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mankind, yet the greatest portion of these tribes are noxious if not poisonous, and so little difference, at times, exists between the wholesome and the deleterious species, that it is with great difficulty they are distinguished. In general we ought to reject all those which grow on the skirts of woods, and on decayed trees, those whose smell is displeasing, or taste hot to the palate, all those which when broken give out a milky juice, and generally all that are finely coloured. In many parts abroad, however, some of the noxious kinds are eaten, after being pickled or boiled; it is said that the poisonous quality is soluble, and therefore extracted by the liquid : however this may be, the experiment is too dangerous to be attempted, and the only kinds of fungi found in England decidedly fit for the table, are the common
mushroom, and the champignon. iki wa
The Common Mushroom is found in its early state
as a button. When its cap is in the form of a This well-known production belongs to the tribe roundish knob, as seen in the engraving, and in its of fungi; The fungi appear to form the last link adult state, when it appears like an inverted saucer; in the chain of vegetable life, connecting organized its substance is fleshy, and its gills (the under part) bodies with inorganized matter. “In simplicity of have a pinkish hue, perceptible even when their form and structure, they differ widely from the other colour is darkened by age, the smell also is agreeable. vegetable tribes, as they present neither leaves nor flowers. Destined to spring up in the midst of corruption, and to draw their nourishment from putrefaction, the fastidious observer turns from them with disgust; and the true naturalist, while aware of their importance in the scale of nature, finding them too perishable in their nature to be easily preserved in his cabinet, too capricious in their growth to be cultivated in his garden, and too sportive in their forms to be successfully delineated with his pencil, leaves them with regret, to rot on the dunghill, or to wither in the wood.”
They were formerly supposed to spring from the glutinous results of putrefied substances, but the wiser views of later philosophers have clearly shown that the impious doctrine of organized bodies being produced from inorganized matter, without the intervention of the creative power of the Maker of all things, is a wicked fallacy, and utterly at variance with all the laws of nature as far as our limited powers have been able to trace them.
For a long time the seeds of the mushroom-tribe remained undiscovered; but recent and more care
THE TOADSTOOL, Agaricus ovatus. ful observations have shown their existence, though. The Toadstool, on the contrary, which most nearly their minute size renders them very difficult of resembles it, is more flimsy in its texture, exhales an detection. Perhaps no class of vegetables is more widely distributed than that of the fungi ; for not only nearly black, without the least blush of pink, and be
unpleasant odour, and the gills are of a dark colour, do the boleti which are found on decayed wood, and on the borders of forests; the toadstools, the puff-balls, and
come almost fluid when bruised between the fingers. a variety of other larger species, belong to this tribe; but every indication of mouldiness on old leather, badly-preserved fruit, mildew, &c., is but a collection of innumerable minute productions of the same nature.
“ The fungi exhibit some of the finest colours of the vegetable kingdom. Nature having withheld from this portion of her plants, those flowers which form the chief beauties of the higher orders, and even the leaves with which they are clothed, has profusely scattered her colours, over the whole surface of the mushrooms, ornamenting the cap with one colour, the gills with a second, and the stem with a third. Let but the lover of natural beauty free his mind from prejudice, and then examine the forms and
Tue CmamPIGNON, Agaricus pratensis. colouring of the fungi, and he will be compelled to The Champignon, the other species of eatable admit that many of them rival in symmetry and fungus, is not so readily distinguished from many splendour, the rose and the lily, those gaudy orna other small sorts; it generally grows in circles, and is ments of Flora."
of a light-brown colour and conical shape, like a cap. Beautiful, however, as some of these vegetable pro Those, however, who are not accustomed to gather ductions are and useful as other kinds prove to / mushrooms, should be extremely cautious in select
ing any of the smaller kinds for the purpose of food. pose of concealing the taste of damaged flour, or to make Some people are in the habit of placing a silver the bread white when formed of second flour, &c. The use teaspoon in the water in which they boil mushrooms, of alum is liable to this objection, as being positively believing that if they are noxious the silver will be injurious to the health; it is employed to lighten the dough.
