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During these words the stone was sinking into the earth,
and many persons who were on their way from the grave The coffin was let down to the bottom of the grave, the returned. For a while the elder brother said nothing, for planks were removed from the heaped-up brink, the first he had a consciousness in his heart that he ought to have rattling clods had struck their knell, the quick shovelling consulted his father's son in designing this last becoming was over, and the long, broad, skilfully-cut pieces of turf mark of affection and respect to his memory; so the stone were aptly joined together, and trimly laid by the beating
was planted in silence, and now stood erect, among the spade, so that the newest mound in the church-yard was other unostentatious memori of the humble dead. scarcely distinguishable from those that were grown over The inscription merely gave the name and age of the by the undisturbed grass and daisies of a luxuriant spring. deceased, and told that the stone had been erected “ by The burial was soon over; and the party, with one con his affectionate sons.” The sight of these words seemed senting motion, having uncovered their heads, in decent to soften the displeasure of the angry man, and he said, reverence of the place and occasion, were beginning to somewhat more mildly, “ Yes, we were his affectionate separate, and about to leave the church-yard.
sons, and since my name is on the stone, I am satisfied, Here some acquaintances, from distant parts of the brother. We have not drawn together kindly of late years, parish, who had not had opportunity of addressing each and perhaps never may; but I acknowledge and respect other in the house that had belonged to the deceased, nor
your worth, and here, before our own friends, and before in the course of the few hundred yards that the little pro- the friends of our father, with my foot above his head, I cession had to move over from his bed to his grave, were
express my willingness to be on other and better terms shaking hands quietly but cheerfully, and inquiring after with you, and if we cannot command love in our hearts, let the welfare of each other's families. There, a small knot us, at least, brother, har out all unkindness." of neighbours were speaking, without exaggeration, of the The minister, who had attended the funeral, and had respectable character which the deceased had borne, and something intrusted to him to say publicly before he left mentioning to one another little incidents of his life, some
the church-yard, now came forward and asked the elder of them so remote as to be known only to the gray-headed brother, why he spake not regarding this matter. He saw persons of the group. While a few yards further removed
there was something of a cold and sullen pride rising up from the spot, were standing together parties who discussed
in his heart, for not easily may any man hope to dismiss ordinary concerns, such as the state of the markets, the
from the chamber of his heart even the vilest guest, if promise of the season, or change of tenants; but still with
once cherished there. With a solemn and almost severe a sobriety of manner and voice that was insensibly pro-air
, he looked upon the relenting man, and then, changing duced by the influence of the simple ceremony now closed, his countenance into serenity, said gentlyby the quiet graves around, and the shadow of the spire, and gray walls of the house of God.
Behold how good a thing it is, Together such as brethren arc,
And how becoming well, In unity to dwell. Two men yet stood together at the head of the grave with countenances of sincere, but unimpassioned grief. They The time, the place, and this beautiful expression of a were brothers, the only sons of him who had been buried. natural sentiment, quite overcame a heart, in which And there was something in their situation that naturally many kind, if not warm, affections dwelt; and the man kept the eyes of many directed upon them, for a long time, thus appealed to bowed down his head and wept. “Give and more intently than would have been the case, had me your hand, brother;" and it was given, while a murmur there been nothing more observable about them than the of satisfaction arose from all present, and all hearts felt common symptoms of a common sorrow. But these two kindlier and more humanely towards each other. brothers, who were now standing at the head of their As the brothers stood fervently, but composedly, graspfather's grave, had for some years been totally estranged | ing each other's hand, in the little hollow that lay between from each other, and the only words that had passed the grave of their mother, long since dead, and of their between them during all that time, had been uttered within father, whose shroud was haply not yet still from the fall a few days past, during the necessary preparations for the of dust to dust, the minister stood beside them with a old man's funeral.
pleasant countenance, and said, " I must fulfil the promise No deep and deadly quarrel was between these brothers, I made to your father on his death-bed. I must read to and neither of them could distinctly tell the cause of this you a few words which his hand wrote at an hour when his unnatural estrangement. Perhaps dim jealousies of their tongue denied its office. I must not say that you did your father's favour-selfish thoughts that will sometimes force duty to your old father; for did he not often beseech you, themselves into poor men's hearts, respecting temporal ex apart from one another, to be reconciled, for your own pectations—unaccommodating manners on both sides sakes as Christians, for his sake, and for the sake of the taunting words that mean little when uttered, but which mother who bare you, and, Stephen, who died that you rankle and fester in remembrance-imagined opposition might be born? When the palsy struck him for the last of interests, that, duly considered, would have been found time, you were both absent, nor was it your fault that you one and the same-these, and many other causes, slight were not beside the old man when he died. when single, but strong when rising up together in one “ As long as sense continued with him here, did he baneful band, had gradually but fatally infected their hearts, think of you two, and of you two alone. Tears were in till at last they who in youth had been seldom separate, and his eyes; I saw them there, and on his cheek, too, when truly attached, now met at market, and, miserable to say, at no breath came from his lips. But of this no more. He church, with dark and averted faces like different clansmen died with this paper in his hand; and he made me know that during a feud.
