they are, against things in Christianity, analotosses out the dead body beyond the immediate boun- gous, or like to those natural dispensations of Providence, daries of his dwelling. There are tartars, however, which are matters of experience. Let reason be kept to, among insects as well as among men; and it some- and if any part of the Scripture account of the redemption times happens, that a large and vigorous winged of the world by Christ, can be shown to be really contrary insect, such as a wasp, a bee, or a beetle, tumbles to it

, let the Scripture, in the name of God, be given up:

but let not such poor creatures as we are, go on objecting head foremost into the pit.

against an infinite scheme, that we do not see the necessity When Greek meets Greek, then comes the tug of war; or usefulness of all its parts, and call this reasoning; and, and when a lion-ant does get the tail of a wasp in his which still further heightens the absurdity, parts which we mouth, there is no saying exactly how the combat

are not actively concerned in. —Bishop BUTLER. may end. The one is furnished with jaws tenacious as well as strong,—but he bears no charmed life;" dangers hover about us, none can tell whether the good

In this state of universal uncertainty, where a thousand while the other is armed with a weapon which never that he pursues is not evil in disguise, or whether the next rusts, and compared with the keenness of which, the step will lead him to safety or destruction; nothing can brightest sword in Damascus is as a broken foil. In afford any rational tranquillity but the conviction that, howthese doubtful, though, to one or other of the parties, ever we amuse ourselves with ideal sounds, nothing in eventually mortal struggles, the result is, that either reality is governed by chance, but that the universe is the lion-ant is dragged out of his den and stung to it; that our being is in the hands of omnipotent goodness,

under the perpetual superintendence of him who created death, or dropped upon the ground and left a prey to by whom what appears casual to us is directed for ends birds; or that the winged insect is maimed, disabled, ultimately kind, and good, and merciful, and that nothing drawn into the sand, and slain. If an insect inca- can finally hurt him who debars not himself from the pable of flight, or from its situation unable to use Divine favour.—Dr. Johnson. its wings, but of larger size than the lion-ant ventures How much is there in this world of ours, natural and at once to seize upon, chances to fall into the snare, it moral, to delight, how much to afflict

, how much to enis overwhelmed in its attempts to reascend, by repeated courage, and how much to awe us, and all conduce to form showers of sand, thrown up by its enemy with un one great and decisive state of trial.-DANBY. erring aim. No sooner, however, is the strength of the toiling and exhausted Sisyphus at least in part Never yet did there exist a full faith in the Divine Word, exhausted, than he, too, is seized upon, and sucked (by whom light as well as immortality was brought into the to death. The lion-aut makes use of its head as a the heart,—which did not multiply the aims and objects of

world) which did not expand the intellect, while it purified catapulta, or instrument of war, with which to shower the understanding, while it fixed and simplified those of the the sand upon its astonished prey..

desires and passions.--COLERIDGE. [Chiefly from the Encyclopædia Britannica.]



Starch and sugar consist of oxygen, hydrogen, and car WINE MAKING IN FRANCE.-The Vintage.—PROPERTIES bon, and these same three ingredients, in another propor

OF THE Grape.--PROCESSES.-FERMENTATION.-Dif- tion, constitute alcohol ; fermentation is the chemical proFERENT SORTS OF Wines.-MEAD.--CIDER AND PERRY.

cess by which this proportion is altered, in consequence of - MILLS AND PRESSES.

some of the oxygen and carbon combining and forming

carbonic acid, and this being disengaged, the proper portions HAVING already given some account of the culture of the of each necessary to form the alcohol are left. The exact grape, we shall describe wine-making as practised in France, mode in which this change is brought about is not known; the principle being everywhere the same.

but it is certain, that the saccharine matter, or the starch, Grapes, the fruit of the Vine, are ripe about the end of must be dissolved in a certain portion of water, and that the September

, and the vintage, or gathering of the crop, is liquid must be at a certain temperature; and the fermenteverywhere a season of festivity. A sufficient number of ing principle, which is supposed to reside in the gluten, labourers are collected to complete the harvest in one or two must be present, to allow of these changes taking place. days; for if it occupied more time, the fruit first gathered When the fermentation is completed, or when the elewould begin to ferment before the rest was ready, and the mentary principles have combined in the proper proportions, wine would be thereby spoilt.

and formed all the alcohol which the liquid was capable of The bunches of grapes, cut off with scissors, or pruning: yielding, the agitation gradually ceases, the temperature knives, are collected in baskets, from which they are carried falls, and the fluid becomes clear again, and thinner than the in a larger panier, made of osiers woven close enough to original Must. If tasted, it will be found to be no longer prevent the escape of the juice, to an open tub, or barrel, sweet and insipid—it has now become Nine. which is borne on kind of car; when the tub is filled, In very hot countries, the juice of the grape contains a it is wheeled away to the covered place, where a large vat greater proportion of sugar than can be turned into alcohol is placed to receive these contributions. At the bottom of during the fermentation, however much this process may be the vat is a tap to draw off the liquor, and a small fagot of prolonged. The wine which results from such grapes is twigs is placed inside the vat, before the opening to the tap, therefore not altogether, chemically considered, pure wine; to prevent the stalks and skins of the grapes from clogging but consists of a large quantity of alcohol, holding unconup the aperture.