Before bread is made, a certain preparation called turned black; but although this may take place in ferment, or leaven, must be obtained, for the purpose of the case of the most hurtful, it is not so certain making the dough rise, or become light and spongy, in when applied as a test to the less dangerous kinds. consequence of its undergoing one stage of the chemical
The three following species of fungi are decidedly action called fermentation. It is found by experience that poisonous.
this action is most readily and perfectly brought about by introducing a portion of dough which has already fermented to a certain degree, and is called leaven, or by adding to the dough some liquid in a fermenting state; this liquid is usually what is called yeast, the froth that rises to the top of malt liquor, while fermenting.
If this yeast were taken from strong beer, the quantity of hops employed in the brewing would impart a disagreeably bitter taste to the bread. It must either be yeast from ale, or yeast made on purpose for the baker. In great cities, baker's yeast
usually by boiling malt and hops as if for brewing; when the wort* is cool, a quantity of Hour is mixed up with it, and brewer's yeast is added to excite fermentation; when this begins to decline, the mixture is strained, and is ready for use.
In remote districts, where yeast for baking cannot be obtained as often as it is wanted, leaven is employed instead of it. Flour and water are well mixed up into a stiff dough,
which is set in a warm place, and undergoes a spontaneous Agaricus plicatilis.
fermentation; bubbles of carbonic acid gas form in the mass, giving it that porous spongy texture which is observable in all bread, and causing the dough to swell up or rise; it also becomes rather sour: in this state it is leaven, and is capable of exciting a similar fermentation in other dough sooner than would be produced spontaneously, for it usually takes a fortnight at ordinary temperatures to bring on this action. Hence a piece of this prepared dough is added to the batch of which the bread is to be made.
When bread is made in the usual way and in large quantities, the following is the process. The requisite proportion of yeast is diluted with hot water till the mixture is of the temperature of 100 degrees; some salt is added, and the liquor poured into a wooden kneading-trough. One third of the whole quantity of flour about to be made into bread is first mixed with the liquor, being well worked with the hands, until the combination is thoroughly effected and the mass free from lumps; when this is the case, the trough is covered up closely, and the mixture is left for several hours, during which time a fermentation commences, and the mass swells: when this has arrived at the proper stage, the whole is gradually incorporated with a new quantity of cold, or luke-warm, water, according to the season of the year, with some salt dissolved in it. The
remainder of the flour is then added, and the whole again Boletus spumosus.
kneaded and worked together to a uniform consistence of a stiff paste—this is dough. The dough is again left for
an hour or two, till it begins to work and swell again, when THE USEFUL ARTS. No. III.
it becomes sufficiently spongy, it is made up into loaves
and put into the oven. BREAD.
The oven is a chamber built of fire-bricks, and having THE miller grinds the corn delivered to him, and sorts the an arched roof or dome, with a flat floor of tiles; it is flour into three qualities, called firsts, seconds, and thirds. generally underground, or if not, its walls should be sufliThe first is employed for French-bread, and for the finest ciently thick to obviate the loss of heat by radiation. and whitest sort of wheaten-bread consumed in large towns. Wood, where sufficiently abundant, constitutes the fuel for Household-bread is made from a mixture of firsts and heating the oven. A quantity of small brushwood, with seconds, with, occasionally, some proportion of thirds. larger logs and billets of wood, not yielding turpentine or Brown-bread is made from a mixture of the better boulted resin in burning, is piled up on the tile floor and set on flour, with the meal as it leaves the mill-stones; the portion fire; when thoroughly lighted the door of the oven iş of bran contained in this kind of bread gives the colour, closed, a small aperture only being left to supply air, and and being of a resinous nature, imparts medicinal pro as soon as the fuel is burnt out, the ashes are hastily swept perties to the bread, which renders it wholesome to some, out and the bread put in. and the reverse to other, constitutions.