I was to read it to you over his grave. I now obey him. Surely if any thing could have softened their hearts My sons, if you will let my bones lie quiet in the grave, towards each other, it must have been to stand silently, near the dust of your mother, depart not from my burial till, side by side, while the earth, stones, and clods, were falling in the name of God and Christ, you promise to love one down upon their father's coffin. And doubtless their another as you used to do. Dear boys, receive my blessing." hearts were so softened. But pride, though it cannot pre Some turned their heads away to hide the tears that vent the holy affections of nature from being felt, may needed not to be hidden; and when the brothers had reprevent them from being shown; and these two brothers leased each other from a long and sobbing embrace, many stood there together, determined not to let each other know went up to them, and in a single word or two, expressed the mutual tenderness that, in spite of them, was gushing their joy at this perfect reconcilement. The brothers up in their hearts, and teaching them the unconfessed folly themselves walked away from the church-yard, arm in arm and wickedness of their causeless quarrel.
with the minister to the manse. On the following Sabbath, A head-stone had been prepared, and a person came they were seen sitting with their families in the same pew, forward to plant it. The elder brother directed him how to and it was observed, that they read together off the same place it-a plain stone, with a sand-glass, skull, and cross Bible when the minister gare out the text, and that they bones, chiselled not rudely, and a few words inscribed. sang together, taking hold of the psalm-book. The same The younger brother regarded the operation with a troubled | psalm was sung, (given out at their own request,) of which eye, and said, loud enough to be heard by several of the one verse had been repeated at their father's grave; a larger by-standers, “William, this was not kind in you: you sum than usual was on that Sabbath found in the plate for should have told me of this. I loved my father as well as the poor, for Love and Charity are sisters. And ever after, you could love him. You were the elder, and, it may be, both during the peace and the troubles of this life, the the favourite son; but I had a right in nature to have hearts of the brothers were as one, and in nothing were joined you in ordering this head-stone, had I not ?"
SIR FRANCIS BACON
been conferred on any member of the profession. Francis Bacon, Viscount St. Alban's, and Lord But disappointment was in store. Though related High Chancellor of England, was the youngest son to Lord Burleigh, his intimacy was with the rival of Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord Keeper, and of Anne, peer, Devereux, Earl of Essex; and when the office daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, tutor to King of Solicitor-General became vacant, he owed his Edward the Sixth. This lady was a good wife and rejection to the hostility of the heartless Burleigh. mother, as well as an excellent classical scholar; and Essex, mortified almost as deeply as his friend, geneher son, doubtless, experienced in his childhood the rously undertook the care of Bacon's future fortunes, happy effects of maternal education. While he was and gave him an estate in the village of Twickenham. yet a boy, the signs of genius for which he was in This friendship grew somewhat cold on Essex's apafter-life distinguished, began to show themselves. pointment as lord-lieutenant of Ireland, Bacon having He answered questions which were put to him with a endeavoured to dissuade him from that unhappy enterripeness above his years, and with such gravity, that prise. When misfortunes gathered thickly round the Queen Elizabeth would often call him her young lord head of the rash and ill-fated Essex, Bacon continued keeper. While the children, his companions, were di- to serve and watch over him with almost parental verting themselves near his father's house in St. James's anxiety ; but he was at length compelled, as counsel Park, he went alone to the brick conduit to ascertain for the crown, to denounce him as a traitor. the cause of a singular echo; and in his twelfth year he At thirty-seven Bacon put forth his first publicawas meditating upon the laws of the imagination. tion, a volume of Essays, Religious Meditations, &c.