verted saccharine matter in solution; hence such wines are When the vat is filled with grapes, a man, perfectly sweet and fiery. On the other hand, in Champagne, Burnaked, gets into it, and with his feet tramples on the mass, gundy, and the Orléannois country, the grapes do not contill all the juice is expressed. The skins and stalks which

tain sugar, in proportion to the fermenting principle, which float on the top, are sometimes skimmed off

, but this continues its activity after all the sugar has been converted. is not always the practice, for though, when left in the Accordingly the wines are liable to become sour, or to pass juice, they impart a strong flavour to the wine, they yet on into the next stage, the acetous fermentation; hence in hasten the fermentation, and increase the property of these countries, the marc, or the skins, and stalks, of the keeping well. The juice of the grapes is now left to fruit, are left floating on the must, during fermentation, beferment, and a certain degree of temperature is necessary cause, as has been stated, the alcohol, as it forms, extracts to admit of that chemical action taking place. If it happens from this refuse some principle which retards the acetous that the weather is too cold, a few caldrons full of the fermentation, or which makes the wine keep. liquor are boiled and poured back to the rest, in order to In colder countries, the climate of which does not raise the temperature of the whole to the proper degree. allow of the fruit ripening perfectly, or of a sufficient proThis proceeding is especially necessary when the fruit is portion of saccharine-matter being deposited in it, sugar not quite ripe, or if rain had fallen shortly before it was must often be added to the must, in order to make wine at gathered; for this moisture, diluting the juice, retards the all. This is the case in England, with the made wines, as fermentation, and part of this superfluous water is erapo- they are hence termed, prepared from our fruits. rated off by boiling some of the liquid. It is necessary to The different flavours of wines are derived from some vegecover the vat over, either with a wooden top, or with table principle, which is a volatile oil, and which is secreted woollen cloths, in order to confine the heat which is in the epidermis or skin of the fruit; the colour of the liquid developed, and thus to accelerate the process. Under is also given by a resinous product likewise residing in the favourable circumstances, if the thermometer is at 60° (15° skin. This resin, though not soluble in water, is so in alcohol:Réaumur,) fermentation commences on the first day, but in if therefore the skins and refuse, or the marc, is removed general it does not take place till the second or third, or before the fermentation commences, the colouring-matter even later. When the action is at the height, the tempera will be abstracted, and the wine will be white, however dark ture of the liquid rises to 95°; bubbles of air then come the grape might have been. White Champagne, for example, to the surface and burst, as if the liquid were boiling over is made from a deep purple grape, and Port made from the a fire: this air which escapes is carbonic acid gas. As it same vineyard, will be either red or colourless, according is necessary to keep the place in which the vats are placed, as the skins of the fruit have been either allowed to remain closed up, in order to maintain the temperature, precautions in the must, during fermentation, or have been removed. must be taken to renew the air, whenever any one goes in Besides the more essential constituents which have been to observe the process; for otherwise they might be suffo mentioned, there exists in the grape Tartaric acid, Malic cated from the large admixture of carbonic acid with the air acid, and some potash and lime. It is found by trial, that of the apartment. This noxious gas, however, being the presence of Tartaric acid is necessary to fermentation; heavier than atmospheric air, forms a stratum on the floor, but when this process is completed, the alcohol having no similar to the way in which water sinks to the bottom of a affinity for this acid, it unites with the potash, and is detumbler of vil; consequently, if this stratum of gas be not posited in the vessel containing the wine, under the form of as deep as a man is high, he may not suffer from it. a white crystalline mass, commonly called Tartar, or

The Must, or juice of the grape, is a sweet clear liquid, Cream of Tartar consisting of water, holding a large proportion of a par When ready, the wine is racked off, or drawn off into ticular kind of sugar in solution, and also a chemical smaller casks, which are kept unbunged for a short time, in principle called ferment, which varies for different liquids, order to allow the renewed fermentation to subside. When but the presence of which is essential to enable that liquid this is the case, the vessels are closed, and are ready for the to undergo fermentation. We have already seen in Brew market, though a considerable time, varying from one to ING*, that it is necessary to add ferment, (the yest,) to the

ten years, elapses before the liquor should be bottled. wort, or barley-juice, because the principle of fermentation Various wines are also kept for different periols in the does not naturally exist in that liquid; the juice of grapes, vat before they are racked off, some being improved by and of many other fruits, on the contrary, contain this prin- standing on the lees, or sediment deposited from the liquid. ciple, and therefore no artificial addition of a ferment is

Before closing up the casks, it is usual to sulphur the necessary in making wines from them.

wine, in order to prevent a renewal of the fermentation; this It is not always the sweetest tasted grape that ferments is effected by burning a little sulphur in the cask. Wine the most, or produces the best wine. There are, as has been is also fined by adding white of egg, isinglass, chips of before stated, several kinds of saccharine matter, and that beech-wood, and other substances, to occasion a chemical which yields, by fermentation, the largest proportion of al action which renders the wine clearer. cohol, is far from being so sweet to the palate as the sugar It is a curious fact that wine becomes stronger by being which is obtained from the sugar-cane in its raw state.

