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far from any place of refreshment; they cannot be dismissed

LEWIS ; CRIME; MORALS; SPIRITS ; ILLICIT DISTILLAwithout it; and although the cemetery itself is unsuited for

TION; DISTILLERIES. á repast, yet its immediate neighbourhood is often unavoidably chosen for the purpose. The censure belongs to the Crime is unfrequent in Lewis. The lock-up house in extravagance, wasteful, and sometimes ruinous : to the Stornaway is little required. In regard to morals, it may excess which converts the funereal banquet into a scene of be asserted, respecting the natives of the Highlands and mirth, disorder, and violence, and renders the serious mind Islands in general, that notwithstanding occasional excess, of the natives of these regions less susceptible of the im- sobriety and chastity prevail amongst them. Restraints to pression of death on the very occasion of its celebration the free use of spirits are supplied by poverty by regard to than on any other. The excess is partly produced by the the maintenance of parents or children, and the assistinebriating quality of the beverage resorted to on these ance of relations and neighbours, which in these regions is occasions; but is doubtless to be attributed principally to unchecked by the operation of poor-laws*, and by the little the want of an adequate preventive, a burial-service, such facility or temptation affordled to assemblages for drinking, as is used by some of the Reformed Churches on the con- by shops for the sale of spirits. Where the operation tinent, or more especially like that of the Church of England, of these restraints ceases, the practice is indulged chiefly repelling mirtband levity by the awful and affecting at public meetings, fairs, and funerals; and the rare occursolemnity with which it “commits the body to the ground, rence of the latter may partly account for the extent to earth to earth, ashes to ashes, dust to dust," whilst it re which it proceeds. Yet, even in these, the habitual chapresses immoderate grief, by lifting the dejected spirit of racteristic sobriety of the Highlander's deportment often the mourner to “ the sure and certain hope of the resur belies the copiousness of liis potations, and he will preserve rection of the life to come."

the most perfect decorum under the influence of a quantity The abuse of burial-grounds, already adverted to, may of spirits which would render an Irishman frantic.“ “ The be traced partly to the same source. As they are not Irish," said Sir Jonah Barrington, “ are drunk before consecrated, they are usually selected from the convenience dinner, and mad after it.” “ Always drinking, and never of the situation, and often for the exclusive use of a par- drunk," is, on the contrary, the maxim of the most intemticular family, independently of those which ancient perate Highlanders. respect has hallowed, and are consequently very numerous,

Instances of habitual intoxication among the yeomanry, and liable occasionally to very great neglect. The want and even those whose example is of far more extensive of proper feeling respecting them even in towns, may consequence, it cannot be denied, may be occasionally met be inferred from the state of the churchyard around the with. 'A change of wind had nearly, at one time, introcathedral of Dornoch, described in the Statistical Survey, duced me to the hospitality of a gentleman, residing in an as being “without any fence, and in the centre of the island, who, at the age of 60, had persevered, for several burgh. It is the market-place. The country round runs years, in the habit of quaffing two bottles of whisky per through it." Yet to this cemetery the people are par- day! The better classes became habituated to this fiery' ticularly attached. “Some years ago," proceeds the same and poisonous drug by the unfortunate custom, still very account, “the heritors of the parish and magistrates of prevalent in the North, of taking a glass of it as a dram the burgh, entered into a resolution to prohibit all further before breakfast. I found it the invariable practice at all burying there. A piece of ground without the town was the houses, whether of clergymen or sheep-farmers, in the accordingly marked out for that use. A day was fixed, western parts of Sutherlandshire, in which I breakfasted; beyond which no person was to be admitted to the old and frequently witnessed the most simple and undissembled ground, and public intimations to that purpose repeatedly astonishment at my not complying with it. Nay, in the made. But the prejudices of the people prevailed, and the northern counties, it is no uncommon thing to see ladies project was relinquished."