At thirteen he was sent to Trinity College, Cam- In 1603 he was knighted ; a doubtful honour coming bridge, of which Dr. Whitgift, afterwards Archbishop from King James, who had ascended the throne, but of Canterbury, was then master; and he soon attracted pleasing to our philosopher, as it gratified a handattention, both for his high talents and for his dislike some maiden, the daughter of Alderman Barnham, of the dry and barren course then followed in the “whom he had found out to his liking,” and whom University,—the philosophy of Aristotle; real know- he afterwards married. His next great work was the ledge being in his view “not a couch whereupon to Advancement of Learning, which professes to be a rest a searching and restless spirit; or a terrace for a survey of the then existing knowledge, and a desigwandering and variable mind to walk up and down nation of the parts of science which were unexplored. with a fair prospect; or a tower of state for a proud Meanwhile he laboured to better the condition of mind to raise itself upon; or a fort, or commanding Ireland, advocated the union of England and Scotground for strife and contention; or a shop for profit land, and assisted in measures for the improvement and sale; but a rich store-house for the glory of the of the church. His influence was soon increased by Creator, and the relief of man's estate *.”
his appointment to the office of Solicitor-General, At sixteen, he was sent to Paris under the care of and subsequently of Attorney-General. Sir Amias Paulet, the English Ambassador at that In March, 1616-17, in his fifty-seventh year, Sir court, by whom, soon after his arrival, he was fortu. Francis Bacon was made lord chancellor of Engnate enough to be intrusted with an important mission land, a place combining four great qualifications, to the queen. His manner of executing it tended those of a lawyer, a judge, a statesman, and the to raise his reputation, and on the death of his father, patron of preferment; and, in 1618, he became which occurred when Bacon was twenty, he returned baron of Verulam. The title was taken from Old to England from the French provinces, possessed of Verulam, in Hertfordshire, near his noble residence the “ golden opinions of all sorts of people," but at Gorhambury, where he lived in great splendour dependent on his own exertions in a profession for united with study. The king bestowed on him the his support. Politics he would have preferred, and he lucrative farm of the Alienation-office, and made him even sounded his uncle, the wary Lord Burleigh, viscount St. Alban's; and the greatest of English towards securing some place under the crown, but in philosophers was at the height of his accumulated vain. To the sure profession of the law, therefore, honours when he celebrated his sixtieth birth-day, he determined to devote himself, and was admitted a surrounded by his admirers and friends, one among student of Gray's Inn, instead of venturing on the them, “not least in love,” Ben Jonson, who comuncertain sea of politics. Such a' mind as Bacon's posed a poem in honour of the day. cannot be supposed to have confined its researches We now turn to the reverse of the picture, and within the narrow and perplexed study of precedents find him falling rapidly from his proud eminence, and and authorities: it extended itself to the whole circle becoming an object of bitter triumph to his enemies. of science, by exploring the principles of universal In 1620, committees had been appointed to inquire justice,—the laws of law. During this legal and into abuses; and in one of these, touching courts of philosophical course, while making his way to the justice, two suitors in chancery charged Bacon with highest point which a lay subject could reach, and bribery and corruption in his judicial character, he meditating on his immortal work, the Novum Organum, having, as it was alleged, received money to secure he found time for relaxation, gained the affections their success, in which, however, they had after all of the whole society of which he was a member,
failed. But it appears, that the custom of the assisted in their festivities, and beautified their spa-chancellor's receiving presents, though an abuse, had cious gardent.
prevailed from the earliest times, that the gifts in When he was only twenty-six, he became a bencher, question had been made openly in the presence of witand at thirty was sworn Queen's Counsel learned nesses; that, moreover, his judgment could not have extraordinary, an honour which till then had never been biassed, as he had decided against the donors.
* Montagu's valuable edition of Bacon's Works, to which we are In addition to these points of defence, he might have indebted for materials for this paper.
called upon the House of Commons for protection + The apartments in which Lord Bacon resided are said to be at No. 1, Gray's Inn Square, on the north side, one pair of stairs. In against calumny, at a time when the excited people the books in the steward's office, there are many of his autographs, wished for some victim, as a tribute to public opinion, being his admission, when a bencher, of the different students. He and a sacrifice for public wrongs. The popular comof human pleasures ; and as Chancellor, he had the pleasure of plaint was loud upon the rapacious exactions of the signing the patent for converting Lincoln's Inn Fields into walks, favourites of the king, especially of George Villiers, extending almost to the wall where his faithful friend Ben Jonson marquis of Buckingham, who, under pretence of bad, when a boy, worked as a bricklayer.
granting patents, which were made out for even the himself, may be gathered from his affecting and
lords adjudged upon this humbled nobleman, a fine
In his letter to the king from the Tower, he says;
The immediate cause of his death deserves to be stated. In the spring of 1626, says Aubrey, his strength and spirits revived, and he returned to Gray's Inn, from whence, on the 2nd of April, going into the country with Dr. Witherborne, the king's physician, it occurred to him as he approached Highgate, the snow lying on the ground, that he would ascertain whether flesh might not be preserved in snow as well as in salt, and he resolved immediately to try the experiment.
