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No. V. NORRIS CASTLE.

island. To the east, Portsmouth, crowded with HEAVEN, from thy endless goodness, send long life,

shipping, is in full view, and the richest line of the And ever happy, to the high and mighty

woody coast of the island from Barton to Nettlestone, Princess of England Henry VIll.

appears in long and varied perspective. To the north, There is certainly no part of England which pre- the Southampton river is seen in its whole extent, and sents, within so limited a space, such a vast variety the town of Southampton, with its spires and towers, of attractions as the Isle of Wight. The peculiarly though at more than ten miles' distance, is no inconhealthy character of its climate, the singular beauty siderable object. The woods of the New Forest, of its varied scenery, as well as the great facilities clothe the view to the west; while Calshot Castle, on here afforded for the enjoyment of the sea, are

the point of its long bank of shingle, stands boldly amongst the causes which bring together, year after out amidst the waves, and marks the separation year, crowds of visiters to its shores. We cannot between the Solent sea and Southampton river. The then wonder that this highly-favoured spot should house is of a very noble general form, and its clushave been more than once selected for the temporary tering towers, in every point of view, particularly sojourn of that youthful Princess,

when seen from the sea, are a striking and com

manding object, and a most splendid addition to the The dews of heaven fall thick in blessings on her !

ner scenery of the coast. The choice of both to whom we necessarily look, in God's own good the form and site of the mansion, reflects the highest time, (may it be long before it come,) to watch over, honour on the taste of the noble owner." and, as far as it is permitted to mortals, to direct the Few persons, upon viewing the Castle from a little destinies of our beloved native country.

distance, would imagine it to be a mere modern Nor could, perhaps, a more suitable mansion have production; for the massive towers by which it is been found in the island for the royal residence surmounted, rising as they do from amongst the than that of which we give above a very faithful mantling woods which surround it, present to the representation, from a drawing made of it in 1830. eye a semblance of the utmost grandeur and strength; And sure we are, that, independent of any other and whilst the materials of which the edifice was claims which Norris Castle may have to our notice, constructed, were themselves so prepared as to either from the natural beauties of its situation, or possess a prematurely weather-stained appearance, the picturesque character of the building, the honour the extraordinarily rapid growth of the ivy that thus conferred on this noble edifice, cannot fail to envelops some even of its loftiest portions, serves invest it with a no common degree of interest. still more, perhaps, to impress the whole with an air

This Castle occupies a most beautiful part of the of the most venerable antiquity. woodland tract, which extends on the northern side In the interior, there is little to be seen, but the of the island, along the shores of the Solent Sea from arrangement of the apartments is considered to be East Cowes to St. Helen's. It was originally built admirable. Over a door in the passage, is the by Lord Henry Seymour, from the designs of Mr. history of the Seymour family, in Heraldry. One of Wyatt, and professing to be in imitation of an the symbols represents the marriage of Henry the ancient castle of the Norman style, is of no small Eighth, with Lady Jane Seymour, from whom Lord dimensions. Its favourable position has been thus Seymour was descended. The grounds, which are admirably described by Sir H. Englefield.

beautifully varied by gentle rise and fall, are all laid “ Seated on the steep descent of the coast to the out; and most interesting views of the sea and Solent Sea, it perhaps commands a view of that surrounding country, present themselves in every strait, superior in beauty to any other point in the direction amongst the trees.

D. I. E.

20

6489

2233

2590

442
606

FAMILIAR ILLUSTRATIONS OF EXPERI or fusing point. Thus we speak of the freezing-point MENTAL SCIENCE.

of water and of mercury, of the melting-point of

tallow and of wax, and of the melting or fusing point No. VII. Heat. LIQUEFAction.

of lead, tin, brass, and iron. AMONG the vast variety of substances with which Each particular liquid becomes solid at a tempewe are acquainted, and under whatever forms they rature peculiar to itself;--for example, may present themselves to our notice, it is not

Olive Oil becomes solid

0}36
36° Sea-Water

271° strictly correct to say of any one substance, that it at

Wine. is in its natural state. What we are accustomed to Water.