But in this country, where wood-fuel is every day becomSalt is a necessary ingredient in bread, improving its ing more expensive, ovens are heated with coal, a separate flavour and rendering it lighter. The proportion to be furnace being constructed adjoining the oven, with a flue used varies, according to the quality of the flour; about which opens into it; another funnel over the mouth allows seven pounds to every four hundred weight of flour is the the escape of the smoke. A fire being made in the furaverage quantity.
nace, the bread is not put into the oven till all smoke has Many bakers add potatoes to the flour. The potatoes ceased, or till the fire burns quite clear; the strong draught are steamed till they become mealy, and are then pounded up the funnel prevents any soot lodging in the oven by fine; this meal is mixed up with cold water, to the consist- carrying the smoke up before it. ence of cream, and being made to ferment by the addition The loaves of bread are placed regularly on the tile of yeast, (which will be presently described,) it is added to floor, touching each other, the largest size being put in the tour during the process of making the bread. The first, to give them more time to bake. When the oven is admixture of potatoes neither injures the quality nor the filled, the door is shut, and the heat kept up for two hours, wholesomeness of the bread; but adulterations, which are which time is sufficient for the ordinary sized loaves. not so innocent, are sometimes had recourse to, for the pur * These terms will be explained in a subsequent paper.
The loaves, touching each other, are not browned, or oca, and Sago, the different flavour of these substances made crusty, on their sides which are in contact, and the being derived from the admixture of a small portion of bottom, which rests on the tiles, though more heated than foreign matter, peculiar to the plants which yield them. the sides, is less crusted than the top, which alone is ex Arrow-root is only the starch obtained from the Maranta posed to the full heat; these are the causes of the difference arundinacea, an American plant, resembling the common in texture and colour of the under and upper crusts. Indian-shot of our gardens. It is often adulterated with
Bread loses about one-tenth of its weight by the evapo- potato-starch, and this is even sold instead of it, for they ration of some of its moisture in the oven, and a small resemble each other so intimately that they can hardly be portion more in cooling when withdrawn. The tempera- distinguished even by chemists. ture of the oven should be about 480° to 500°.
Salep is prepared from the tuberous roots of the Orchis French-bread, as it is called, owes its superior lightness mascula, but it is little used now. Tapioca is obtained to the flour being mixed with warm milk instead of water; from the roots of the Jatropha manihot, the same plant and when made in private families, a portion of butter and which yields the Cassava, of which a species of bread is some eggs are added, but in this case it ceases to be bread, made in the West Indies and in South America. Sago and becomes rather a kind of cake.
is obtained from the stem of a species of palm, the MieBiscuits differ from bread in being made without yeast troxylon sagu, a native of the East Indies. or leaven, and the dough is prepared so stiff, that it
BARLEY requires to be kneaded either by being trampled on, or by being worked with a wooden bar, fixed at one end, while RANKS in importance next to Wheat, not as a direct the other being held in the hand, enables the operator to article of food in this country, but as affording an innocent chop the dough, as it were, on a flat table with great force. and invigorating fermented liquor, consumed by the mid
dling and lower orders, and constituting the principal drink VERMICELLI AND MACCARONI
of agricultural labourers. There is nothing peculiar in Are made from the finest wheaten flour, worked up into the cultivation of this grain that requires notice in this a thick paste with pure water, and some salt and saffron place, we shall, therefore, proceed to describe the process added. To incorporate these thoroughly, instead of being of brewing, or of making Ale or Beer. worked with the hands, as in preparing common dough, In order that a liquor may undergo the vinous ferthe wooden lever, described as employed in making mentation, it is necessary that it should contain sugar ; biscuits, is made use of. Men or boys sit astride this bar, now it has been found that the farina of the seeds of plants and by springing up with their feet, they give the beam is partly converted into sugar by germination. Starch and an up and down motion, which causes an intimate union sugar differ in no chemical respects from each other; but of the flour and water exposed to the action. The thick while the seed in the dormant state, or before the vital paste is then forcibly pressed through the holes in the principle exerts itself to produce a living plant from it, bottom of a cylinder, or chest, and according to the size of the starch which constitutes the greater part of most seeds, the tioles, or of the paste when forced through them, the especially those of the Cerealia, has, to our senses, but preparation derives its name, maccaroni being given to the very slight traces of a saccharine flavour. When, however, largest size, vermicelli to the smaller: and the paste when the warmth and moisture of the soil in which the seed is formed into thin broad ribbons from the holes being of that sown, causes it to germinate, the starch in it undergoes shape, is called sassagna. Maccaroni is made into hollow a considerable change, and is converted into a kind of cylinders by means of a piece of wire being supported in sugar, distinctly sweet to the taste, and capable of causing the centre of each hole, from a small bridge raised over
water in which it is dissolved to ferment; but if germinaand across it. The object of giving this forın, is to cause tion proceeds too far, a further change is brought about, it to cook more readily in hot water.
