Imágenes de páginas

THE CATHEDRAL OF AUXERRE. S. Peregrinus, or as the French call him, S. Pélérin, AUXERRE is a city of France, situated at a distance which we may render “St. Pilgrim." He was sent from of rather more than a hundred miles to the south Rome by Pope Sixtus the Second, at the request of east of Paris. It is now the capital of the Depart. a few Christians of Auxerre, who, seeing that the ment of the Yonne;—formerly it was the chief town people around them were deeply sunk in the darkness of the district known by the name of the Auxerrois, of paganism, were desirous to obtain the presence of or County of Auxerre, which was included in the some one who might effect their conversion. The province or duchy of Burgundy. The place is of eloquence of the missionary, and the goodness of his considerable antiquity: it is repeatedly spoken of cause, procured him success; at his persuasion, the during the latter ages of the Roman Empire, under a pagans on the borders of the Yonne renounced their great many different names. Autissiodurum, Au- cherished idols, and embraced the Christian faith. tissiodorum, and Autosidorum, are three varieties; The bishop then built a small church on the banks of and if any one of our readers should wish for more, the river ; but soon afterwards, while upon a mission he will find eleven others enumerated by Moreri to a neighbouring district, he was seized, and put to in his Grand Dictionnaire. This many-named town death. About a century afterwards, the original was originally in the territory of the people called church was found too small for the constantly inSenones, who occupied the country of which Sens creasing number of the Christians; and St. Amatre, is now the capital; but under one of the Roman the fifth bishop of the see, established one more comemperors, it was erected into a city, with a pagus, or modious within the walls of Auxerre. This was the district, of its own.

first Christian temple that is known to have been | After the fall of the empire, Auxerre passed into built in that town. the hands of the Franks; and under the early kings At different times subsequent to the period of its of France, it belonged, together with the county, to erection, the edifice underwent various alterations the bishops of Auxerre. They bestowed it, subject and restorations, being enlarged, and enriched with to certain conditions, on the counts of Nevers or presents of considerable value, by the respective Nivernois, who sold it, with the county, to the crown prelates who held the see; but in the ninth century of France in the latter half of the fourteenth century, it was burnt down. It was quickly rebuilt, however, for 30,000 golden francs. About sixty years after- and in 932 again reconstructed, for the first time in wards, it was again alienated from the royal do the form of a cross, by the then bishop, who bestowed minions, being given up by Charles the Seventh, to a number of rich gifts on his new cathedral, and the Duke of Burgundy, for the purpose of detaching was the first to be buried within its walls. But the him from the alliance which he had formed with the edifice which his piety had raised was doomed to a English, during the reign of our Henry the Sixth; very short existence, for in the year 1030, before a but Charles's crafty son, the politic Louis the Eleventh, hundred years had elapsed since its erection, it was quickly recovered possession of it, when the death demolished by fire. Fortunately, the prelate who of his hot-headed and formidable rival, the bold Duke then occupied the see of Auxerre, was equally zealous of Burgundy, left him at liberty to pursue his with his predecessor of the former century; and the favourite project of reducing the power of his vassals. church was soon rebuilt : it was constructed of freeFrom this time forward it remained annexed to the stone; and on this occasion were built the fine crypts territory of the crown; the bishops, its original which remain to the present day. owners, retaining some slight marks of their former The duration of this edifice was not more extended sovereignty. Of course these relics of feudality, like than that of its predecessors, notwithstanding its all others, were abolished at the revolution. While superior solidity; at the beginning of the thirteenth under the dominion of these various masters, Auxerre century it was in a state of considerable decay. The underwent the usual vicissitudes of an ancient Euro reigning bishop, William of Seignelay, undertook the pean city. It suffered considerably in the fifth task of rebuilding it; he began the work in the year century, when Attila, with his Huns, penetrated into 1213, and died shortly afterwards. Succeeding pre

