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remain your friend until you reach the glories of his THE MINES OF GREAT BRITAIN.
own eternal kingdom.” Before such an appeal, VII. INCLINED PLANE AT WHEAL FRIENDSHIP
Edwin was powerless. He professed himself anxious

COPPER-MINE.
to redeem his pledge, as Paulinus claimed; and he
desired only to delay baptism until he could receive Among those works of art which are most remark-
it in company with his leading men.

able for their magnitude and boldness, there are There, duly met in a solemn assembly, and Pauli- probably few more interesting, than some which nus having pleaded in favour of Christianity, Coifi, a occasionally executed in the deep and extensive mines Druidic pontiff apparently, thus addressed the royal of this and other countries. Works of this kind president :-" It seems to me, o king, that our are, however, very little generally known; certainly paternal gods are worthless, for no one has worshipped much less so than they deserve to be, a circumstance them more devoutly than myself; yet my lot has occasioned partly by the local position of mines, been far less prosperous than that of many others which are usually situated in mountainous and barren not half so pious.”* A chief then said," The life of districts, remote from towne, and partly by the man, O king, reminds me of a winter feast, around peculiar nature of mining operations, which instead of your blazing fire, while the storm howls, or the snow rising above the surface of the earth in conspicuous drives abroad. A distressed sparrow darts within masses, like the structures of the architect and engithe doorway: for a moment it enjoys the cheering neer, consist of excavations buried deep below it, warmth and shelter from the blast; then, shooting which, therefore, however great their magnitude may through the other entrance, it is lost again. Such is be, can never be viewed from any single point, or man: he comes we know not whence, hastily snatches exhibit the unity and grandeur possessed by works a scanty share of worldly pleasure, and then goes we

of the former description. know not whither. If this new doctrine, therefore,

The annexed sketch represents the mouth or will give us any clearer insight into things that so

entrance of an inclined plane, at an extensive coppermuch concern us, my feeling is to follow it." Before mine called Wheal Friendship, near Tavistock in such arguments, resembling so strikingly those of Devonshire, a work of a very singular nature, there Indian warriors in America, Northumbrian paganism being scarcely any other examples of a similar kind. fell. Coifi was foremost in making war upon the

To furnish a correct idea of the nature of this superstition which had so severely baulked his worldly inclined plane, it will be necessary shortly to remind hopes. His priestly character obliged him to ride the reader of the various modes by which access is upon a mare, and forbade him to bear a weapon. obtained to the underground workings of mines, for The people, therefore, thought him mad when he the purpose of raising the ores and other substances, appeared upon Edwin's charger, with lance in hand. which are required to be brought to the surface. He rode, however, to a famous temple, pierced the They are chiefly of three kinds :-Perpendicular shafts idol through, and ordered the building to be burnt. or pits, ---Day-levels or adits,—and lastly (although Soon afterwards, Paulinus kept a most impressive but rarely), Inclined planes, as in the case before us. Easter, by holding a public baptism at York, in

The pits or shafts used in mines, are by far the which Edwin, his principal men, and a great multi- most usual and important means of access, always tude of inferior people, were solemnly admitted into penetrating to the deepest excavations. They are the Christian church.—Soames' Anglo-Saxon Church. very similar to common wells, but of larger dimen

sions, most generally of a rectangular form, and

supported, when necessary, by. a timber framework, as Society is making a rapid, and in many respects a grati- noticed in a former article, instead of by brickwork. fying advance in wealth, in civilization, in intellect: let Shafts have been carried in this country to the depth us do our utmost, that the moral and religious virtues of nearly 1609 feet, and in others to between two may follow in the train, encouraging the developement and three thousand. of all that is really good, and counteracting what is evil. Let us leave the world wiser and better than we

Day-levels or adits are simply tunnels or horizonfound it, and we shall leave it happier. It may be urged | tal passages, which are excavated from the lowest that our single exertions cannot do much to stem the vast convenient point in some neighbouring valley, into tide of human passions and vices which the vortex of the side of the hill or mountain, in which the mine society sets in motion. I answer, that it is only by each is situated. They are similar to the tunnels occaindividual doing his utmost in the line of his duty, without sionally excavated for canals and railways. Where stopping to inquire to what degree others may be disposed to co-operate with him, that any extensive amelioration of support is required, it is generally afforded by public manners can take effect. Let us not forget, then, timbering, but sometimes also by walling. They that a good example is the best of all possible instruction differ, however, from ordinary tunnels, in having which we can convey to others. The life of a truly-good but one outlet at the surface, instead of two, the man, I mean, of course, of a sincere and humble-minded other extremity terminating in the mine, and usually Christian, affords the most convincing of all public lessons.