32 Oil of Turpentine Milk.

30 Brine (salt one part, consider as the most natural state or form of bodies,

7 Vinegar

28 water four parts) whether it be solid, or liquid, or aëriform, is that in which we most commonly observe them, and in

There are many other liquids used in various arts, which they prove to us the most useful.

in medicine, and in chemical experiments, which The presence or absence of heat determines the require a still greater degree of cold to effect their form, and increases or diminishes the usefulness of congelation ; of these one of the most useful, and, all terrestrial objects. By the addition of heat solid at the same time, one that is commonly known, is bodies become liquid, and liquid bodies become mercury, (quicksilver,) which, although it retains its aëriform. By the abstraction of heat aëriform bodies fluidity in the severest weather ever experienced in are rendered liquid, and those bodies which we are

this country, in the more northern parts of Europe accustomed to view only as liquids become solid.

will become solid, and may be beaten into thin plates The forms and conditions of bodies are dependent, like tin. The temperature at which mercury freezes therefore, not simply upon any properties, or habits, is 39° below 0° (zero,) that is, 71° below the freezingpeculiar to the elements of which any particular sub point of water. stance may be composed, but also upon the precise

The melting-point of solid bodies is constant. By quantity of heat with which those elements may, this we mean, that each particular body invariably either permanently or temporarily, be associated. passes from the solid to the fluid state, when it has In the operations of the Divine hand there is no

attained a certain specific temperature. The following waste, either of power or of materials. We have table exhibits the melting-points of a few of the already shown* that matter may be so minutely solid bodies with which we are most familiar. divided, so extensively diffused, and so completely

Tallow melts when

when} 92

Zinc heated to

Brass

1869 changed in appearance, as to elude the most vigilant

Silver

Bees' wax (bleached). 142 search by our ordinary perceptions, but yet not a

Sulphur .
218 Copper

2548 particle is ever destroyed. This is equally true, as it Tin

Gold. respects that refined class of elements to which heat Lead

Cast iron.

3479 belongs, and among which it occupies so important a

A thermometer | supplies us with the means of station. If it be necessary to separate from an estimating comparative degrees of temperature, simply aëriform body a great portion of the heat that has by the expansibility of the fluid contained in its tube. been combined with it, before we can make it assume If the body with which we place a thermometer in the liquid form ; and, in like manner, if we must, contact, is warmer than the tube, heat is imparted of necessity, disengage from a liquid body a certain to it, and the contained fluid expands; if, on the quantity of heat before it will become solid, in both contrary, the body in contact is colder than the therthese cases the heat can be separated only on the mometer-tube, heat passes from the contained fluid, express condition of our causing, or permitting, it to and it contracts. enter into some other substance. We may be in

When thermometers are intended to indicate very strumental in producing a change of place, but we low degrees of temperature, alcohol (spirits of wine) have no power to work any other change. Thus, tinged with some kind of colouring-matter is usually amidst anceasing revolutions, and to the unpractised employed. The propriety of this will appear, when eye, apparent dilapidation and confusion, proceeds, we take into account the great degree of cold that throughout the whole domain of nature, order, and alcohol will sustain without becoming solid. It strength, and beauty.

has been exposed to a temperature equal to 1320 Almost the whole of those bodies which we deno-below the freezing-point of water, without undergoing minate liquids, may be rendered solid. There are any other change than a diminution of its bulk. only two or three exceptions, the most important of For all ordinary purposes, and especially for high which is alcohol; and it is believed, that this could degrees of temperature, mercury is better adapted be frozen, if we knew how to produce a greater than any other fluid for thermometers. It expands degree of cold than has been hitherto obtained. All

more uniformly than water or alcohol, whilst its solid bodies may be changed by heat, either to a boiling-point (6689) is much higher than any other liquid or aëriform state. The most refractory sub- body that remains Auid at the ordinary temperature stances, as limestone, chalk, and porcelain, are of the atmosphere. For estimating the sensible heat capable of fusion, whilst the diamond, which is of bodies above the temperature of boiling mercury, usually considered the hardest of all substances, the common thermometer is not available. This enters into vivid combustion at a comparatively difficult process is usually performed by noting the moderate temperature, thence constituting one of the expansion of a certain quantity of air, or, as it is elements of a gaseous body.

supposed, with greater accuracy, by measuring the The particular temperature at which liquid bodies, expansion of a bar of platinum. under ordinary circumstances, become solid, is There is this remarkable distinction between extermed the freezing point, and sometimes the point of pansion and liquefaction. The former takes place at congelation. The particular temperature at which every successive addition of heat made to a body in solid bodies become fluid † is described as the melting, its transition from the state of a solid to that of a See Saturday Magasine, Vol. V.,

fuid. Liquefaction depends solely on a solid body Fluid and liquid may be considered as synonymous terms when being heated to a particular temperature. a liquid body is described. Thus water is a Auid, and it is also a liquid Aëriform bodies are termed fluids, but it would, of course

The quantity of heat imparted to a body is not be improper to call them liquids.

See Saturday Magazine, Vol. IV., p. 11.