he heart of Gaul: “ the Scourge of God," as the lates brought the cathedral to its present state; but barbarian called himself, captured the city, and nearly even now it is unfinished, having remained in the reduced it to ruins. The Normans scarcely treated it same state since the middle of the sixteenth century, better; and in 732, the Saracens pillaged it completely. when France was so strongly convulsed with the wars In subsequent times, it bore its full share of the misery of the League, and with religious troubles. The great which the frequent domestic disputes of France brought portal is incomplete, and but one of the towers is upon the whole kingdom; during the sixteenth cen- finished; " its elegant appearance," say the French, tury in particular, it felt deeply the injurious conse- justly “ makes us the more regret the absence of its quences of the religious wars which then raged. fellow, and the irregularity thereby produced." The modern city of Auxerre is described as “

a fine

An inspection of the engraving contained in the old town, but dirty, and with narrow crooked streets.” preceding page, will enable our readers to form a It is built on the side of a hill, upon the left or more accurate idea of the external appearance of western bank of the river Yonne, which gives its this cathedral, than any detailed description could name to the department; its situation is remarkably convey. The front there shown is the western or fine, and the air pure. Perhaps the town itself is principal one; and the general arrangement of its hardly worthy of the spot on which it stands. “ The parts is the same as in other cathedrals which we surrounding country," says a French writer, “is deli- have already described. The interior is regular and cious; but the interior of the city is disagreeable. It pleasing; the nave, however, is somewhat narrow. possesses only two public squares,—both very small, The circumstance of the edifice being built on the and but one street which is worthy of mention. Its side of a hill, occasions some irregularity in the level churches constitute the whole of its attraction; and of its floor; a descent of six steps leads into the the episcopal palace is its only remarkable monument; nave, and another of two leads from the nave into -it is the finest episcopal edifice in France.”

the choir. The rose-windows of this cathedral are The origin of the bishopric of Auxerre is referred the principal decoration of its interior ; those of the to a very ancient date,-so early indeed as the third transept are fine, though not in the best possible state century. The first prelate who occupied the see, was of preservation,

The situation of Auxerre is extremely favourable

THE SEA. for commerce; its position on the Yonne, which joins the Seine, enables it to enjoy all the advantages On the surface of this globe, there is no where to be of an easy water--communication with Paris. Never- found so inhospitable a desert as the 'wide blue sea.' theless, the inhabitants do not appear to have availed At any distance from land there is nothing in it for themselves of the facilities which are at their com man to eat; nothing in it that he can drink. His mand ; except in the article of wine there is little tiny foot no sooner rests upon it, than he sinks into trade. “ The wine-merchants,” says Mr. J. M. his grave; it grows neither , flowers nor fruits; it Cobbett, are of two sorts; the one buys the wine offers monotony to the mind, restless motion to the of the presser just as it is squeezed out of the grape, body; and when, besides all this, one reflects that it pays for it, and sends it to Paris ; the other comes is to the most fickle of the elements, the wind, that riding through the country amongst the owners of vessels of all sizes are to supplicate for assistance in vineyards, getting them to send their wine to Paris, sailing in every direction to their various destinations, there to be sold for them on commission, and between it would almost seem that the ocean was divested of the two sorts of merchants, the poor needy vine- charms, and armed with storms, to prevent our being grower doubtless suffers. I was greatly amused in persuaded to enter its dominions. hearing the conversations between the vine-growers But though the situation of a vessel in a heavy and the merchants; the latter, a crafty set of men, gale of wind appears indescribably terrific, yet, practaking advantage of every circumstance within their tically speaking, its security is so great, that it is knowledge to persuade the poor grower out of his truly said ships seldom or ever founder in deep water, own, and the latter pleading excessive poverty, and except from accident or inattention.

How ships ignorance greater probably than was his, to entice the manage to get across that still region, that ideal line, notice of both sorts of merchants, and drive the best which separates the opposite trade-winds of each bargain he could between them.