at a great depth from the surface. Excavations of Many and many a Christian has existed, who, with no other object than that of standing one day before God with this kind are sometimes carried for several miles, an unsullied conscience, has gone through his unobtrusive although not commonly in a direct line. course, wholly unsuspicious of the benefits he was confer Inclined planes partake both of the nature of ring, though meanwhile the silent operation of his example shafts, and levels; like the former, they penetrate to was quietly and imperceptibly moulding men's minds to a the deepest excavations of the mine, and like the conformity of feeling, and rendering a good life more gene- latter, serve as roads for the carriage of ores, and rally presalent, by making it more familiar, and more ami- other substances. They may, in fact, be considered able._SHUTTLEWORTH.

as inclined tunnels, having but one communication Reason is always striving, always at a loss; and of neces- with the surface. sity it must so come to pass, while it is exercised about At the mine called Wheal Friendship, there are that which is not its proper object. Let us be content at two inclined planes, distinguished as “ the oldand last to know God by his own methods, at least so much of him as he is pleased to reveal to us in the Sacred Scrip: the surface. The old inclined plane was about 590

“the new," both beginning near the same point on tures. To apprehend them to be the word of God is all our reason has to do, for all beyond it is the work of faith, yards in length, and the depth at the end, perpenwhich is the seal of Heaven impressed upon our human dicular from the surface, was 600 feet, the angle it understanding.--DRYDEN,

formed with the horizon, being about 20 degrees.

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This plane was in use for a considerable time, but Paul's Cathedral, to the top of the ball and cross, is circumstances rendered it desirable to form another of 360 feet; supposing, therefore, that two buildings of much greater depth, which was begun about seven or equal altitude were placed upon it, we should have an eight years since, and is now in use.

elevation of 1080 feet, answering nearly to the perThis inclined plane is 650 yards in length, and pendicular depth of the end of the inclined plane attains to a depth of about 1025 feet perpendicular below its mouth, which was before stated at 1025 below its mouth, or 1100 feet below the surface, feet. If from this immense elevation, we conceive which is elevated nearly 100 feet higher above the two ropes or imaginary lines, about four feet apart, end of the plane, than it is near its mouth. The to be extended through the air, following the line of inclination which it forms with the horizon, varies Ludgate Hill, and reaching the ground at the eastern from thirty to forty-five degrees, an angle which far end of Fleet Street, (a distance of above 500 yards,) exceeds that of the inclination of the highest and the length and slope of the inclined plane, will be most abrupt mountains, in this, and probably any pretty correctly figured to the imagination. other country, and consequently, up so steep an Any description of the mine itself, would far exceed ascent, no carriage could be propelled, excepting by the limits of this article; it may be added, however, the power of machinery.

that besides the work we have been considering, there This remarkable tunnel is about seven feet high, are at Wheal Friendship, five or six pits or shafts, and five feet wide, and is supported, where necessary, some going nearly to, and others exceeding, the depth by timbering, except for a short distance near the of 1000 feet, and levels (or horizontal subterranean surface, where masonry is used. A railway, consisting passages) to the aggregate extent of several miles, of a single track of edge-rails, is carried along the the latter being placed one below the other, at fifty or plane, from the top to the bottom, and is extended sixty feet apart, and communicating with the shafts. for a short distance also upon the surface. The Upon the surface, besides the water-wheel employed wagon used is made of wrought-iron.

at the inclined plane, there are four others of larger The power used for drawing up the wagon and its size (one being fifty feet in diameter), and three load, which consists of the ores, and sometimes the smaller ones, all being turned by the powerful rock from the bottom of the mine, is that of a large streams of water before noticed as being conducted overshot water-wheel, forty feet in diameter, and five to the mine for this purpose, by artificial channels, and a-half feet in breast, which is turned by a con- Four of these large wheels are employed in pumping siderable stream of water, which, with another of out the water, which accumulates in such a quantity equal size, is conducted several miles through a leat, in the subterranean workings, that it is necessary to or artificial channel, in order to work this, and the raise a stream of 700 or 800 gallons per minute, to other machinery belonging to the mines. These two prevent the mine from being inundated. streams furnish a constant supply of more than 5000 This slight description may, perhaps, serve to gallons per minute. The water-wheel is erected at afford the reader some idea of the magnitude and the surface, within a short distance of the mouth of extent of those operations, which it is necessary to the inclined plane, and is connected with the wagon carry on in the bowels of the earth, in order to which it draws up, by a strong chain passing over procure thosc metallic substances, with the use and rollers, at intervals of a few feet.