and the saccharine principle is destroyed. The object, Maccaroni, Vermicelli, &c., in this country, are employed therefore, is, by artificial means, to induce the seed to gerin soups, and also in a dish of the same name, prepared minate, and then to check this growth by destroying the with grated cheese. In Italy they constitute a large pro- vitality of the seed at that precise point, when the starch portion of the food of all ranks, especially at Naples, where is most nearly converted into a sugar, this is done by the best is manufactured.
The first part of the process is to steep the seed in water, Ir a quantity of good flour, or meal, be worked with the in order to soften the integuments, and thus to admit of hands under a stream of pure water, till the water ceases the radicle, or rootlet, of the future plant forcing its way to flow off white, what is left will be found to be a tough, through them; when the seed grows naturally in the soil, elastic mass, which, when dried, becomes brown, hard, and the moisture of the earth effects this. semi-transparent, brittle enough to break, and giving out, Barley, according to the season, and other circumstances, when burnt, an animal smell like horn; this is gluten. If is steeped for from forty to sixty hours; the steeping must the water which has washed the flour be evaporated, a be in pure water, and is ordered by our Excise laws to be white powder is left, which is Starch, or farina. Starch done in lead or stone cisterns, of a certain size and form. may, therefore, be procured from all farinaceous vegetable When the seed is sufficiently saturated, the water is substances, abundantly from all the cercalia, from potatoes, drained off, and the barley is put in shallow chests, called chestnuts, &c.
couch-frames, where it remains for four days, during which Starch for use is obtained by grating potatoes, horse- it begins to sprout, and heat is evolved, or the grain chestnuts, or other analogous substances; the pulp is put sweats, as it is technically called. While the grain is into hair-sieves, and a current of water being suffered to heaped up, as it is to a depth of thirty inches by law, in the flow through it
, the starch is carried away in the liquid frame, the central part, heating more than the outside from which it subsides in other vessels. Or flour is layers, would germinate fastest, and the whole mass would mixed up with diluted yeast in water, and is allowed to be unequal in this respect; it is, therefore, necessary to ferment, when the starch subsides in consequence of the spread the barley out in thinner layers, and this is called chemical changes thus brought about. The starch pre- flooring, because it is laid on the boarded floor of large, pared by these means, not being, perhaps, quite free from low, airy, dark chambers, which must be free from ali gluten, forms into concrete masses, and does not remain as damp, and perfectly clean and sweet in every respect. The a powder.
grain is spread about three or four inches thick on these Pure starch is opaque, of a fine white colour, without floors, every where of an equal depth, and narrow walks taste or smell; it is insoluble in cold water, but with warm are left to admit of persons getting at every part of the it forms a semi-transparent jelly. The best way of pre- layers in order to turn them, so that every grain may be paring this jelly is by mixing the starch, first pounded | equally heated by the chemical process accompanying quite fine, with some cold water; then, boiling water being ' germination, and, therefore, every grain have grown equally, poured on this mixture, it being stirred well all the time, and vield an equal proportion of saccharine matter. the conversion into the jelly is complete, and almost in The time which barley must be on the floors depends on stantaneous.
