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THE PHYSALIA, OR PORTUGUESE MAN these seem to consist of a chain of globules, filled with OF WAR. (Physalia pelagica.)

an extremely acrid fluid; in colour, a beautiful purple, The Physalia is one of those singular inhabitants of with an admixture of crimson. Mr. Bennet, in his the deep which delight us by their beautiful colours, Polynesian Wanderings, relates the effects of its sting. and by their phosphorescent light, and astonish the “I was desirous of trying its effects on myself, for incautious observer by their power of stinging or the purpose of ascertaining from personal experience, benumbing the hand when touched. We have already, the constitutional irritative effects resulting from it.

On taking hold of the animal, it raised its tentacula, and stung me on the second and ring fingers: the sensation was similar at first to that produced by the nettle, and before a few minutes had elapsed, a violent aching pain succeeded, affecting more severely the joints of the fingers; on cold water being applied, it was found rather to increase than diminish the effects. In a quarter of an hour, the fore-arm and elbow were severely affected; till at length it became almost unbearable, and gradually extended itself to the shoulder and chest, and impeded the breathing. These symptoms continued for about half an hour, when they gradually abated; but the arm was benumbed for the remainder of the day.”

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FILIAL AFFECTION OF THE CHINESE. The Chinese are remarkable for the extraordinary respect which they pay to their parents. If it even be true, as some writers assert, that with these people filial reverence is not so much a moral feeling as a precept which in the course of time has acquired all the force of a positive law, and that filial piety exists rather in the maxims of the government than in the hearts of the subjects, still it wears an appearance of a virtue, that demands admiration. The Chinese writers have carefully recorded a great number of remarkable instances of filial piety.

A boy, eight years of age, gave a very affecting proof of affection for his parents. They were so poor, that they could not afford to procure a kind of curtain, which is commonly used in the hot countries of the east to defend persons in bed from troublesome insects, called mosquitoes, and which is thence named a mosquito-curtain. The poor boy strove in various ways to protect his parents from the painful bites of these insects, but in vain. At length, he hit upon a contrivance, which shows that no sacrifice is too

great for real affection. When his parents had retired in describing the phosphorescence of the sea*, to rest, he seated himself by their bed, stripped off his noticed several curious creatures which have some clothes to the waist, and suffered the mosquitoes to settle resemblance to the Physalia.

upon him, without driving them away.

" When they The species représented above are common in have filled themselves with

my blood," said he, “ they wiil

not disturb'my parents." most of the seas of the hot climates of the world,

But the duties of children towards their parents are not are well known to the mariners of most nations, and limited to the duration of the lives of the latter. During have received many uncommon names, Portuguese the period of mourning for them, which is twenty-seven men-of-war, Guinea-ships, frigates, sea-bladders, &c., months, public officers are not allowed to perform any from their fancied resemblance, when floating on the kind of business. It is not uncommon for a family to surface, to vessels in full sail. When first taken out

expend the whole of the property left behind by a parent of the water, the Physalia excites the admiration of to bury a father in a respectable manner, they will keep his

on his funeral; and when children are not in circumstances the spectators, by the elegant and vivid colours with coffin for several years. These observations will serve to which it is adorned. These tints, however, are as illustrate the following narrative. evanescent as they are brilliant; and soon after this A man, having been apprehended on a charge of having animal is taken from its native element, the crest

committed an offence against the state, escaped from the sinks; the bright crimson, green, and purple tints, custody of his guards, and sought refuge with his friend lose their brilliancy; and the beauty which had pre

Loo-nan-kin. His retreat was discovered. Loo-nan-kin viously excited so much admiration, fades; and at

was imprisoned, and preparations were making for his

trial, when the younger brother came forward." It is I last totally vanishes. The upper part of the animal, who harboured the fugitive," said he,“ of course I ought when floating, is surmounted with a kind of crest or to die, and not my brother." Loo-nan-kin, on the other ridge, formed by a membranous bag, 'which, it is hand, declared that he alone was guilty, and that his said, the animal has the power of inflating at brother had falsely accused himself. The judge crosspleasure; but this is disputed by a recent observer. questioned the young man with such skill,

as to involve him This bag or crest is fringed round the edges, and imposture. . " Alas !" said he. “ I had strong reasons for

in contradictions, and he was at length obliged to confess the is of a beautiful light-blue colour, with occasional acting thus : it is a long time since our mother died, and streaks of a delicate sea-green, tinged with crimson. we have not yet been able to pay her the duties of sepulThe power it possesses of benumbing, when touched, ture. We have, moreover, a sister unmarried. My elder appears to reside in its tentacula, or feelers, a large brother alone has it in his power to provide for these exibunch of which are attached to the undermost part gencies ; so that it were better for me to die in his stead. of its body, some short and thick, others long and judge was deeply affected: he reported this instance of