properties of which, every person must be familiar, Although the length and inclination of the plane although comparatively few are acquainted with their have been given in a manner sufficiently intelligible history, and the processes by which they are obtained. to those conversant with subjects of the kind, there it is needless to remind the reader, how essential an are probably many persons who will be unable to abundant supply of the metals is, to a civilized state form an adequate idea of these particulars, unless of society, or to point out their varied and infinite placed before them in the more obvious and familiar utility, in all the arts and sciences which promote light of an elevation above, instead of an excavation the welfare and happiness of mankind*. F. B. below, the surface of the earth. This may, perhaps, be done in the following manner. The height of St. I and 223 ; and Vol. VI., p. 118.

See Saturday Magazine, Vol. IV., p. 43; Vol. V., pp. 76, 180

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LONDON: Published by JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND; and sold by all Booksellers,

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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

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THE CITY OF CORDOVA, IN SPAIN. kingdom in the west where geometry, astronomy,

and physic, were regularly studied." I.

Cordova increased greatly in size and beauty under CORDOVA, the capital of the Spanish kingdom of the rule of Abdurrahman : that monarch surrounded that name, and the second city in the Spanish pro- the town with a wall, built a magnificent palace with vince of Andalusia, stands upon the right bank of delightful gardens, and began the erection of the the river Guadalquivir, at the foot of the ridge of Great Mosque, which became afterwards so celebrated mountains known by the name of the Sierra Morena. throughout the Mohammedan world. His successors It is a place of considerable antiquity, though the followed in the same course. In the tenth century exact period of its foundation is unknown. Under the houses of Cordova were numbered, and found to the Romans it bore the names of Corduba and Colonia amount to 213,077, inhabited by the common people, Patricia, and was a place of importance, especially and 60,300 occupied by the nobles, ministers, se

a seat of learning. Its academy was highly cretaries, military people, and other dependants of the celebrated as a school of rhetoric and philosophy; state, besides hotels, baths, and taverns; the shops and among the eminent men who were born in the were 80,455. city, the two Senecas—the rhetorician and the philo An Arabian writer, of a subsequent date, relates in sopher—and the poet Lucan, stand conspicuous. one of his works, that through Cordova, with the

On the fall of the Roman empire, Cordova, with continuations of its suburbs, he had travelled ten the rest of Spain, was subdued by the Goths, and miles by the light of lamps along an uninterrupted remained in their hands until the descent of the extent of buildings; it is further said, that the Saracens in the eighth century. But in the year | buildings extended to a length of twenty-four miles 711, when Roderic, “ the last of the Goths," had one way, and six miles the other, all this space being been defeated, in the famous battle of Xeres by covered with houses, palaces, mosques, and gardens, Tarik, the Mohammedan leader, a detachment of 700 along the banks of the Guadalquivir. horse surprised Cordova in a night-assault, and The Moorish inhabitants of this famous city were drove the governor, with 400 adherents, into the distinguished in many respects from those of other great church.

Here the Christians fortified them- | large towns in Spain. They were notorious, even to selves, and, as water was conveyed to them under a proverb, for resisting their kings and abusing their ground from a spring at the foot of the mountains, rulers, on which account one of their governors they were able to maintain their position for three likened them to “ the camel, which,” said he, "fails months. It happened, however, (according to the not to complain, whether you lighten or aggravate Arabian writers,) that a black man, of the Moslem its burden, so that there is no discovering what they army, had been captured by the besieged, and as they are pleased with, that you may seek it, nor what they had never seen a human being of the same colour dislike, that you may avoid it.” They were remarkbefore, they led the unfortunate prisoner to their con- able, also, according to the Arabian writers, for the duit of water, with a serious intention of washing elegance of their dress, for an attention to the duties him white! After seven days of confinement, this of their religion, for the pride which they took in man contrived to effect his escape, and having in their great mosque, for a disposition to destroy wineformed his commander of the mode in which the shops wherever they might be discovered, and yet to place was supplied with water, the conduit was dis- connive at various forbidden practices, and for the covered and stopped.

