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THE PALACE OF JUSTICE AT ROUEN, refuse granting a privilege so obviously conducive to It would be difficult to find in the whole of Europe, their good. The king did not refuse; by an edict a district more rich in specimens of early splendid of the same year as the application, the court of modern architecture, than that part of France which Exchequer of Normandy was declared to be “fixed was formerly comprehended under the name of the for ever in the good city of Rouen,” and was directed province of Normandy; at all events, when we call to “to hold its sittings in the great hall of the castle, mind the connexion that formerly subsisted between till such time as another suitable place should be the ancient duchy of that title and our own country, made ready." It was to provide such a place that we are quite sure that it would be impossible to find the Palace of Justice was erected; a very few years, out of England one which should be equally remark- however, elapsed, before the court ceased to hold its able in that respect, and at the same time equally sittings in the building so especially founded for it. interesting to Englishmen in general. The city of “ The name of Exchequer,” says Mr. Dawson Rouen contributes its full share of the attraction Turner," was perhaps unpleasing to the crown, as which has earned this distinction for the land in it reminded the Normans of the ancient independence which it lies; its ecclesiastical buildings are among of their duchy; and in 1515, Francis the First the finest in existence. Few cities in the world ordered that the court should thenceforward be known possess two such specimens of Gothic architecture as the Parliament of Normandy, thus assimilating it as the Cathedral of Notre Dame, and the Abbey in its appellation to the other supreme tribunals of Church of St. Ouen*;-indeed, the latter is often the kingdom.” called the finest Gothic edifice in France.
The palace, in its present form, presents three the secular buildings of this city less worthy of distinct buildings, forming three sides of a quadmention ; they include some of the most beautiful rangle. The oldest of these is the one which appears examples of the adaptation of the Gothic style to in the front of our engraving; it bears the name of civil purposes that are to be found anywhere. At the Salle des Procureurs (or Hall of the Attornies,) the head of these stands the Palais de Justice, or and was erected six years before the structure to its Palace of Justice, which is represented in the right, which is more strictly the Palace of Justice. engraving contained in the preceding page; it is a Its original destination was that of a Bourse, or highly interesting specimen of the sumptuous taste Exchange, and the chief object in raising it was, of the age in which it was erected, and forms, indeed, according to the edict issued by the bailiff on the as one of our countrymen expresses it, the "civil" occasion, to put a stop to the impiety of those who lion of the place.
were in the habit of assembling in the cathedral, It is not, however, on account of its intrinsic even on festival days, for the purpose of transacting beauty alone, that the Palace of Justice is remarkable; business. The exterior of this building is simple; the importance of the purposes to which it has been the richest part is the gable, which has on either side at various times applied, imparts to it a considerable an octangular turret decorated with what architects degree of interest. At present, it is occupied as a call “crocketed pinnacles" and flying buttresses. court of justice, and serves as the place of election The interior consists of a noble hall, which is for the deputies who are returned from hence to the raised above a basement, originally intended as a French House of Commons; under the old order place for shops, but now forming a part of the prison. of things, it constituted a hall of meeting for the The length of the room is upwards of 160 feet, and provincial states of the duchy of Normandy, one of its breadth more than fifty; the appearance which it those miniature parliaments which existed in France presents is grand and imposing. The roof is of previous to the Revolution; while, to mount a step timber; it is a plain arch, extremely bold, and destihigher in the scale of antiquity, before it was em tute, as Mr. Turner remarks, of the open tie-beams ployed by the parliament, it used to be appropriated and arches, or the knot-work and cross-timber that to the sittings of the ancient Court of Exchequer. usually adorn the old English roofs. The wood From its origin, indeed, it was devoted to judicial employed is oak; and the dark colour which it has purposes, or in French phrase, was “ destined to be acquired by age, contributes much to the solemn the sanctuary of the laws, and of justice." The appearance of this vaulted apartment. The only circumstances under which it was founded are these. ornaments to be found within it, are a series of
Until the close of the fifteenth century, there did niches running round the walls; the workmanship not exist in Normandy any stationary court of judi- of these is delicate, but they are all unoccupied. cature, the execution of the laws being intrusted to Peter Heylin, an English divine, who visited an ambulatory tribunal, called the Exchequer, which France in the earlier part of the seventeenth century, was established by Rollo, the first duke. This court, describes the building thus : “ In the great hall into like the ancient parliaments of the kings of France, which you ascend by some thirty steppes or upwards, ordinarily held its sittings twice a year-in spring are the seats and desks of the procurators; every and in autumn; the place of its meeting depended one's name written in capital letters over his head. on the pleasure of the sovereign, and was usually These procurators are like our attornies to prepare determined as in the case of the English Aula Regia, causes, and to make them ready for the advocates. by his presence. This mode of administering justice In this hall do suitors use either to attend on, or to was necessarily attended with great inconveniences, walke up and down, or to confer with their pleaders." and accordingly in the year 1499, a petition was The building, of which a portion is seen in our addressed by the provincial estates to the king of view, to the right of the Hall of the Attornies, is, France, praying him to establish in the chief city of strictly speaking, the Hall of Justice; it is far more the province, a judicial tribunal, which should be sumptuous than the other, both internally and exterfixed and permanent, like those already established nally. It was erected exclusively for the sittings of in other cities of the kingdom. Louis the Twelfth, the Exchequer, under the circumstances we have so celebrated as the good king, then occupied the already mentioned; and is spoken of by the French throne, and the French writers say that it would writers as a magnificent edifice. The front extends have been impossible for a monarch who had shown in width more than two hundred feet, and “is decoso much regard for the happiness of his people, to rated,” say Jolimont, “ with every thing that is most * To be described in future papers.