the temperature or season of the year, and varies, thereThe uses of starch are, to make hair-powder, to stiffen fore, from fifteen to twenty days, or more; every part of linen after washing, and for other purposes in the arts. the process of malting requires great attention and judg
Starch being the most nutritive part of farinaceous ment, but the flooring the most so of any. The object is vegetable substances, it is a favourite food for invalids, and that the germination of the grain should have proceeded constitutes the principal part of Arrow-root, Salep, Tapi- so far that the plumule, or little plant, may be just about
to pierce through the coats of the seed, and this does not | Crutched Friars; and the ground extended over a happen till the radicle is half an inch in length; if the great part of Tower Hill, the site of the old Navy plumule were suffered to appear externally, the point of Office, and of the present Trinity Corporation House, greatest sugariness (if we may coin a word for the occasion) will have passed, and this point will not be attained The church belonging to the monastery occupied a till the future plant is thus much developed. When this large portion of what is now called Savage + Gardens, precise point is attained, the grain is spread on the floor of and was of considerable size, consisting of a middle a kiln to be dried, and to have its vitality destroyed by and side aisles, body and choir, in addition to side heat. A malt-kiln is of the form of an inverted cone; at chapels, and several altars. On its destruction, the the widest, or upper part, there is a floor of tiles, or of site first became a carpenter's yard, and the Friars' iron plates, pierced with small holes to allow the heat of a fire, kindled below, to arrive at, and penetrate, the layer of
hall a glass-house, which house, says Stowe, burst malt, which is spread on this floor to a depth of four or five out into a terrible fire in 1575; and having in it inches. The heat, which ought to be moderate, must be about 40,000 billets of wood, was consumed to the continued till all the moisture is dried up, and the grain stone walls, which were so thick as to prevent the fire is toasted brown, and all vitality is destroyed. According spreading further. The remaining space of the old to the colour acquired in drying, malt is distinguished by monastery was built upon by Sir Thomas Wyatt the the terms pale, brown, high-dried, &c. The colour of the elder, in the reign of Henry the Eighth; and the beer is light or dark, according to the variety of malt from which it is brewed.
mansion, afterwards inhabited by Lord Lumley, was called Lumley House. No traces of this or of the
convent now exist. NAMES OF STREETS, &c. I.
There are, however, on a neighbouring spot, and in CRUTCHED FRIARS, MINORIES, AND SAVAGE
the same parish of St. Olave's, some very ancient and GARDENS.
curious dwellings, well worthy of notice, called Mil. The first-mentioned street is so called from the mo- | burn's Alms- houses. This charitable foundation was nastery of the Crossed, or Crutched, Friars, an ancient erected and endowed by Alderman Sir John Milburn, order of monks who, having derived their origin from in 1535, in Woodroff lane, (now Cooper's row,) leading a religious body in Italy, distinguished by the badge to Tower Hill. All the houses have Gothic doors of the cross, settled in London in 1298. Their dress and windows, and stand partly towards the street, at first was gray, with a cross of scarlet cloth worked and partly in an adjoining court or yard, which is a on it; but one of the latter popes ordained that they portion, probably, of the friary church-yard. The should thenceforth wear a tunic with a scapular, and gateway leading to it is also of Gothic construction, over all a mantle of blue, and that instead of having and has above it, on a square stone, a low-relief of a cross embroidered on their clothes, they should the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, who appears always carry a silver cross in their hands. This is supported by seven angels on a cloud. A Latin insaid to have been an abuse arising from the vanity of scription records the name and pious design of the the superior; for they originally bore only a cross founder. of iron, and did not assume the silver one till 1462. There are at present sixteen tenements, the occu
Matthew Paris describes the first coming of these pants receiving their dwelling rent-free, and 28. 4d. a Friars, and speaks of their order generally with week each, the first of every month. The management degree of contempt. “ In the twenty-ninth year of is vested in the Draper's company, of which Milburn King Henry the Third," says he, “there came to the was a member. By his original constitution, the almssynod of the Bishop of Rochester, some friars ap- people belonging to this charity, then styled beadspearing to be of a new order; namely, Cross-bearers, men, were to come daily into the friars' church, close or Crouched; so called, because they carried their adjoining, and to seat themselves near their benecrosses on staves. They gained a habitation from the factor's tomb, which he had caused to be built during wealthy men, showing an unheard of privilege granted his life. Mass was to begin early in the morning, at them by the pope; viz., that no one should be allowed the altar called Our lady's altar, in the middle aisle, to reprove their order, or reproach or command them: where the said poor beadsmen, before the beginthey had also power granted to them to excommunicate ning of mass, “ one of them standing right over such as should do so. All wise and discreet persons against the other, and encompassing the tomb of Sir were astonished that so many new orders should daily John Milburn,” were, two and two of them together, to start up without aid, and that so many learned men, say the Psalm De profundis, (cxxx.) and a Pater-nusier, despising the rules of the blessed Benedict, and of Ave, and Creed, with a collect thereto belonging; and the most magnificent St. Austin, should suddenly such of them as could not repeat the Psalm were to fly to new and unheard-of establishments: notwith say the Pater-noster, Ave, and Creed only, for the standing it had been enacted in general council, who prosperous state of the said Sir John, his wife, and admitted and authorized preachers and Minors * that children, &c., while living, and afterwards for the from that time no new orders should be invented, repose of their souls when dead, under the erroneous or if invented, should not be admitted, lest those idea that the intercession of survivors could prevail which were already received, should suffer contempt.” | for the peace of departed souls !