I conjure you, therefore, to receive my evidence." The threadlike, and extending to several yards in length; filial piety and brotherly love to the supreme tribunal, and • See Saturday Magasine, Vol. V., p. 204.

the emperor pardoned the culprit.


to that just mentioned be adopted, muriatic acid The compound known familiarly by the name of (spirit of salt) being substituted for sulphuric, the volatile or smelling-salts, is designated in chemical product will be muriate of ammonia (sal ammoniac,) language carbonate of ammonia.

and that is the most useful form in which ammonia, Ammonia belongs to a class of bodies termed as an article of commerce, can be prepared. This salt alkaline, and it is further distinguished from others is, like the former, wholly without any kind of odour, of the same class by its volatility *; hence it is

It now remains for us to say something of those denominated the volatile alkali. The purest and most preparations of ammonia which are used chiefly on simple form in which ammonia can be prepared is account of the agreeable odour by which they are that of an aëriform, that is, a gaseous t body; ex. distinguished. And first of all we may illustrate, by hibiting properties common to several of the gases,

the following simple experiment, the way in which being transparent, colourless, and elastic, but easily the carbonate is formed;—that which constitutes the known from all others by the peculiar pungency of base of the common smelling salts. Procure (say) its odour. Ammoniacal gas is extremely acrid, half an ounce of muriate of ammonia (sal ammoniac,) destroying the life of any animal that is compelled and an ounce of fresh-burnt lime. Reduce these to breathe it. Its valuable qualities as a refreshing dissimilar materials to a fine powder; then mix them and agreeable stimulant, can be rendered available in a saucer or on a piece of paper, and ammonia will only when it is diluted with considerable quantities be immediately set at liberty; although previously to of atmospheric air.

their being placed in contact, not the slightest trace Ammonia enters readily into combination with of its characteristic odour could be detected. Chemia variety of other bodies, constituting substances of cal action takes place between the salt of ammonia great importance in certain manufacturing processes. and the lime, producing carbonate of ammonia; the Its affinity for water is, however, among the most latter compound being exceedingly volatile, whilst remarkable of its habitudes; that Auid being capable | each of the two former, in its separate state, exhibits of absorbing 780 times its own bulk of ammoniacal qualities exactly the reverse. If quick-lime be not at gas; the volume of the liquid augmenting by the hand, common chalk (carbonate of lime) might be process in the proportions of six to ten.

substituted for it; but in that case it will be necessary Ammonia can be obtained from each department to heat the mixture. This can be done on the point of creation, the mineral, the vegetable, and the of a knife, over the flame of a lamp or candle, when animal. In former times, that is, until within the ammonia will be disengaged, as in the former instance. last 120 years, it was manufactured exclusively in The method we have just mentioned approaches very Egypt, from soot collected after burning the dung closely to that adopted in the preparation of carbonate of camels and other animals, which in that country of ammonia in the large way. This is termed subliis dried and used by the common people as fuel. mation, and consists in mixing one part of muriate of The product of this simple process was identical ammonia with two parts of chalk, in a proper vessel: with that known in the present day as a salt of a

on applying heat, the volatile portion is disengaged, tough texture, called, sal ammoniac; the chemical and collected in a separate vessel. Carbonate of name for it being muriate of ammonia. At a later ammonia when used as smelling-salts, is generally period a variety of materials have been employed for favoured with a little of the essential oil of lavender, the manufacture of ammonia in Europe, as well as

bergamot, or some other agreeable perfume. in other parts of the world. Among these we may