They alighted out of the coach, and went into a poor FRANCIS BACON, LORD VERULAM AND ST. ALBAN'S,
woman's house at the bottom of Highgate hill, began to fear that he had false friends. He resolved, bought a hen, and stuffed the body with snow, my therefore, to meet his accusers; but his health, lord helping to do it himself. The snow chilled him, always delicate, gave way, and, instead of being able and he immediately became so extremely ill that he to attend in person, he was obliged to address his could not return to Gray's Inn, but was taken to the Peers in writing, requesting them to suspend their Earl of Arundel's house at Highgate, where he was opinion for the present, to give him time for pro- put into a warm bed; but it was damp, and had not curing evidence in his defence, &c., to which they been slept in for a year before. He died on the 9th readily agreed. After this, he had an interview with of April, 1626, in the sixty-sixth year of his age. King James, when he said, “The law of nature He was buried, by his own desire, in St. Michael's teaches me to speak in my own defence : with respect church, near St. Alban's, in the same grave with his to the charge of bribery, I am as innocent as one born mother. Sir Thomas Meautys, his faithful friend and upon St. Innocents' Day; I never had bribe or reward secretary, who "loved and admired him in life, and in my eye or thought, when pronouncing sentence honoured him when dead,” erected a noble monuor order."
ment, which cannot be viewed without the deepest Subsequently, the king, who had resolved to interest. Meautys lies near him, as is shown by the leave Bacon to his fate, rather than risk Buckingham, inscription on a neighbouring stone, which, however, gave him his advice that he should submit himself to is partly concealed by a pew.
M. the House of Peers, and that upon his princely word
LONDON he would then restore him again, if they should
JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. not be sensible of his merits. How little this com- PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY PARTE mand accorded with the chancellor's desire to defend
UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION
APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.
PART THE SIXTH.
LEWIS ; EDUCATION.
which he had inherited from a long line of ancestors, a (A. D. 1827. SEPT.)
contemporary of Dr. Baird's. The Orkney and Shetland At Stornaway there is a school for girls, supported and Islands have been since visited by Dr. Baird superintended by Mrs. Stewart Mackenzie. The children LEWIS ; TRADE; FISHERIES ; AGRICULTURE ; TENURES ; are taught both Gaelic and English, preferring the latter;
LONG ISLAND; DANES. writing, arithmetic, and work of various kinds; but they show considerable aversion to this last branch of their The town of Stornaway depends on its trade, which coneducation. The remote situation of the people of Lewis, sists chiefly in the exportation of cattle and cured fish. and the want of vigilant encouragement, have doubtless The fish are conveyed to England, to the Mediterranean, contributed to that indolence which produces this dislike and other parts of the world. There are seven trading to manual exertion, even of the most useful kind.
vessels belonging to Stornaway. The seamen of this port Towards the close of the last century, Mrs. Mackenzie of are skilful and experienced, and usually serve their apSeaforth took much pains to introduce spinning among the prenticeship on board of Liverpool and other traders. The islanders, and directed the sowing of flax for the purpose. merchants and other principal inhabitants of the town But so violent was their prejudice against the innovation, form a society not inconsiderable in numbers or wealth. that Lord Seaforth's factor was compelled to resort to the fol- Stornaway derives its importance partly from the Baltic lowing ingenious expedient to convince the people of their trade, its port affording many advantages to the numerous
He spread a rumour through the island that orders vessels engaged in it, on their voyage to and from Liverhad just been transmitted to him from Brahan Castle, that pool and Ireland. all the potato-grounds on the estate should be dug up, and Vessels leaving Stornaway will sometimes arrive in sight the soil converted to the growth of other produce. Alarm of the coast of Norway in forty-eight hours. A few years and indignation prevailed, and a loud outcry against op- ago, an open boat, containing twenty persons, from the coast pression, and predictions of famine. The factor, having of Norway, near the North Cape, arrived in this port, to allowed time for the impression to sink deeply, assembled the astonishment of the inhabitants. It had been blown the tenants, and then asked them how they could suppose out to sea, and, unable to return, made its way for the that such an order had really been issued, as Lord Seaforth British Isles, and in twenty-five days of fair weather and knew as well as themselves that their subsistence depended favourable breezes reached Stornaway. A part of the mainly on potatoes. He then told them that as much crew remained, and took their passage in a trading vessel; opposition had formerly been made against the introduc- the rest pursued their course to Liverpool and embarked tion of that vegetable, which had now been made against from thence, the introduction of spinning. This appeal was successful. Vessels are built in Stornaway, and launched with But, from want of perpetual superintendence, the women peculiar skill. In addition to the harbours of the east gradually relapsed into their former habits.