Their settlement on this spot, in the street named + So called from Viscount Savage, who resided there, and whose from them, the only footing they were ever allowed relative, Thomas Lord Colchester, of the Savage family, gave the to have in London, was gained for them by two
name to Colchester-street, near the same spot. In Savage-gardens
also dwelt Viscount Brouncker, the first President of the Royal citizens, Ralph Hosier, and William Saberns, who Society, and Master of St. Katherine's; Sir Denny Ashburnham, bought a piece of ground of the neighbouring priory
and the famous Sir Cloudesley Shovel. of the Holy Trinity, for that purpose, and afterwards themselves became Friars of the Cross. The There is no difference between anger and madness but last prior, in the reign of Henry the Eighth, was
continuance, for raging anger is a short madness. What Robert Stretham, whose scandalously immoral life,
else argues the shaking of the hands and lips, paleness or
redness, or swelling of the face, glaring of the eyes, stamaccording to Stowe, hastened the dissolution of this
mering of the tongue, stamping with the feet, unsteady monastery. The house itself stood at the corner of motions of the whole body, rash actions which we remember * The Minoresses, or Nuns of the Order of St. Clare, having
not to have done, distracted and wild speeches ? And madbeen invited into England by Blanche, Queen of Navarre, were
ness, again, is nothing but a continued rage; yea, some founded by Edmund, brother of King Edward ihe First, in 1293 ;
madness rageth not: such mild madness is more tolerable they had an abbey on the site of the street thence called the Minories, than frequent and furious anger. -Bishop HALL.
and and that those who set forward with us lovingly and I am now alone in my chamber. The family have long cheerily, on the journey, have one by one dropped away since retired. I have heard their steps die away, and the from our side. Place the superstition in this light, and í dours clap to after them. The murmur of voices and the confess I should like to be a believer in it.--I see nothing peal of reinote laughter no longer reach the ear. The clock in it that is incompatible with the tender and merciful from the church, in which so many of the former in- nature of our religion, or revolting to the wishes and affechabitants of this house lie buried, has chimed the awful tions of the heart. hour of midnight.
There are departed beings that I have loved as I never I have sat by the window, and mused upon the dusky again shall love in this world; that have loved me as I landscape, watching the lights disappearing one by one never again shall be loved. If such beings do ever retain from the distant village; and the moon, rising in her silent in their blessed spheres the attachments which they felt majesty, and leading up all the silver pomp of heaven. As on earth; if they take an interest in the poor concerns of I have gazer upon these quiet groves, and shadowy lawns, transient mortality, and are permitted to hold communion silvered over and imperfectly lighted by streaks of dewy with those whom they have loved on earth, I feel as if now, moonshine, my mind has been crowded by " thick coming at this deep hour of night, in this silence and solitude, i fancies" concerning those spiritual beings which
could receive their visitation with the most solemin but .. Walk the earth
unalloyed delight. Unseen both when we wake and when we sleep.