glory which they attached to nobility of descent, as The besieged had now no hope of deliverance, yet well as to warlike enterprise and science. The nobles when safety was offered them condition of of the city, also, were renowned for their habits of becoming Mohammedans, or paying tribute, they splendour and magnificence. firmly refused to submit, and the church being set on The literary reputation of Cordova did not decline fire around them, they perished in the flames. while the city was under the domination of the

Scarcely fifty years after this event, Cordova be Saracens. In the reign of the second Alhakam, came the capital of the Mohammedan empire in during the tenth century, it possessed a royal library Spain, and the seat of an independent sovereignty, of 400,000 volumes, which had been collected from which was dignified by the title of the Western distant countries, at a cost exceedingly great; anii Kaliphate. On the subversion of the house of Om- among the whole number, there was scarcely one maiya, in Asia, and the elevation of the Abassides which had not been carefully examined by the Kaliphı to the Caliphate of Damascus, Abdurrahman, the himself, and which had not, written in it, by his own sole survivor of the exiled family, passed over into hand, the genealogy, birth, and death of its author. Spain ; after a successful struggle, he established The high estimation, indeed, in which books were himself king of the Moorish possessions, and fixed held, is sufficiently attested by the prevalence of the his royal residence at Cordova in the year 759. practice of collecting them, even for the purpose of “ Then,” to use the words of a learned traveller of ostentation; for we are told that the wealthy and the the last century, “ began those flourishing ages of rich in Cordova were the most impassioned biblioArabian gallantry and magnificence, which rendered maniacs in the world. An Arabian writer gives us the Moors of Spain superior to all their contempo- the following amusing instance. raries in arts and arms, and made Cordova one of · During my residence in Corcova, I attended the most splendid cities of the world. During the the book-market for a considerable time, in the course of two centuries this court continued to be hope of finding a certain work which I was very the resort of all professors of the polite arts, and of anxious to obtain; and at length, to my great joy, it such as valued themselves upon their military and presented itself in an elegant hand with an approknightly accomplishments, while the rest of Europe priate commentary. I then bid for it, and kept inwas buried in ignorance, debased by brutality of creasing my bidding; but still it returned to the manners, or distracted by superstitious disputes. crier though the price was excessive. Surprised at Cordova became the centre of politeness, industry, this, I asked the man to show me who had outbid and genius. Tilts and tournaments, with other me for this book, to a sum so much beyond its costly shows, were long the darling pastimes of a worth; and he pointed out a person in the dress o wealthy and happy people; and this was the only a magistrate, to whom, on approaching, I said, May

on

God exalt his worship the doctor! if you are desirous only that he may pass over it to the chase," was the of this book, I will relinquish it; for through our reply, upon hearing which Hisham bound himself by mutual biddings, the price is much above its value.'| an oath never to cross the bridge, a vow which he He replied, 'I am no doctor, neither do I know scrupulously fulfilled. In the river are erected several what the book contains, but I am anxious to complete mills, which are worked by the stream, for the grinda library which I am forming, that I may appear ing of corn. respectable among the chiefs of the city; and as In ancient times Cordova was distinguished for there yet remains a vacant place capable of holding excellence in a variety of manufactures. Its leather this book, which is beautifully written and elegantly was especially celebrated, and the term cordovan, or, bound, I admire it, and care not how high I raise its as we say, cordwain, has been long used to denote price; praise to God for the means he has been pleased the kind of leather prepared after the fashion origito grant me, which are not small!' Being at last nally practised in this city. Mr. Murphy observed, induced to abandon the competition, I said, 'Well ! on the north bank of the Guadalquivir, a collection means are not abundant except with one like thee, of the tan-pits which were employed in the process ; and according to the proverb, 'He who has no teeth, they were formed of baked earth, a material much gives away the nut. I, who am not ignorant of the used by the Moors in Spain. In all the different contents of this book, and wish to make some use stages of the manufacture, the skill of the Moorish of it, having but scanty imeans, am of necessity de- artisans was remarkable : after having prepared the barred from it.'”