hemisphere; how a small box of men manage un“The wine of Auxerre is very famous ; its general | labelled to be buffeted for months up one side of a name is petit vin d'Auxerre (small wine of Auxerre); wave and down that of another; how they ever get but there are two or three spots of the country near out of the abysses into which they sink; and how, here, that are famous above the rest of the country after such pitching and tossing, they reach in safety for their produce. The white wine, called Chablis, is the very harbour in their native country from which grown at a small village, Chablis,) at about two they originally departed, can and ought only to be leagues from Auxerre; and there are, close to the accounted for, by acknowledging how truly it has town the two Côtes, la Chenette and la Migrène, which been written, “ that the Spirit of God moves upon are both of them famous for their red wine. I the face of the waters." observed that all the vineyards between Fontaine It is not, therefore, from the ocean itself that man bleau and Paris were on the southern sides of has so much to fear; the earth and the water each hills; and here I find, that frequently spots of afford to man a life of considerable security, yet excellently well-adapted land for the plant, are not there exists between these two elements an everlasting planted with vines, because they are not 'high war, into which no passing vessel can enter with imenough. And whenever you hear of a good wine, punity; for of all the terrors of this world, there is it grows on a côte, or side of a hill. These surely no one greater than that of being on a leecôtes are particularly attended to, I see, by the shore in a gale of wind, and in shallow water. On wine-merchants, who go and place themselves on this account, it is natural enough that the fear of the spot, see the crop, see it gathered and put into land is as strong in the sailor's heart as is his attachthe tubs by the road-side see it pressed, and then ment to it; and when, homeward bound, he day immediately send it off to Paris ; and this, they say, after day approaches his own latitude, his love and is the only way to be sure of getting pure wine, his fear of his native shores increase as the distance because the moment it gets into the hands of the between them diminishes. Two fates, the most country wine-merchants they begin to mix it with opposite in their extremes, are shortly to await him. their old stock, or with the strong wine of the south, The sailor-boy fancifully pictures to himself that in in order to make more Burgundy." This explains a few short hours he will be once again nestling in how it is that wines, of very scanty growth in France, his mother's arms. The able seaman better knows are rendered so very plentiful in the cellars of the that it may be decreed for him, as it has been decreed innkeepers ; the Côte de la Migrène yields scarcely for thousands, that in gaining his point he shall lose more than 400 dozen bottles of its peculiar wine, its object—that England, with all its virtue, may

fade and yet few inns in France would confess to being before his eyes, and, without a very good supply of it."

While he sinks without an arm to save,

His country blooms, a garden and a grave! That knowledge is advanced by an intercourse of senti

[QUARTERLY Review.] ments, and an exchange of observations, and that the bosom is disburdened, by a communication of its cares, is too well known for proof or illustration. In solitude, perplexity swells into distraction, and grief settles into melan- The world has nothing solid, nothing durable; it is only choly; even the satisfactions and pleasures that may by a fashion, and a fashion which passeth away. The tenchance be found, are imperfectly enjoyed, when they are derest friendships end. Honours are specious titles, which enjoyed without participation.—Dr. Johnson.

time effaces. Pleasures are amusements, which leave only

a lasting and painful repentance. Riches are torn from us DISCRETION. -There are many more shining qualities in by the violence of men, or escape us by their own insta the mind of man, but there is none more useful than dis- bility. Grandeurs moulder away of themselves. Glory and cretion; it is this, indeed, which gives a value to all the reputation at length lose themselves in the abysses of an rest, which sets them at work in their proper times and eternal oblivion. So rolls the torrent of this world, whatplaces, and turns them to the advantage of the person who ever pains are taken to stop it. Everything is carried away is possessed of them. Without it, learning is pedantry, and by a rapid train of passing moments; and by continual wit impertinence; virtue itself looks like weakness; the revolutions we arrive, frequently without thinking of it, at best parts only qualify a man to be more sprightly in his that fatal point, where time finishes, and eternity begins. errors, and active to his own prejudice.--ADDISON.




ground, on a platform of beams, supported by stone posts, II.

made with a cap at the top, projecting all round, to prevent

the animals from climbing up them. Both hay and corn GATHERING AND PRESERVATION OF CROPS.-CAUSES OF

stacks are generally thatched to keep off the rain. FERTILITY IN THE EARTH.-VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. Potatoes are stored in pits dug in the ground, kept Grass, barley, oats, rye, peas, &c., are generally cut dry and cool by proper draining; but there is so much down by a scythe, the operation being termed mowing.

variety in the modes of storing crops which are to be This is regarded as the hardest of all agricultural labour; speedily used, that it would be useless to go into the details the weight of the scythe, acting on a long lever, the stoop

of them. ing position, and the motion backwards and forwards from right to left, calling nearly all the muscles of the body and limbs into strong action. This, too, has generally to be

The fertility of the earth is somewhat diminished by performed under a cloudless sky, and in the hottest months

every crop that grows upon it. Formerly it was thought of the year.

necessary to leave portions of the land, in succession, uncultivated for one year, to allow it to recruit its exhausted properties by a season of rest; this was called suffering it to lie fallow. Modern science has, however, shown that, besides the loss of produce occasioned by this practice, it is not only unnecessary, but often injurious; and that the object in view is better attained by judicious MANURING, and by that greatest of all improvements in agriculture, the proper succession, or Rotation of Crops.