delicate and most rich in the architecture of its age.”
" which age
This observation is peculiarly applicable to the oriel cisely marks the restoration of Gothic taste in France, or tower of highly-enriched workmanship, which and the peculiar style of architecture which pre. projects from the middle of the front; it is extremely vailed in the reign of Francis the First. To say the beautiful in its appearance, and serves well to break truth, this style, however sparkling and imposing, is the uniformity of the elevation. Unfortunately, objectionable in many respects : for it is, in the first however, only one-half of this superb specimen of place, neither pure Gothic nor pure Grecian, but an Gothic architecture preserves its original splendour ; injudicious mixture of both. Greek arabesque borthe other portion has lost all its decorations, or has ders are running up the sides of a portal, terminating been subjected to degrading alterations.
in a Gothic arch; and the Gothic ornaments are not “Here,” says M. de Jolimont, as so frequently in the purest or the most pleasing taste. Too much elsewhere, we may remark the fatal effect of the is given to parts and too little to the whole. The prejudices of the last century against every thing external ornaments are frequently heavy from their which ignorance styled Gothic, and of the blameable size and elaborate execution; and they seem to be precipitation which too often caused the most precious stuck on to the building without rhyme or reason.” monuments of preceding ages to be sacrificed to Nevertheless, even this unfavourable critic admits puerile considerations, or ill-judged motives of that “upon the whole, this Town-hall, or call it what economy.”
you will, is rather a magnificent erection, and cerThe interior of this building corresponds with its tainly very much superior to any provincial building exterior; its appearance is truly magnificent. It of the kind which we possess in England.” consists of two portions, the Great Chamber, and We must not omit to mention, that in the immethe Chambre de Conseil, what we may call the diate neighbourhood of the Palace of Justice, there is Council Chamber. The first, or the apartment in a small square, celebrated in the annals of the city which the parliament used anciently to meet, and in as the spot on which the famous Jeaune d'Arc, or which the judicial sittings are now held, surpasses Joan of Arc, was burned for alleged witchcraft. It the other in splendour, and still remains comparatively long bore the name of Place de la Pucelle, or Place uninjured. Heylin, who must have seen it in its of the Maiden, which it derived from its connexion best days, speaks of “this tribunall and seat of with the history of this unfortunate woman, who, as justice” very highly;—"a chamber,” he says, “so our readers know, was commonly called La Pucelle gallantly and richly built, that I must needs confesse d'Orleans, or, as we say, “ the Maid of Orleans ;" it it far surpasseth all the rooms that ever I saw in my is now, however, used as a market-place. The life. The palace of the Louvre hath nothing in it square of the Palace of Justice itself was originally comparable; the ceiling all inlaid with gold, and yet the scene of a market also; but the noise of the did the workmanship exceed the matter." This traffic, and the quarrels of the fishwomen, being a ceiling has excited the admiration of more modern sad interruption to the eloquence of the pleaders, the travellers than Heylin. Mr. Turner calls it a market was removed by the civic authorities, on the gorgeous specimen of the taste of the times in inter- application of the parliament. nal decorations ; “ the oak,” he says, has rendered almost as dark as ebony, is divided into compartments, covered with rich but whimsical VOYAGE ON THE MISSISSIPPI. carving, and relieved with abundance of gold." On the second morning after our departure from
The building that fronts the Hall of the Attornies, Louisville, a change in the general character of the and forms the third side of the quadrangle, is of river seerned to indicate that we were rapidly much more modern erection than the rest of the approaching the Mississippi. For about fifty miles collection. It is not of earlier date than the be- before the point of union, the surrounding scenery is ginning of last century, and was erected in conse flat, and the breadth of the Ohio is more than quence of the changes which, in the lapse of time, doubled, as if, from a feeling of rivalry, the riverhad been introduced into the administration of god had expanded his waters to the utmost. On the justice. Its front is in the Greek style, being an present occasion, the Ohio had the advantage of imitation of the Ionic order, and presenting little but being very full, from the melting of the snows along a range of pilasters, raised on an arcade. This, as the whole line of its course, while the Mississippi, will at once be supposed, harmonizes very badly with descending from higher latitudes, had experienced no the other buildings, and produces an unfavourable such augmentation. effect. No part of it is shown in our view.