Spirit of hartshorn is the name given to ammonia particularly enumerate almost every kind of putrid

obtained from that material. When properly preanimal matter; the bones, hoofs, and horns of pared, it is considered as somewhat more pleasant to animals; woollen rags, soot, and pounded coal. the smell than common ammonia. It derives its Since gas-lighting has been so extensively diffused, peculiar odour from the oil which is contained in the the ordinary methods for obtaining ammonia have horn. been in a great measure superseded. In the manu

Liquid ammonia, commonly so called, (but known facture of coal gas ammonia is formed in con

also by the names Spirit of Hartshorn, and Sal siderable quantities, which, uniting with the water Volatile,) is water impregnated with ammoniacal gas, separated from the coal in distillation, constitutes from which the latter has a constant tendency to that disagreeable, and, as it was for some time con

escape, when the liquid is exposed to the atmosphere. sidered, useless, product, now known by the name of Hence the necessity of keeping it in closely stopped ammoniacal liquor.

bottles. The same precaution should also be observed Among the great variety of transformations in reference to carbonate of ammonia. R. R. effected by chemical art, perhaps there are none more astonishing to an unpractised observer than LIBRARIES are the wardrobes of literature, whence men, some of those of which ammonia is susceptible; and properly informed, might bring forth something for ornaof this the refuse liquor of gas-works affords ample ment, much for curiosity, and more for use. —G. Dyer. proof. Holding in solution the greater portion of the impurities generated along with the gas, the This is not like the membrana nictitans of a bird, but it is principal of which are sulphur and ammonia, this a cartilage covered convexly by the membrana conjunctiva; liquid emits one of the most offensive odours with there is appended to it a mass of fat, and next to the fat which we are acquainted. Being mixed, however, is the retractor muscle: whenever the eye is excited, there with sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol) in certain propor- is an action of this muscle; the eye-ball is retracted, the tions, and the mixture evaporated, a crystallized salt mass of fat is compressed, and by the compression of this is obtained, which is entirely destitute of odour; this the haw, as it is termed, passes over the eye, so that you

never see any thing like dirt, or an extraneous body in the is called sulphate of ammonia. If a process similar eye of the horse, unless a bit of grass gets entangled there.

But in the most dry road a horse never suffers from dust, * Volatility is a term derived from a Latin word which signifies to fly. As applied to inorganic substances, it denotes a property by

as his rider does, and it is owing to this provision of nature, which they are speedily dissipated or evaporated among the particles moment the eye is turned inward, the haw passes over the

a third eye-lid as it were, which runs over the eye. At the of the surrounding air.

+ We shall soon, have occasion in the series of papers on " Expe- eye, and having a glandular secretion, it removes whatever rimental Science,” to describe at some length the constitution and is offensive to the inner corner of the eye when it is congeneral character of gases,

veyed out.-SiR CHARLES BELL.




Long the sun hath gone to rest,
Dimm'd is now the deepening west;

And the sky hath lost the hue

The Dropping-Well of Knaresborough *, in York-
That the rich clouds o'er it threw :
Lonely on the pale-blue sky

shire, is situated on the south-western bank of the Gleam faint streaks of crimson dye,

river Nid, amidst some of the most romantic scenery Gloriously the evening star

in England. The walks on this side of the river are Looks upon us from afar ;

through woods hanging over the water, with beautiful Aid us, o'er the changeful deep,

views through the trees of the lofty cliffs, the town and God of Power ; Bless the sailor's ocean-sleep,

the castle. The remarkable spring represented in the At midnight's hour.

engraving, and which, from its being in the neighbourOn the stilly twilight air

hood of Harrogate, is much resorted to by visiters, We would breathe our solemn prayer

rises at the foot of a limestone rock. After running “ Bless the dear ones of our home,

about twenty yards towards the river, it spreads itself Guide us through the wild wave's foam,

over the top of a crag, about thirty feet high, from To the light of those dear eyes,

whence it falls in a shower, dropping perpendicularly Where our hearts' best treasure lies,

very fast, and making a pleasing sound, thus gratifyTo the love in one fond breast, That unchanging home of rest !

ing the ear as well as the eye. The water, the disHear her, when at even-tide,

charge of which is reckoned at about twenty gallons She kneels to pray,

a minute, is very cold, and has a petrifying quality, That God would bless, defend, and guide,

being impregnated with spar and other earthy matter. Those far away!”