Every genus of plants requires, for its perfect growth and fruitfulness, some particular chemical principle to be derived from the soil; hence, the land, when it has supplied to a crop raised upon it all that it possessed of that necessary principle, is no longer capable of nourishing the same plant, but, as far as regards that particular genus, becomes barren. With the aid of tillage, however, it is perfectly capable of nourishing some other kind of crop, which requires a different food from the soil.

The laws of vegetable physiology are, as yet, too little MOWING.

known to allow us to explain exactly, what the earth does Wheat, beans, &c., are reaped by means of sickles, towards nourishing vegetation, but the above fact being which are of two kinds; one has its edge cut into fine established by observation, experience alone could inform teeth like a saw, and is called the sickle-hook. In using us what plants might succeed each other, and flourish on this tool, the labourer takes a handful of the corn in his the same spot of ground. Of the various series thus found left hand, and cuts through the stalks or straw by a pecu to answer, these are selected and employed which are also liar motion of the instrument in his right hand. The other consistent with the more immediate objects of agriculture, kind of tool has a smooth edge like the scythe, and is called and these series are again limited, by reference to the the cutting-hook. In some places another hook is used in practical mode in which the farming-operations are to be the left hand, to collect the stalks together, ready to be cut

carried on. with the sickle.

Although the earth, by a succession of crops, can be constantly active in their production, yet, as has been mentioned, it is necessary to restore to the soil, by the application of manure, certain principles which are required by all vegetation. One of the most essential components of manure is animal matter, and the cheapest and best form in which this can be applied is dung; to collect this in sufficient quantities, and in an easy mode, cattle must be fed in yards and stables, and to do this requires a store of fodder. Hence we see the necessity for raising extensive crops for the express purpose of feeding cattle, and these crops are so arranged as to constitute one of the series above alluded to.

Besides the turnip-crop already mentioned, as being devoted to this purpose grasses, lucerne, clover, saintfoin, beans, &c., are raised for cattle. This variety, with the addition of other crops required for the use of man, as well as for the food of animals, and for certain uses in the arts, admits of different rotations, adapted to every variety of soil, locality, climate, and to every other circumstance influencing the agriculture of a country.

When a crop is raised for its seed, the earth is far more exhausted than by one, the leaves or roots of which only

are wanted, and which is, therefore, gathered before the There are machines made for both reaping and mowing, fruit begins to ripen: hence all grain-crops, peas, beans, but they are far from being generally employed. When &c., &c., require a greater supply of manure to recruit the scythe is used to cut any kind of corn, a cradle of the soil, than turnips, or the artificial grasses, as clover, wicker-work is often fixed at ihe end, which receives the lucerne, &c plant as it falls, and prevents the grain from being scattered on the ground.

PLANTS AND THEIR PRODUCTS CONSTITUTING A PRINThe crops are stored in various ways; hay and clover,

CIPAL PORTION OF OUR FOOD. after the plants are dried thoroughly by exposure on the

1. WHEAT. earth to the sun, are made up into large stacks. It is the turning over of these grasses, so as to expose them as Man derives by far the greatest portion of his vegetable much as possible to the air, that constitutes hay-making. food from one natural family, or order, of plants; namely, This operation is indispensable; for if the hay were put up the Grasses,—an order equally well defined by its obvious while damp, or with too much sap in it, fermentation would as by its botanical characters. It is the seed only of the ensue, by which so much heat is produced as to spoil the plant which is used, and of the different species cultivated crop, and often set the stack on fire.

for food, that called Wheat is most generally diffused in Corn is either stored in barns or granaries, or else made all the northern temperate climates of the globe. The up into stacks, called ricks; but, in order to preserve these culture of these plants is so ancient, that its history from the depredations of rats, mice, and other vermin, it constitutes a legend of the earliest mythology of the is necessary that the ricks should be raised above the nation first civilized in Europe, -Greece: it may, indeed,




almost be regarded as the indication of advancing civilization, when a nation begins to raise wheat for food, and accordingly its culture spreads more and more in every part of the globe.