For hours I was on the tiptoe of expectation, to This detailed description, and an inspection of the catch the first glimpse of “the father of rivers,” and, accompanying engraving, will at once convince our with this view, had taken up a station on the highest readers, that the Palace of Justice is a very magni- pinnacle of the forecastle. At length, when yet ficent building. The French writers regard it as one about five miles distant, the Mississippi, sailing along of the most remarkable and important productions in dark and solemn grandeur, became distinctly of the age of Louis the Twelfth ; and the inhabitants visible. Both rivers were about two miles broad, of Rouen esteem it as the first among their secular but the expanse of the Ohio struck me as being buildings. Our countrymen have not been backward somewhat larger than that of its more powerful rival. in acknowledging its merits. Peter Heylin speaks of I do not remember any occasion on which my imagi" that fair palace wherein justice is administered” as nation was more excited ; I felt, in parting with the “a very graceful and delectable building;" “ that of Ohio, as if I had done injustice to its attractions. Paris,” he says, “ is but a chaos or a Babel to it." True, it presents but one style of beauty, but that Travellers of a more modern age have been equally is of the noblest character. For a distance of nine laudatory; they all seem to regard the Hall of Justice hundred miles, I had beheld it roll its clear waters, at Rouen, as one of the chief attractions of a city smoothly and peacefully, and I now, almost with a so very attractive to architects and lovers of the feeling of regret, bade it farewell. picturesque. There is one, however, among them, We passed the small settlement of Cairo, standing who is more disposed to find faults than the rest ; on an isthmus between the two rivers, and in a few and that one is Dr. Dibdin, the lover of books. minutes, beheld ourselves borne on the most majestic " This building," says that learned gentleman, "pre-tribute of waters which Earth pays to Ocean,
It certainly appears strange that the Mississippi, | rocks and mountains. He may then be led to doubt after absorbing the Ohio, presents no visible augmen- whether any great effect can be produced by a romtation of its volume. Below the point of junction, bination of objects of discordant character, however the river is not broader than the Ohio alone. Though grand in themselves. The imagination is, perhaps, flowing in the same channel, the streams are not susceptible but of a single powerful impression at a mingled. For many miles there is a distinct line of time. Sublimity is uniformly connected with unity demarcation between the waters of the two rivers. of object. Beauty may be produced by the happy Those of the Ohio are clear, while the stream of the adaptation of a multitude of harmonious details ; Mississippi is ever dark and turbid. When the but the highest sublimity of effect can proceed but Mississippi is in flood, it almost dams up the Ohio, from one glorious and paramount object, which and suffers it to occupy but a small portion of the impresses its own character on every thing around. common channel.