P. 13.

we

the only condition essential to its fluidity: it is neces chemical experiments, because they are not so liable sary that a certain quantity should be accumulated to be fractured, as more irregularly-formed vessels ; within it at the same instant of time.

but they are not absolutely necessary. When this, To this property of matter we are indebted for the

or any other particular form of apparatus, cannot be durability and usefulness of our metallic culinary easily obtained, common phial-bottles may, with vessels. Whilst they contain water there is no proper care, be made to supply their place. danger of their being melted; but when this precau Pure water, by a process somewhat similar to that tion is neglected, and copper or tin vessels are exposed we have explained, may be made to preserve its to the action of the fire, the solder by which their fluidity at a temperature equal to 27° below its ordijoints are united speedily melts, and the vessels become nary freezing-point (32°.) It is deserving of releaky, and perhaps fall to pieces.

mark, however, of water under these circumstances, The freezing-point of liquids, and the melting that the instant it begins to freeze, its temperature point of solids, is materially affected by the admix- rises from 50 to 32°, where it remains fixed, until the ture of two or more bodies of different kinds. Thus whole of the water has become solid. The ordinary water, which usually becomes ice at 32°, may, by the melting-point of tin, is 442° but it may, notwithaddition of one part of common salt to three parts standing, be cooled, by skilful management, to 438°, of water, be cooled down to 4o before it will show without solidifying. When it begins to assume the any symptoms of congelation. By a particular solid form, its temperature rises to 442°. Hence we process it is possible to reduce the temperature of learn, that the loss of sensible heat is not the sole water, of solutions of crystallizable salts, and even cause of fluid bodies becoming solid ; and that its of metals, below their ordinary points of congelation, addition is not all that is necessary to render a solid and without producing that result. It appears, that body fluid. whilst motion among the particles of bodies is one It may never fall within the compass of human preparatory condition to a change of form, something knowledge, to understand, and to explain, all the more than motion is, under particular circumstances, conditions that are essential to the successive interrequired. We will endeavour to illustrate this by an changes of which matter is susceptible ; but example.

think it will not be denied, that heat is the primary Having provided a glass vessel, with a long narrow and the most efficient agent in determining the neck, as denoted in the annexed figure,

greater part of the phenomena with which, at presay, for instance, a Florence oil-flask, we

sent, we are acquainted. Further, it may be reshould nearly fill it with boiling water,

marked, that, in some of the instances referred to in in which has been previously dissolved

the present paper, it is manifest that heat, which in as great a quantity as possible of sulphate

one case evades our most diligent search by becoming of soda* (Glauber salts), and then tie

latent, that is, concealed in any particular body, may, securely over the mouth of the flask,

by a slight modification of circumstances, be drawn, two or three folds of moistened bladder,

so to speak, from its hiding-place, and rendered so as effectually to exclude the air. The

sensible or free. height at which the liquid stands in the

Solid bodies have their melting-points altered by neck of the vessel should be denoted by a mark being mixed with others of a different kind, whether upon the glass, or it may be done more easily, by solid or fluid. Mercury is frequently adulterated by tying round it a piece of thread. Matters being lead, tin, and other cheap metals. Now, as mercury thus arranged, the liquid should be permitted to cool is a fluid metal at ordinary temperatures, we have down to the temperature of the surrounding air. here an instance of another metal (lead) whose meltWhen that is accomplished, it will be seen that the ing-point, when unalloyed, is 606°, becoming permasurface of the liquid has descended in the neck of nently fluid by being combined with mercury in the flask, denoting a diminution of its bulk. If we certain proportions. Two parts, of lead and one now ascertain as accurately as possible, by the hand, part of tin, when combined, will melt at 385°, which the comparative temperature of the flask, at the is 57° below the melting point of tin, and 221° below same time suddenly piercing the bladder, so as to that of lead, when each of these metals are in a state admit the external air, it is probable that crystalli- of purity. This mixture constitutes the solder used zation will instantly commence at the surface of the by plumbers. An alloy of three parts lead, two liquid, proceeding rapidly downwards, until the of tin, and five of bismuth, melts at 1970, which is whole has become solid. By keeping the hand upon 15° below the temperature of boiling water. Spoons the flask, we shall perceive a very considerable are made of these combined metals, which melt on increase of temperature; and by noting the mark being placed in tea, or any other liquid, at the temupon its neck, we shall also find there has been an perature already mentioned.