There are two varieties of wheat cultivated in Great Britain, -the winter, or common, and the spring wheat; but the first is the most general, and to that we shall confine our notice. The soils best adapted to the cultivation of this grain are loam and rich clay, but by the improved state of agriculture now attained in this country, wheat, by means of judicious rotations, may be, and is, raised on most soils. The seed is generally drill-sown in September or October, and the harvest is reaped in the following August. Under certain circumstances, however, the time of sowing varies from those months, to February, March, or even April.

In this country there is always a store of grain in hand, for present use, sufficient to obviate the necessity of having

(JWC immediate recourse to the new harvest. Under proper management, wheat will keep for several years without losing its qualities, but it is better when consumed within a twelvemonih from the time of its being cut.

The fruit of the plant, properly speaking, is borne in a spike called an ear, thickly set, on the top of the stalk; and the seed constitutes the greater part of each separate fruit. The first operation to which the plant is subjected, is THRESHING, the object of which is to beat out the grain, or fruit, from the ear. Threshing is still performed by means of an instrument called a flail. This consists of a straight handle, about four or five feet long, to one end of which a short thick stick, of tough wood, is attached by leathern straps, forming a kind of hinge. In wielding the flail, the labourer, by a peculiar motion, causes the short stick to fall flat on the pile of grain which is spread out on the ground before him, and by repeated blows, he detaches the fruit from the withered flower, or husk, which remains adhering to the stem or straw. Threshing is also performed on most large and well-cultivated farms, by machines, of which there are several kinds. The employment of threshing-machines, as of machinery in general, saves labour, and time, and does the work more effectually, than it can be done by hand-labour. In time, they will, no doubt, supersede the flail, as certainly as the corn-mill has superseded the hand-mill for grinding tour


is to separate the fruit from the liusk and chaff, which the threshing has mingled up with it. Formerly corn was win- corn so as to make it fit for grinding; this is performed in a nowed by throwing up shovels-full against the wind, on a

kiln, the grain being laid on a tile floor, perforated with windy day; the heavier, solid, grain fell on the ground, small holes, which allow the hot air from a fire beneath to while the lighter chaff was blown back, and separated from penetrate through the layer of corn, and to dry it sufficiently. it. The object of the machines which have supplanted this The tiles being very slow conductors of heat, the grain is rude and imperfect contrivance, is to effect the separation not at all scorched in the process. When it has been either by turning the corn quickly round in cylindrical sufficiently dried, the grain is removed to lofts to cool and sieves, which admit of the heavy car, acted on by centri- mellow, which takes about five or six days. fugal force, escaping through the meshes while the light all dirt, earth, &c., which may have become mixed with it.

The next process is cleaning the corn, or freeing it from chaff is retained, or else to cause an artificial current of air

, The machine to effect this is a cylinder, composed of ironby means of fans, in an enclosed space, which prevents loss wire net, the meshes being wide enough to admit of the or waste. When the fruit, or grain as it is called, is separated from between them. This separator, as it is called, is commonly

smallest grains, small gravel, and dust, falling through the chaff, it is put in sacks to be sent to the mill, there to placed beneath the loft-floor on which the grain has cooled, be ground. The exterior of a WIND-MILL is familiar to most persons, and water-mills are common on small rivers,

so that this can be let down into the cylinder at once, and running streams. Whether the moving force be wind

through trap-doors. The cylinder is made to revolve or water, it is employed for the purpose of turning

round rapidly, the motion sifting the corn, and freeing it from the horizontally, by means of an upright axle, a thick, flat, cir- smaller extraneous matters, while the larger are afterwards cular stone, over another equal and similar stone, which is

separated by hand. fixed beneath it. The surfaces of the two stones which are double cylinder of iron-plate, punched full of small holes,