The prevailing character of the Mississippi is that After quitting la belle rivière, as the French first of solemn gloom. I have trodden the passes of designated the Ohio, one feels as if he had made Alp and Appenine, yet never felt how awful a thing an exchange for the worse. The scenery of the is nature, till I was borne on its waters, through Mississippi is even less varied than that of the Ohio. regions desolate and uninhabitable. Day after day, It is almost uniformly flat, though in the course of and night after night, we continued driving right twelve hundred miles, a few bluffs and eminences do downward to the south ; our vessel, like some huge certainly occur. The wood grows down to the very demon of the wilderness, bearing fire in her bosom, margin of the river ; and the timber, for some hun- and canopying the eternal forest with the smoke of dred miles, is by no means remarkable for size. As her nostrils. How looked the hoary river-god, I the river descends to the southward, however, it is of know not; nor what thought the alligators, when finer growth ; and about latitude 30°, vegetation awakened from their slumber by a vision so astoundbecomes marked by a degree of rankness and luxu- ing. But the effect on my own spirits was such as I riance which I have never seen any where else. have never experienced before or since. Conversation
The American forests are generally remarkable for became odious, and I passed my time in a sort of the entire absence of underwood, so that they are dreamy contemplation. At night, I ascended to the easily penetrable by a foot-traveller, and generally, highest deck, and lay for hours gazing listlessly on even by a mounted one. But, in the neighbourhood the sky, the forest, and the waters, amid silence only of the Mississippi, there is, almost uniformly, a thick broken by the clanging of the engine. All this was undergrowth of cane, varying in height from four or very pleasant; yet, till I reached New Orleans, I five to about twenty feet, according to the richness of could scarcely have smiled at the best joke in the the soil. Through this thicket of cane, I should world; and as for raising a laugh,-it would have think it quite impossible to penetrate ; yet, I have been quite as easy to square the circle. been assured, the Indians do so for leagues together, The navigation of the Mississippi is not unaccomthough by what means they contrive to guide their panied by danger, arising from what are called planters course, where vision is manifestly impossible, it is not and sawyers. These are trees firmly fixed in the bottom easy to understand.
of the river, by which vessels are in danger of being It has been the fashion with travellers, to talk of impaled. The distinction is, that the former stanů the scenery of the Mississippi as wanting grandeur upright in the water, the latter lie with their points and beauty. Most certainly, it has neither. But there directed down the stream. is no scenery on earth more striking. The dreary The bends or flexures of the Mississippi are regular and pestilential solitudes, untrodden, save by the foot in a degree unknown in any other river. The action of the Indian ; the absence of all living objects, save of running water, in a vast alluvial plain like that of the huge alligators, which float past, apparently the basin of the Mississippi, without obstruction from asleep, on the drift-wood; and an occasional vulture, rock or mountain, may be calculated with the utmost attracted by its impure prey on the surface of the precision. Whenever the course of a river diverges waters; the trees, with a long and hideous drapery in any degree from a right line, it is evident that the of pendent moss, futtering in the wind; and the current can no longer act with equal force on both its giant river, rolling onward the vast volume of its banks. On one side the impulse is diminished, on dark and turbid waters through the wilderness, form the other increased. The tendency in these sinuosithe features of one of the most dismal and impressive ties, therefore, is manifestly to increase, and the landscapes on which the eye of man ever rested. stream which hollows out a portion of one bank, Rocks and mountains would add nothing of sublimity being rejected to the other, the process of curvature to the Mississippi. Pelion might be piled on Ossa; is still continued, till its channel presents an almost Alps on Andes; and still
, to the heart and perceptions unvarying succession of salient and retiring angles. of the spectator, the Mississippi would be alone. It In the Mississippi, the flexures are so extremely can brook no rival, and it finds none. No river in great, that it often happens that the isthmus which the world drains so large a portion of the earth's sur divides different portions of the river gives way. A face. It is the traveller of five thousand miles, more few months before my visit to the south, a remarkable than two-thirds of the diameter of the globe. The case of this kind had happened, by which forty miles imagination asks, whence come its waters, and of navigation had been saved. The opening thus whither tend they? They come from the distant formed, was called the new cut. Even the annual regions of a vast continent, where the foot of civilized changes which take place in the bed of the Mississippi man has never yet been planted. They flow into an are very remarkable, Islands spring up and disocean yet vaster, the whole body of which acknow appear; shoals suddenly present themselves, where ledges their influence. Through what varieties of pilots have been accustomed to deep water ; in many climate have they passed ? On what scenes of lonely places, whole acres are swept away from one bank and sublime magnificence have they gazed ? In and added to the other; and the pilot assured me, short, when the traveller has asked and answered that in every voyage, he could perceive fresh changes. these questions, and a thousand others, it will be Many circumstances contribute to render these time enough to consider how far the scenery of the changes more rapid in the Mississippi, than in any Misşissippi would be improved by the presence of other river. Among these, perhaps, the greatest is
the vast volume of its waters, acting on alluvial The progress of this transition was remarkable. matter, peculiarly penetrable. The river, when in During the first two days of the voyage, nothing flood, spreads over the neighbouring country, in like a blossom or a green leaf was to be seen. On which it has formed channels, called bayous. The the third, slight signs of vegetation were visible on a banks thus become so saturated with water, that they few of the hardier trees. These gradually became can oppose little resistance to the action of the more general as we approached the Mississippi; but current, which frequently sweeps off large portions of then, though our course lay almost due south, little the forest.