It soon incrusts every thing on which it falls; and Now the moon hath touch'd the sea,

visiters may be supplied with petrified wood, eggs, And the waves, all tremblingly,

birds' nests, and even wigs. This interesting object, Throw towards Heaven their silvery spray,

and the peculiarities which have rendered it famous, Happy in the gladdening ray: Thus, Redeemer, let thy love

did not escape the notice of our great antiquary Shine upon us from above;

Leland, who travelled about England in 1536, and who Touch'd by Thee, our hearts will 'rise,


_“. On the further ripe (bank) of Nid, as I came, Grateful t'wards the glowing skies;

is a well of a wonderful nature called the Dropping Guard us, shield us, Miglity Lord,

Well, for out of the great rocks by it, distilleth water Thou dost not sleep;

continually into it. This water is cold, and of such Still the tempest with thy word, Rule the deep!

a nature that what thing soever falleth out of the

rocks into this pit, or is cast in, or groweth about the Charity is an universal duty, which it is in every man's rocks, and is touched of this water, groweth into power sometimes to practise ; since every degree of assist- stone; or else some sand or other fine ground that is ance given to another, upon proper motives, is an act of about the rocks cometh down with the continual charity; and there is scarcely any man in such a state of dropping of the things in the rocks, and cleaveth on imbecility, as that he may not, on some occasions, benefit such things as it taketh, and giveth it by continuance his neighbour. He that cannot relieve the poor, may in the shape of a stone." struct the ignorant; and he that cannot attend the sick, may reclaim the vicious. He that can give little assist wonderful “ histories” sold there, was born the most

Near this spot, according to tradition, and the ance himself

, may yet perform the duty of charity, by notorious of all witches, Mother Shipton; and cerintlaming the ardour of others, and recommending the petitions which he cannot grant, to those who have more tainly a more bold and singular scene could hardly io bestow. The widow that shall give her mite to the have been fixed upon by the lovers of the marvellous treasury, the poor man who shall bring to the thirsty a cup for such an event. of cold water, shall not lose their reward.--DR. JOHNSON.

Further on, at the foot of a range of precipices, THERE is this difference between hatred and pity; pity is a

is St. Robert's Chapel, with a neat arched and ribbed thing often avowed, seldom felt; hatred is a thing often roof, and a window and gothic door, all cut out of felt, seldom ayowed.

the rock. On one side are four hideous faces; in

front is an altar: and niches, in which probably were There is but one pursuit in life which it is in the power of once images, are to be seen on two of the sides. all to follow, and of all to attain. It is subject to no dis-Close to the door, on the outside of this narrow cell, appointments, since he that perseveres, makes every diffi- is cut a tremendous figure in the act of drawing a culty an advancement, and every contest a victory; and sword, possibly designed for a gigantic apparition;

is the virtue, is to gain her, and zealously to labour after her for it appears that St. Robert, who was a hermit wages, is to receive them. Those that seek her early, will living in the reign of King John, underwent great find her before it is late; her reward also is with her, and persecution from William de Estoteville ; the latter, she will come quickly. For the breast of a good man is a however, terrified by a spectre of enormous size and little heaven commencing on earth, where the Deity sits horrible aspect, which continued to trouble him, beenthroned with unrivalled influence, every subjugated stowed on Robert, by way of expiation, a grant of all passion, like “the wind and storm, fulfilling his word."

the lands between this cell and Grimbald crag-stone. The arms by which the ill dispositions of the world are

About a mile distant from the chapel is the Cave to be combated, and the qualities by which it is to be of the saint, which is stated to have been his usual reconciled to us, and we reconciled to it, are moderation, residence. It has for an entrance a small square gentleness, a little indulgence to others, and a great deal door, and extends about fifteen feet within. This of distrust of ourselves, which are not qualities of a mean

place is awfully memorable as the scene of a barspirit, as some may possibly think them, but virtues of a great and noble kind, and such as dignify our nature, as

barous murder, in the year 1745. Daniel Clark, with much as they contribute to our repose and fortune; for

one Richard H man, and the infamous Eugene nothing can be so unworthy of a well-composed soul, as to Aram, schoolmaster of Knaresborough, a man of pass away life in bickerings and litigations, in snarling and great talents, had joined in a plan of robbing many scuffling with every one about us. We must be at peace with our species, if not for their sakes, yet very much for *For an account of Knaresborough, see Saturday Magazine, our own.-BURKE.