From the separator, the grain is transferred to another next each other, are cut into shallow furrows, in such directions, as may create by the moving round of the upper the corn, by being turned round, and shaken between the

so that the inner surfaces are rough, like a nutmeg-grater, stone, over the fixed one below it, the greatest quantity two surfaces of the cylinders, is freed froin the hairiness of rubbing and grinding motion. The two surfaces do not which reinains at one end of each grain, consisting of the touch each other, and the small distance which is left between the stones, is adjustable at pleasure, according to points of the floral envelopes of the fruit in a withered the nature of the grain : the nearer the stones work it is ready for grinding, and this is performed in a long

state. But the grain yet requires another sifting, before together, the finer will be the flour into which the grain is ground. The fans of the wind-mill, or the wheel of the This sieve is made to move backwards and forwards, and

square chest, the bottom of which is formed of wire-gauze. water-mill, which cause the mill-stone to revolve, also by means of intermediate wheels, give motion to other parts of to shake the grain well, while four broad, light fans, revolve the machine intended to effect the several operations which about ; c is a funnel-pipe, through which the four passes down the grain has to go through, to prepare it for grinding t. into the bin p; B is the hopper, into which the corn is put, and

whence it flows gradually between the stones through a hole at the See Saturday Magazine, Vol. I., p. 65.

top of A; to proinote this passage of the grain, a jogging motion is + In the figure, the two sides and half the roof of an ordinary given to the hopper by a simple contrivance; this causes the wind-taill are supposed to be removed, to allow of the interior clacking of the mill, one of those sounds which has ever delighted being scen; every part is omitted but what is immediately neces the ears of lovers of nature and of poets; the large wheel F, on the sary to the grinding :-a is a sort of tub, enclosing the mill-stones, axle of the fans, turns the lantern-pinion g on that of the stones, by which case the flour is preserved from being wasted and scattered and gives the upper onę its rotatory motion.




rapidly, and excite a current of air, strong enough to carry CONVERSION OF EDWIN, THE PAGAN off the dust or bran rubbed off in the sieve. This operation

NORTHUMBRIA, TO CHRISTIANITY. is, in fact, a second winnowing. The corn, when thus completely cleaned by these three processes, is let into the Edwin, having succeeded to the Northumbrian hopper.

throne when hardly out of his cradle, was quickly The meal, in the state in which it comes from the mill- set aside, and then stealthily conveyed away. Ethelstones, consists of the true flour, or farina, of the seed, frid, who had usurped his crown, sent emissaries mingled with the broken husk, or bran, which is the fruit of after him into every corner of the island where he the wheat, a thin double skin closely adhering to the seed, and only separable from it by grinding. These skins are

took temporary shelter. At length he found prorough and harsh, and would impart a disagreeable tlavour tection at the court of Redwald, King of East Anglia. to bread.

This prince, being assiduously plied by Ethelfrid The process of boulting, or of separating the bran from with promises and menaces, began to waver. A the flour, is performed by putting the meal into another friend of Edwin was informed of this, and advised kind of sieve, which is either a light wooden frame, over

instant flight. The royal youth had just retired to which canvass, or coarse muslin, is strained, and made to revolve rapidly, so as to sift the fine impalpable flour, and rest, but he hastily left his chamber, and withdrew retain the bran, or, as is done in the more improved mills, | beyond the dwelling, distracted by anxious apprea cylindrical hair-brush, like a bottle-brush, is made to hension. He had already wandered over most of revolve rapidly in a wire-gauze cylinder, the surface of England, in quest of safety, and he was now utterly which the wire just touches. The meal in the cylinder is at a loss to see any further hope. As night wore driven out through the meshes, by the motion of the brush, away, he probably sank into an agitated slumber. A and the bran, together with the coarsely-ground particles majestic personage now roused attention, whose of flour, are retained. This coarse meal is re-ground, and again boulted, yielding a second quality of flour, and what countenance and dress were wholly new. Edwin remains after this second process is ground a third time, strained his eyes in agony. Wherefore," said his affording a third inferior kind of flour, in which there is unknown visiter, “sit you mourning here, while much of the skin above mentioned. What remains in the other mortals quietly repose?" He was answered, boulting-cylinder after this third process is BRAN. This is “ It can be no concern of yours, whether I spend the used for various purposes, such as stuffing cushions, clean- night abroad, or on my couch.” The figure said: ing various kinds of metal articles, &c.