Malic acid in excess is injurious to wine ; it is the abundance of

this acid in Cider and Perry, that is, in apple and pear wine, which * Soe USEFUL Arts, No. IV, in Vol. VI., p. 243,

imparts their sharp flavour to those drinks,

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kept in the cask: the wood allows some of the water of the liquid to exude, while it retains the alcohol.

By boiling the must, immediately after it is pressed from the grapes, the fermenting process is arrested, and the liquor preserves its sweet and mild taste. Flavour is imparted at discretion, by the use of different substances.

When the light wines of Champagne are bottled before the fermentation is completely terminated, they constitute the creaming, or sparkling, wine, so much esteemed. The bottles must be well corked, the cork secured with wire, and the bottle made air-tight by melted wax and resin.

In countries like our own, where grapes will not ripen sufficiently in the open air to allow of wine being made from them, other fruits are used in the making of fermented drinks ; but as none of them contain saccharine matter in sufficient abundance, sugar is added to the juice or must. It ought to be generally known, that the addition of brandy to home-made wines is always prejudicial to the liquid, as well as destructive of the flavour of the fruit. One of the motives for the introduction of brandy, is to supply the want of alcohol, which ought to be paturally produced in the fermentation, but which cannot be formed for want of sufficient sugar. The object would, therefore, be better, and more cheaply, attained, by increasing the quantity of sugar, added to the juice of the fruit.

In this branch of domestic economy, as in every other art in life, a little real scientific knowledge is infinitely preferable to a blind adherence to receipts and formulæ. No receipt for making wine can be universally applicable, because even fruit from the same plant is not exactly the same for two years together, owing to difference in seasons and in soil. But if the maker of the wine is acquainted with the chemical principles of the art, he may correct the defects, or supply the deficiencies, of his materials, far more effectually than by merely following receipts.

IRISH CIDER-MILL. The fruits that may be best employed for making wine, are the grape, either fresh or dried, gooseberry, currant, presented in the adjoining figure is a common screw-press

The cider-press is also of various constructions; that reand raspberry. Most other wines, called elder, cherry, of the construction applied on so many occasions in the arts, orange, &c. are rather drinks, prepared from the juice of and employed as a cider-press when that drink is made in the fruit, with alcohol artificially added.

small quantities. Any mechanical contrivance, however, for MEAD

obtaining a powerful and continued pressure, will answer. Is a wine made from honey and water, instead of sugar. It is often flavoured by adding the juice of some fruit, and without this addition, yeast must be employed to excite fermentation.

Cider AND PERRY Are the names of wines made in large quantities from the apple and pear, and drunk in our own islands, as well as in the north of France, where these fruits are abundant. The process for making the two drinks is the same. In cider, the species or variety of the apple is immaterial; the fruit should be nearly, but not quite ripe, and it must be spread on a dry floor for a few weeks to mellow. A mixture of different kinds furnishes the best cider, and the spirit and flavour is greatly increased by a considerable proportion of crabs, or wild apples. Indeed, it is one of the many merits of this excellent beverage, that every wind-fall, provided it be not bruised or rotten, is available.

After crushing the fruit, the processes of making cider resemble wine-making in all the essential particulars, except that cider is not allowed to serment so long as grape-juice; for the liquid is not prized for its strength, or for the quantity of alcohol it may contain, but for its brisk, acidulous, swect flavour, which would be lost if the saccharine matter were entirely converted into spirit.

The mill for crushing the fruit varies in different countries; generally it is like that used for grinding the olives for obtaining oil, and represented in a former paper* The annexed engraving represents the kind of mill used in Ireland, where cider is better and more abundantly made than in most other places, Herefordshire hardly excepted.

When cider or perry are made in small quantities, in private families, the crushing may be performed by means of a heavy wooden pestle, in a stout tub. Whatever mode is adopted, too many apples should not be put into the mill at a time, for if that be done the fruit is not com according to the season, before it is put into the sacks,

The crushed fruit, is allowed to stand a day or two pletely and equally crushed, and the labour of working and under the press. When all the juice is obtained from the mill is greatly increased. When the pulp accumulates so as to clog the rollers, it should be removed, drink, called water-cider, obtained by renewed pressure.

the fruit, water is poured on the refuse, and an inferior and put into coarse canvass sacks, or into hair bags, ready for the press.

LONDON: . See Saturday Magasine, Vol. VII., p. 2





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