change was apparent for a day or two. But after The immense quantity of drift-wood is another passing Memphis, in latitude 35°, all nature became cause of change. Floating logs encounter some alive. The trees which grew on any little eminence, obstacle in the river, and become stationary. The or which did not spring immediately from the swamp, mass gradually accumulates ; the water, saturated were covered with foliage; and at our wooding-times, with mud, deposits a sediment, and thus, an island when I rambled through the woods, there were a is formed, which soon becomes covered with vegeta- thousand shrubs already bursting into flower. On tion. About ten years ago, the Mississippi was sur- reaching the lower regions of the Mississippi, all was veyed by order of the government; and its islands, brightness and verdure. Summer had already begun, from the confluence of the Missouri to the sea, were and the heat was even disagreeably intense. numbered. I remember asking the pilot the name Shortly after entering Louisiana, the whole wildof a very beautiful island, and the answer was, five- ness of the Mississippi disappears. The banks are hundred-and-seventy-three, the number assigned to all cultivated, and nothing was to be seen but planit in the hydrographical survey, and the only name tations of sugar, cotton, and rice, with the houses by which it was known.
of their owners, and the little adjoining hamlets A traveller on the Mississippi has little to record in | inhabited by the slaves. Here and there were the way of incident. For a week we continued our orchards of orange-trees, but these occurred too course, stopping only to take in wood, and on one seldom to have much influence on the landscape. occasion to take in cargo, at an inconsiderable place
[Men and Manners in America.] called Memphis, which stands on one of the few bluffs we encountered in our progress. At length we reached Natchez, a town of some importance in the
SIR HUMPHRY DAVY, Bart. state of Mississippi. We only halted there for an hour.
Justice exacts, that those by whom we are most benefited, should One of the most striking circumstances connected
be most honoured. -Rambler. with this river-voyage, was the rapid change of climate. Barely ten days had elapsed since I was Sir Humphry Davy was born on the 17th of traversing mountains almost impassable from snow. December, 1778, at Penzance, in Cornwail, in which Even the level country was partially covered with it, county his family had long resided. His educaand the approach of spring had not been heralded tion was commenced by the Rev. I. C. Coryton, by any symptom of vegetation. Yet, in little more and continued under the care of the Rev. Dr. than a week, I found myself in the region of the Cardew, of Truro, until the period of his apprenticesugar-canes.
ship. to Mr. Borlase, at that time a respectable
apothecary at Penzance. The direction of his genius LECTURE of 1806, and such was the impression it was immediately displayed; the study of chemistry produced, that he received from the Institute of became his daily occupation, and its experiments his France, the medal founded by Napoleon. amusement. He might, however, have pined in Excitement of mind, and waste of bodily energy, obscurity, and have wasted his energies upon various consequent upon avocations of this nature, together pursuits, but for an accidental introduction to Mr. with that continued intercourse with society, which Davies Gilbert, by whom his genius was discerned, allowed him no repose, at length so fearfully affected his opportunities for improvement increased, and his him, as to leave him for five weeks in a state of the inclinations confirmed. By the kindness of that gen- utmost danger. By the most unremitting attention tleman, Davy was introduced to Dr. Edwards, then of his friends, and the exertion of the great skill of residing at Hayle Copper House, who, possessing a his physicians, Drs. Babington and Franck, his life well-appointed laboratory, enabled him to pursue his was saved, and he was again enabled to resume his studies with pleasure and success. To the same bene- duties at the Institution. Shortly prior to this, he volent patron, he owed his introduction to Dr. Bed- had been engaged in investigating the properties of does, then engaged in establishing the Pneumatic In- the “ Fixed Alkalies,” the results of which, he stitution at Bristol, with whom he was associated, in detailed in his second BAKERIAN LECTURE, read in 1798, before he had attained his twentieth year. The Nov. 1807, in which he announces the discovery of chief object of this institution was, to investigate the their metallic bases. To facilitate his researches, a medical powers of factitious airs or gases, and to Mr. public subscription was opened, and by the liberal Davy was assigned the office of conducting the aid afforded, a most magnificent Voltaic battery, various experiments. He here added to his friends, consisting of 2000 pairs of plates, was speedily put and increased his reputation, by the publication of in operation. In May 1810, he delivered a series of Essays on Heat, Light, and the Combinations of Light, Lectures, on agricultural chemistry, &c., before the &c., and also by his researches concerning Nitrous Dublin Society, and received the honorary degree of Oxyde, and its respiration. Experiments connected L.L.D., together with the honour of Knighthood with these works, were succeeded by one upon from the Prince Regent, as a testimony of respect Carburetted Hydrogen Gas, by which his life was for his scientific merit. On the 11th of April, 1812, nearly sacrificed to his scientific zeal. To recruit his Sir Humphry married Mrs. Apreece, the widow of strength, he retired for some period into Cornwall. Shuckburgh Ashby Apreece, Esq., daughter and