Vol. IV., p. 25.

of their neighbours of plate and other property to a owned the justice of the sentence. His end was large amount. In this cave they met, either to divide horrible, for he attempted to prevent the shame of a the spoil, or to settle the disposal of it; and, the public execution by suicide, and succeeded so far in villains falling out, Clark was murdered by his part- thus heaping crime upon crime, as to be brought ners in guilt, and buried in the cave. On his being only just alive to the gallows. The body being aftermissed, it was generally supposed that he had fled the wards conveyed to Knaresborough Forest, that the country; Aram soon after retired to Lynn in Nor- warning might be more impressive and frightful, he folk, where he lived as usher of a school for a period was there hung in chains. of thirteen years, but after that long interval, the It appears that the dreadful act was perpetrated finger of Providence pointed out the authors of the during a course of close and laborious study, which he horrid crime in a very remarkable manner.

persevered in after its commission, even up to the time Foul deeds will rise,

of his detection. He applied himself to poetry, history, Though all the earth o'erwhelm them, to men's eyes. botany, and antiquities, including heraldry; became A labourer, while digging in a quarry, for stone to acquainted with Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Chaldee, and supply a lime-kiln, near Knaresborough, struck upon Arabic; he also investigated the Celtic, which, on a human skeleton. The minds of the people were comparison with the sacred and learned languages, he aroused; many of them who remembered Clark, and said he found so much allied to them, that he had could not account for his entire disappearance, fancied begun to form a Comparative Lexicon; when, suddenly, the skeleton might have been his. The coroner was he discovered to bis horror, that, like the wealth called in; and the wife of Aram, who had been de- mentioned by the wise man, the “riches" of human serted by her husband, and had occasionally dropped knowledge " profit not in the day of wrath !" In some dark hints upon the subject, was examined. him we see an instance of an excellent head joined Her evidence led to the apprehension of Houseman, with shocking depravity of conduct; of the wisdom who betrayed great confusion before the magistrate, of the serpent without the harmlessness of the dove : frequently changing colour; and, taking up one of and, from his fate, many may learn the need there is the bones, he exclaimed, evidently off his guard; of guarding all the avenues of the heart against the “This is no more Dan Clark's bone than it is mine!" temptations of UNLAWFUL GAIN. They may bear in This produced a further and closer inquiry, which mind the indignant, but, from what followed, awful ended in Houseman's full confession, that Clark had and instructive, question of Hazael, which he put to been murdered by Eugene Aram, and that the body the prophet, when little dreaming of the tremendous was buried in Sţ. Robert's Cave: he added that the inroads of vice upon himself: “What! is thy servant head lay to the right in the turn at the entrance of the A DOG, that he should do this great thing?" cave; and Clark's skeleton was accordingly found there in exactly the posture described. Aram was seized at Lynn, and, together with Houseman, brought The only things in which we can be said to have any proto trial at York Castle, on the 3rd of August, 1759. perty, are our actions. Our thoughts may be bad, yet The latter, having been arraigned and acquitted, produce no poison; they may be good, yet produce no fruit; became evidence against Aram, who delivered a our riches may be taken from us by misfortune, our repumost ingenious and artful defence, abounding in disease, our friends by death; but our actions must follow

tation by malice, our spirits by calamity, our health by antiquarian lore and general learning, but still more us beyond the grave; with respect to them alone, we marked with cunning. This curious production, cannot say that we shall carry nothing with us when we together with a memoir of the murderer, is to be die, neither that we shall go naked out of the world. found in Kippis's Biographia Britannica, where he These are the only title-deeds of which we cannot be appears in company much too good for him, although disinherited; they will have their full weight in the balance the writer of his life does not endeavour to give value will be confirmed and established by those two sure

of eternity, when every thing else is as nothing; and their a false gloss to the subject by making a vile felon and sateless destroyers of all other earthly things, TIME interesting. He was convicted, and soon after I and DEATH.

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LONDON: Published by JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, West STRAND; and sold by all Booksellers,

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