“Do not think me unaware of your distress. I

know it all. What will you give me, then, to set When a distinguished English nobleman, who has lately your heart at ease, and make Redwald spurn every succeeded to the title and large estates possessed by his overture of your enemy?" Edwin eagerly promised father, was a boy, he generally spent the whole of the any thing that ever might be in his power. “Again, pocket-money allowed him as rapidly as most boys do. what would you give,” the stranger added, “if I One day he asked a confidential servant of the family to should enable you, not only to trample on your foes, lend him some money: The man, thinking it improper to but also to outstrip the power of every neighbouring advance the money without the knowledge of the earl, his father, evaded, by some excuse, immediate compliance with

king?" Edwin pledged himself, if possible, more the youth's request, and acquainted his lordship with the largely than before. He was then asked: “ Should circumstance. The earl questioned the servant respecting he who cheers you thus with unexpected hopes, be the manner in which his son spent the very liberal sum found quite equal to crown them with success, would that was allowed him; and though he was not able to you take hereafter his advice, if he should recommend obtain satisfactory information on the subject, he authorized him to lend his son the money required, if he would tell family, yet far more excellent?” This, also, met with

a course of life different from any followed in your him (the lender) what he wanted it for. When the young lord heard the terms on which the servant offered to lend a hearty affirmative reply. “When this signal shall him the money, he was very unwilling to agree to them; be repeated, remember, then, your pledge.As these and no sooner was it in his possession than he hastened to words were spoken, the figure pressed his right hand a mercer's, and laid out the whole sum in blankets and solemnly on Edwin's head, and immediately disflannels, which were distributed among a number of poor appeared. After a short interval, the young Norwomen, whom his lordship said he had observed scantily thumbrian saw that kind friend approach, whose clothed abroad, and without covering at home, during the severest season of the year. It was then ascertained by warning had aroused him from his bed. Now he the servant that this had been the way in which the bene- was, however, told that Redwald, influenced by the volent youth had been in the habit of spending his allow- queen, had not only given up every thought of beance; but, when his father heard of it, his son's means traying him to Ethelfrid, but was even ready to of doing good to his fellow-creatures were no longer limited furnish him with troops, for driving that usurper to the compass of a boy's pocket-money.

from his throne. He did aid him thus, and Edwin

regained his patrimonial sovereignty. COWPER, the poet, in his memoirs of his early life, gives

After his triumphant return from taking vengeance an affecting instance of the benefit frequently derived from the recollection of some consolatory text of Scripture. It upon Quichelm, king of the West Saxons, Paulinus * occurred while he was at a public school.

My chief

desired an interview. In this, he slowly raised his aflliction," he says "consisted in my being singled out from right hand, and pressed it earnestly upon the royal all the other boys by a lad about fifteen years of age as a head. Edwin started, and trembled violently. “You proper object upon whom he might let loose the cruelty of know this signal,” the Italian said; "you know it to his temper. One day, as I was sitting alone upon a bench have been originally given by one whose words have in the school, melancholy, and almost ready to weep at most exactly been fulfilled. Remember, then, your the recollection of what I had already suffered, and expecting at the same time my tormentor every moment,

Edwin fell at the missionary's feet, and these words of the Psalmist came into my mind ; " I will earnestly inquired his meaning. “ By God's mercy," not be afraid of what man can do unto me." I applied Paulinus added, “when even hope had fled, your life this to my own case, with a degree of trust and confidence was saved. By the same mercy you have wonderfully in God that would have been no disgrace to a much more prevailed over all your enemies, and regained your experienced Christian. Instantly I perceived in myself a briskness of spirit and a cheerfulness, which I had never paternal throne. A third, and a greater instance of before experienced, and took several paces up and down his mercy, yet awaits acceptance. Redeem your pledge, the room with joyful alacrityHis gift in whoin I trusted. and the God, who has led you through so many Happy would it have been for me, if this early effort dangers, to gain and to secure an earthly throne, will towards the blessed God had been frequently repeated by * An Italian, resident at the court of the queen, and who had me !"

come to England as a Christian missionary.


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