R. R. augmentation of bulk. Should it happen that crystallization does not commence on the admission of air, the object may generally be attained by

Y MAEN CHWYF, or ROCKING STONE, slightly agitating the liquid. If that process be IN THE VALE OF TAFF, GLAMORGANSHIRE. ineffectual, which is not very probable, a small stone, The stone here represented, known in Welsh as, a piece of metal, or a single grain of any kind of Y Maen Chwyf, (the Rocking Stone,) is situated ox: salt, dropped into the flask, will immediately produce the western brink of a hill, called Coed-pen-maen, the desired result. To render this experiment the in the parish of Eglwysilan, Glamorganshire, above more interesting, we recommend the employment of the turnpike-road from Merthyr to Cardiff, and two glass vessels, both of which should be filled nearly equidistant from both towns. From this spot with the solution ; but whilst one is subjected to the

may be seen the celebrated one-arched bridge over treatment just' described, the other should be left

the Taff, near Newbridge, and fine views of several open to the influence of the atmosphere.

ramifications of the neighbouring hills and valleys. Flasks, as indicated by the figure, are the most The romantic vale of Rhondda extends -to the west, convenient vessels for containing hot liquids in

and a little nearer we have the salmon-leap, and fall * In chemical language, a saturated socution : that is, the boiling of the Taff under Craig-yr-hesg; to the north-west, water is filled with the salt; it will dissolve no more of it,

the equally beautiful vale of Cynon meets the eye,

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ROCKING STONE IN THE VALE OP TAFF, GLAMORGANSHIRE. and the rugged chain of mountains which divide that the Supreme Seat,) &c., frequently occur. These valley from the upper portion of the vale of Taff, were the central stones, encompassed by circles of and from the parish of Merthyr-Tydvil, the great stones at various distances, that constituted the mctropolis of British iron-works. To the south- Druidic temples, where worship in the face of the Sun east, the woods which fringe the Taff in its course was solemnized, institutional instruction imparted, and towards Cardiff, add to the varied beauty of the bardic graduations and inaugurations solemnized. scene; nor is it quite uninteresting to the tourist to That the Maen-chwyf and Cromlech, such as Kit's learn, that just at the foot of the abrupt declivity of Coity House, near Aylesford, &c., were used for this hill, he will be well accommodated at the Bridge- such central seats, cannot be reasonably doubted. water Arms, a comfortable Inn, situated in the midst Several Bardic congresses have recently been held of most enchanting scenery.

at this stone. The late distinguished Druid-Bard, The name of the hill, Coed-pen-maen, (viz. the and profound Welsh antiquary, Iolo-Morganwg, Wood of the Stone Summit,) is, doubtless, derived (Edward Williams, of Glamorganshire,) presided from this stone, which, in primitive ages, under the there in 1815, at the conclusion of the late war, and Druidic theology, was venerated as the sacred altar once or twice subsequently. on which the Druids offered," in the face of the sun, and The last Gorsedd held there took place on Monday, in the eye of light," their orisons to the Great Creator. September 22, 1834, (the 21st, the exact time of the

The ground immediately around the stone is at autumnal equinox, and one of the four annual bardic present a bare sheep-walk, but the higher ground to festivals, having fallen on a Sunday. This Gorsedd the east is still covered with wood. The superficial would have taken place at the period of the Grand contents of this stone are about 100 square feet, its Royal Eisteddfod, held the preceding month at thickness varying from two to three feet; it contains Cardiff, but that the indispensable notice of a year about 250 cubic feet. It is a sort of rough argillaceous and a day had not expired from its first announcesand-stone, which generally accompanies the coal- ment. At this Gorsedd, Taliesin ab Iolo Morganwg, mcasures of this part of the country. A moderate (son of the above-named Iolo Morganwg,) who application of strength will give it considerable gained the chair-medal at that Eisteddfod, as well as motion, which may be easily continued with one the beautiful medal given by the Princess Victoria hand. The under-side slopes around towards the and the Duchess of Kent, presided, having opened centre, or pivot, and it stands nearly in equilibrium it with the very ancient Welsh proclamation usual ou a rock beneath, the circumstance which imparts on such occasions. At the close of this Gorsedd, to it its facility of motion.

the assembly adjourned to the house of Gwilym The prevalent opinion of the surrounding inha- Morganwg, (Thomas Williams,) this person, and bitants respecting this ancient stone is, that the Taliesin Williams, (Ab Iolo,) are the only two Welsh * Druids imposed on the credulity of the country by bards regularly initiated into the arcana of Druidism pretending to work miracles from it, and that they now existing, at Newbridge, where an Eisteddfod offered human sacrifices thereon ; vulgar errors that was held, to adjudicate the prize for the best Welsh are not sustained by the most distant allusion of the Ode in honour of the Rev. William Bruce, Knight, primitive British bards and historians.

Chancellor of the Diocese of Llandaff, and Senior The Maen-Chwyf (Rocking-Stone,) is rarely, men- Judge of the Cardiff Eisteddfod. tioned by ancient Welsh authors, but the Maen-Llog * (Stone of Benefit), and Maen-Gorsedd (Stone of

LONDON

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. • From this British word Llog is derived the term Logging

PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY PARTS

FRICX SIXPENCE, AND stone, given to the same description of piled stone in Cornwall.

Sold by all Booksellers and Newsverders in the Kingdom,

THE

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No 164.

MITTE

JANUARY

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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

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