In truth, such visitations would be too happy for this
world: they would take away from the bounds and barriers Are there, indeed, such beings? Is this space between that hem us in, and keep us from each other. Our existence us and the Deity filled up by innumerable orders of is doomed to be made up of transient embraces, and long spiritual beings forming the same gradations between the separations. The most intimate friendship-of what brief human soul and divine perfection, that we see prevailing and scattered portions of time does it consist! We take from humanity down to the meanest insect? It is a sublime each other by the hand; and we exchange a few words and beautiful doctrine inculcated by the early fathers, that and looks of kindness; and we rejoice together for a few there are guardian angels appointed to watch over cities short moments; and then days, months, years intervene, and nations, to take care of good men, and to guard and and we have no intercourse with each other. Or if we dwell guide the steps of helpless infancy. Even the doctrine of together for a season, the grave soon closes its gates, and departed spirits returning to visit the scenes and beings cuts off all further communion; and our spirits must remain which were dear to them during the bodies' existence, in separation and widowhood, until they meet again in that though it has been debased by the absurd superstitions of more perfect state of being, where soul shall dwell with the vulgar, in itself is awfully solemn and sublime. However lightly it may be ridiculed, yet, the attention soul, and there shall be no such thing as death, or absence,
or any other interruption of our union.—WASHINGTON involuntarily yielded to it whenever it is made the subject Irving. of serious discussion, and its prevalence in all ages and countries, even among newly-discovered nations that have had no previous interchange of thought with other parts
SCENE AFTER A SUMMER SHOWER of the world, prove it to be one of those mysterious and instinctive beliefs, to which, if left to ourselves, we should
The rain is o'er.—How dense and bright naturally incline.
Yon pearly clouds reposing lio! In spite of all the pride of reason and philosophy, a
Cloud above cloud, a glorious sight, vague doubt will still lurk in the mind, and perhaps will
Contrasting with the dark blue sky! never be eradicated, as it is a matter that does not admit
In grateful silence earth receives of positive demonstration. Who yet has been able to
The general blessing; fresh and fair, comprehend and describe the nature of the soul; its
Each flower expands its little leaves, mysterious connexion with the body; or in what part of
As glad the common joy to share. the frame it is situated? We know merely that it does
The softened sunbeams pour around exist: but whence it came, and when it entered into us, and
A fairy light, uncertain, pale; how it is retained, and where it is seated, and how it
The wind flows cool; the scented ground operates, are all matters of mere speculation, and contradictory theories. If, then, we are ignorant of this spiritual
Is breathing odours on the gale. essence, even while it forms a part of ourselves, and is
'Mid yon rich clouds' majestic pile, continually present to our consciousness, how can we pretend
Methinks some spirit of the air, to ascertain or deny its powers and operations, when released
Might rest to gaze below awhile, from its tleshy prison-house?
Then turn to bathe and revel there. Every thing connected with our spiritual nature is full
The sun breaks forth—from off the scene, of doubt and difficulty. “We are fearfully and wonder
Its floating veil of mist is flung; fully made :" we are surrounded by mysteries, and we are
And all the wilderness of green mysteries even to ourselves. It is more the manner in
With trembling drops of light is hung. which this superstition has been degraded, than its
Now gaze on nature-yet the same, intrinsic absurdity, that has brought it into contempt. Raise it above the frivolous purposes to which it has been
Glowing with life, by breezes fanned, applied, strip it of the gloom and horror with which it has
Luxuriant, lovely, as she came been enveloped, and there is none, in the whole circle
Fresh in her youth from God's own hand. of visionary creeds, that could more delightfully elevate
Hear the rich music of that voice, the imagination, or more tenderly affect the heart. It
Which sounds from all below, above; would become a sovereign comfort at the bed of death,
She calls her children to rejoice, soothing the bitter tear wrung from us by the agony of
And round them throws her arms of love. mortal separation.
Drink in her influence-low-born care, What could be more consoling than the idea that the
And all the train of mean desire, souls of those we once loved were permitted to return and
Refuse to breathe this holy air, watch over our welfare ?--that affectionate and guardian
And ’mid this living light expire. spirits sat by our pillows when we slept, keeping a vigil over our most helpless hours ?-that beauty and innocence, which had languished into the tomb, yet smiled unseen around us, revealing themselves in those blest dreams interrogated by the Inquisition as to his belief in a Supreme
Galileo, the most profound philosopher of his age, when wherein we live over again the hours of past endearments? Being, replied, puinting to a straw on the Hoor of his dun, A belief of this kind, would, I should think, be a new incentive to virtue, rendering us circumspect, even in our
geon, that from the structure of that object alone he would
infer with certainty the existence of an intelligent Crector. most secret moments, from the idea that those we once loved and honoured were invisible witnesses of all our
LONDON: actions. It would take away, too, from that loneliness and desti
JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. tution, which we are apt to feel mure and more as we get
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