skins with various ingredients, they dyed them of The first decline of Cordova is coincident with the lively colours, such as blue, green, and scarlet, and jealousies and dissensions which distracted the then finished by imparting to them such a degree of Moorish power in Spain after the close of the tenth brilliancy as gave them the appearance of having been century; the fatal blow was given to its prosperity varnished. La Borde says, that this branch of inin the year 1236, when it was re-conquered by the dustry is still carried on in a few places in AndaSpaniards under Fernando the saint (as he is called), lusia ; it was almost destroyed on the expulsion of who banished all the Moslem inhabitants. “ When the Moors, who carried it with them to Morocco. they were gone," says a modern traveller, “ Cordova Cordova itself possesses at the present day scarcely remained desolate; the grass sprang up in its streets any manufactures at all; a small quantity of ribbons, and in its court-yards, and the cooling music of its hats, baize, &c. is all that is now fabricated in this fountains murmured unheard. At length, by grants once productive city. of houses and lands with exemption from taxes, a few thriftless people were induced to emigrate from The -sober and industrious man hath “ the heartfelt other parts of Spain, and settle in the newly-con- pleasure that he is carrying home the children's bread, or quered region. The descendants of these men form perhaps the staff of life, to a worn-out father or mother, the scanty population of the country as it exists at who fed him while he was as yet even more helpless than the present day.”

they: And if he lingers not on lis way, nor himself dries The situation of Cordova is very beautiful; or, as up the source from whence should flow these blessings of

his hearth and home, then he reaps the glad harvest of his Mr. Inglis says, it is " truly delightful. East and industry; the more glad, in that it is of his own sowing. west flows the Guadalquivir,—the level stripe that He will prize this more dearly, if he thinks how he may lies along its banks, rich in every production that is mar and ruffle the sweet tranquillity of his homestead, if congenial to the climate of Andalusia; a range of when he hath tarried long at the drink, and reason is low hills wooded to the summit, and diversified by drowned in the cup, and he reeleth home in folly or in gardens, orange-groves, and country-houses, stretch, fierceness, and scareth his little ones, and the kiss of wel

come is pushed aside with a curse, and fear inhabits the parallel with the river, bounding the prospect to the dwelling of love. When for the word of a father's knowsouth, while the elevated chain of the Sierra Morena, ledge, or the teaching of a father's experience, or the blesspushes forward its picturesque out-posts almost to ing of a father's affection, is heard the idiot gabble of unthe walls of the city."

meaning wrath, or of whining foolishness; the natural Like a great many other cities, however, Cordova feelings of childhood are then most painfully distorted : looks best at a distance; the streets are narrow, they would fain love and reverence the parent; they are

afraid to love him then; or shall their reverence for him crooked, and dirty. The Plaza Mayor, or Great Square, lead them even to tread in his staggering steps? Well is somewhat distinguished for its size, its regularity, might the wise king ask, “Who hath woe? Who hath and the beauty of the colonnade by which it is sur sorrow? Who hath contentions ? Who hath babbling ? rounded. A part of the town is of Roman, and a Who hath wounds without cause? Who hath redness of part of Moorish origin; many of the houses are in eyes ?" . They that tarry long at the wine, they that go to ruins. There are some remains of the Alcazar, or seek mixed drink. They have stricken me, saith the ancient palace of the Moorish kings; they now form drunkard, and I was not sick; they have beaten me, and

I knew it not: when shall I awake? I will seek it yet a part of the archiepiscopal palace. The great again. If the head of the family be thus sick, most surely mosque has been used as the Cathedral since the will the whole heart be faint, and every member be made recovery of the city by the Spaniards.

to suffer; and if the wages of industry be thus abused, the The bridge of Cordova, which our readers will see blessed links which would bind a man to contentment and delineated in our engraving, is a magnificent structure; happiness are broken.—Landon's Sermons. its length is 1000 feet, and the number of its arches

KING CHARLES'S GOLDEN RULES. sixteen. Tradition relates that there was formerly a

1. Urge no healths. bridge over the Guadalquivir, erected on the site of

2. Profane no divine ordinances. the present structure, about 200 years before the

3. Touch no state matters. arrival of the Arabs in Spain; but this edifice being 1. Reveal no secrets. greatly decayed, the Moors built the original of the 5. Pick no quarrels. existing bridge about the year 721. About the close 6. Make no comparisons. of the eighth century, it was restored throughout by

7. Maintain no ill opinions.

'8. Keep no bad company. Hisham the son of Abdurrahman; and it is said

9. Encourage no vice. that he happened on a certain day to ask one of his

10. Make no long meals. ministers what the people of Cordova said of the

11. Repeat no grievances. work. “ They say the prince's motive for this is 12. Lay no wagers.

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