In 1801, the report of his abilities had interested heiress of Charles Kerr, of Kelso. Count Rumford in his favour, who introduced him to It was in 1813, that through his good efforts, Mr. Sir Joseph Banks, and Mr. Cavendish; and at a Faraday was introduced to the Royal Institution, by meeting of the managers, on the 16th of February, which means the scientific world is still enriched by 1801, he was appointed to the situation of assistant discoveries in that very path of inquiry which his lecturer in chemistry, and director of the laboratory own genius had explored. By permission of Napoleon, in the Royal Institution. Excursions into the and accompanied by Lady Davy and Mr. Faraday, country had, together with some desultory lectures, he, in October of this year, visited the continent, engaged him till the 21st of January, 1802, when a where he was received with the kindest interest; and
crowded and delighted audience assembled at his during a tour of eighteen months, he was assisted by introductory lecture."
Mr. Faraday, in a series of various scientific exHigh moral feelings, just principles, extensive periments, principally on Iodine, a substance acciresearch, earnest hopes for the improvement of dentally discovered by M. Courtois, and on the mankind, by the means of education, and the Diamond, in which Professor Morrichini also engaged. application of scientific truths, expressed in language These papers were transmitted to the Royal Society, rich in thought, and vigorous in expression, could by whom they were published, as were others on not fail of its effect; "his sociсty thenceforth, was « Ancient Colours" and on “ Acids." We are now courted by all, and all were proud of his acquain- arrived at the period of the construction of the tance.” He was appointed on the 31st of May,“ Safety Lamp,” which endeared him to society as Professor of Chemistry to the Institution, a sufficient much by the humanity of his motives, as for the talents proof, says Dr. Paris, of the universal feeling of he displayed. It had been computed, that in seven admiration his lectures had excited.
years upwards of 300 pitmen had been killed by The fatigues of the season, induced a tour into repeated explosions of fire-damp. An accident Wales; and at his return, he contributed to the Journal of this kind occurred near Sunderland, at Felling of the Royal Institution “An Account of a new Eu- Colliery; in 1812. diometer,” and some papers “On Painting on Glass,” This mine was considered as the best ventilated. and one on Galvanic Combinations, led to his election and most perfect in the arrangement of its machinery. as a Member of the Royal Society, to which it had On the 25th of May, the neighbouring villages were been read. Lectures on Tanning, and on Agricul- alarmed by a terrible explosion, and immediately the ture, together with other literary pursuits, were pit was thronged by the wives and children of the successfully continued till the year 1807, when he inen who had been engaged below. Nine intrepid was elected Secretary of the Royal Society, being persons, animated by the hope of saving their comthen about to engage in those experiments by which panions, descended into the pit; but their progress he subsequently developed the law of Voltaic Action. was soon intercepted by the choak-damp, into which In the course of his discoveries, and ascertainment the sparks from their steel-mills fell like drops of of the principal facts in Electro Chemistry, his blood. Half-suffocated they attempted to return, attention was directed to one very important appli- but were shortly stopped by a thick smoke which cation of its power. This was, as to the means of stood like a wall before them. The certainty of the preventing the corrosion of copper on ships, by the mine being then on fire, and the fear of another exaction of sea-water, which he thought might be plosion, forced them to ascend; nor was it till the suspended or prevented, by giving a negative or 8th that the mine could be effectually explored. The repelling power to the copper, by attaching metals, bodies were found under various circumstances: such as zinc, or tin, to the vessels. The results of twenty-one were upon one spot, in horrible confusion, this investigation were detailed in the BAKERIAN | the power of the fire was visible upon all, but its