coast of Lewis, on the western are those of Bernera, the The introduction of the potato into Lewis occurred not entrance to which is somewhat obstructed by islands, and a century ago, and the prejudice against it operated during of Loch Resort, a basin capable of containing a navy. many years. This vegetable has almost superseded the The merchants of Stornaway formerly monopolized the oat and barley as the food of the people of the Highlands management of the fisheries of Lewis, supplying the people and Islands, the oat-cake being tasted rarely, and consti- employed in them with tackling, salt, and provisions, and tuting, in no small degree, the relish of popular entertain- purchasing their fish. But like most other bodies of men, ments of the lower classes. It has become to the High * Notwithstanding the combined efforts to supply the deficiency landers what maccaroni is to the Italians, an article of of schools in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, it appears luxury rather than of subsistence.
from the Report of the General Assembly's Committee for the exThere is also a school at Stornaway depending on the tension of the means of education in the Highlands for 1833, and Scotch Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge. The the Parochial Clergy in the course of the last two years and a children pay here a portion of the expense of their education: half, containing information, undoubtedly as accurate as can be English is the only language taught in it; Geography and obtained under any mode of statistical investigation, that "the Navigation are included, but the charge is additional. The present population of the Highlands and Islands is computed at schoolmaster receives a salary of £30 from the Society; 504,955, and that the number of persons, upwards of six years of the heritor provides the house, and defrays other incidental | little less than one-sixth part of the entire population appears to be expenses. In the parish-school, the scheme of instruction
at this day wholly uninstructed, and without having any means of is still more comprehensive, embracing Latin as well as instruction within their reach. The number of schools, both perEnglish, Geography, and Navigation. There is also an manent and itinerating, still required in the Highlands and Islands, academy for boys of a higher class, under the direction of a might contribute in the shape of school-fees, be allowed as the salary
is 384; and if £20 a year, in addition to the pittance that the people person of excellent character and superior intelligence.
of each Teacher, the total amount necessary to complete the eleThe subject of education in Lewis cannot be dismissed mentary education of the Highlands, and to place them on somewithout reference to the visit of an eminent missionary in thing like a level with the Lowlands, would be £8680 a year. its cause, the Rev. Dr. Baird, principal of the University
In 1834, the same Committee ascertained from thirty-five of the of Edinburgh, whose personal exertions in promoting the forty ministers of the Parliamentary Churches, that in the population plan of education, framed at his instance by the General than one-third of the whole number unqualified to read. 'In numAssembly of the Kirk of Scotland, have been already berless districts, from which petitions for schools have come to the adverted to. During my stay at Stornaway he arrived, Gaelic School Society, or requests for the continuance of Teachers in the course of a survey of most of the western isles, for an additional year, the inhabitants are twelve, fifteen, twenty, in a vessel employed in the Revenue Service, accompanied and even thirty miles from any church, and beyond the reach of any by the laird of Staffa, and by Mr. Macleod, the minister adverting to the prospect of Government support, on the plan of of Campsie, an eminent Gaelic scholar; and he was leaving one half of the expense of each school to be defrayed by escorted' to Seaforth Lodge by the commander of the private subscriptions, observes, that an increase of the actual convessel, a captain of the navy. He pleaded his cause here tributions to the annual amount of £4000 would be wanting. as elsewhere, with zeal and effect; his eminent academical Assembly was 6610 ; of the Gaelic School Society, 3000. The Scotch
In 1834, the number of scholars in the schools of the General station, advanced age, venerable appearance, well-known Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge," the Inverness and benevolence of disposition, example, and voluntary sacrifice the Glasgow Society, and other institutions, co-operate in the same of ease, and defiance of toil and peril, giving resistless cause. " And it is pleasing to remark,” observes the Committee of efficacy to his appeal. He had been astonished and the Gaelic School Society in their Report of 1834, " that the appalled at the ignorance which he had witnessed, espe
utmost harmony and good-will exist among all the institutions that cially on the more southern portions of the Long Island, the Highlands; and the only rivalry which your Committee would
are now in operation for the education and religious instruction of inhabited by Roman Catholics. Their spiritual instructors, wish to see displayed in their combined operations, is, which shall, as has before been stated, afforded him their cordial under the blessing of God, be most successful in contributing to co-operation. An old man of Barra inquired, on seeing hasten on the desired result.” him land on that island, who he was; and on being in
The Edinburgh Bible Society supplied the General Assenrbly formed, and also of the benevolent purpose which brought Society with copies of the Gospel in Gaelic and English, to the him there, observed, “ Then I doubt he is a friend of old for several years granted annually £500 to the Gaelic School Society Barra ;" the late Mr. Macneill, who resided in the island, for the same purpose.