toss off a glass of whisky at the early time in question, The neglect of cemeteries dates probably from the but under the less-startling designation of bitters, which it period at which their consecration and the use of funeral assumes when administered to female lips. rites were discontinued, for the ancient practice of the Whisky follows the Highlander from the cradle to the people was very different, as is proved by the sculptured grave, and often accelerates his progress from the one to monuments which still adorn the old cemeteries, the the other, before he can exercise the discretionary power of custom of placing a stone on the cairn, and other me- refusing it. It is administered to the child immediately morials. There is a Gaelic phrase signifying, “ If I be after its birth, and invariably, and often fatally, in the alive after your death, I will carefully lay a stone on your measles, the people imagining that it keeps the disorder cairn."—Statistical Survey. The cairns or heaps of " out of the heart." The measles were raging in Stornastones in the form of a cone, and other sepulchral re way and in Orkney during my tour; in the former it was mains, are traditionally reported to have been piled up calculated that about 40 children had fallen victims to this for the purpose of protecting the bodies which they covered ardent medicine. In Orkney, the clergy were seconding, from the voracity of wolves, which abounded once in but in vain, the endeavours of the medical men to counScotland. These animals, unfortunately for the repose of teract this baneful custom. It prevails very generally in the dead, disappeared about two centuries ago, the last England. having been killed, as we are informed in the Tales of my The traveller, after sereral hours of exposure to heavy Grandfather, by Cameron of Lochiel, during the Civil rain, and perhaps a rough sea, has no reason to quarrel Wars.

with a glass of whisky toddy, but he has often to Dr. Macculloch makes some judicious observations on the be annoyed by the exhortations and provocations to the subject: and he contrasts the respect manifested by the repetition of the dose which occasionally assail him; his Welsh for their funereal repositories with the neglect of host forgetting that compulsory feeding, wlfether in the their kindred Celts of the North. The comparison with artiele of meat or drink, is a decided breach of hospitality, another division of the same race, the Irish, might have as well as of good breeding. He seems too often to conproved less disadvantageous to the Highlanders; for the very sider the national

, as well as individual honour, implicated veneration for ancient burial-grounds has produced amongst in his guests surrender of his reason, and sacrifice of perthis people treatment scarcely less reprehensible. They con sonal comfort, and the persevering, “ You'll be the better tinue to use them, after they have been choked up with bodies, of a little," is resorted to where a summary appeal to the and thus convert cemeteries, and even the ruined churches usage of the land is ineffectual. Many a young Englishwhich they usually surround, into charnel-houses, exhibit man has had ample occasion to rue his visits to the Highing the most glastly spectacle of broken collins, piles of lands of Scotland, as having betrayed him to the use of sculls and bones disinterred, to provide room for fresh spirits, which he perhaps scarcely ever tasted in his own bodies.

country, but to which he has been led by the example and The cemetery of Mucrass Abbey may recur to the remem encouragement of his hosts, and by the supposed necessity brance of those who have visited Killarney. Well may the of conforming to the presumed custom of the country. The place be regarded with such awe that no native of that habit formed in the invigorating and inspiring atmosphere country will visit it after sunset, unless fortified, as in the of the mountains, itself the elixir vite, has been perpeinstance of one person whom I met with on the lake, by tuated to the injury of his health and the abridgment of the conviction, that his ancestors, having been buried in it his life. Few who have passed much time in the Highfor many generations, would turn out in his defence, should lands will hesitate to acknowledge that this statement is other ghosts attempt to injure him.

Notice will here after be taken of the assessments, corresponding to the English rate, which are gradually spreading northward from the Lowlands.

under that rate..

....Ditto

....Ditto

In 1832 ....

not overcharged. But in no respect, perhaps, has the

d. (Aperage No.of Gals. present age surpassed that which preceded it in the pro-- Before 1825 { Duty per Scotland.com

brought to charge 3,168,200

Imperial gallon}6 2 gress of improvement, more than in its emancipation from

In 1825 ....Ditto reduced to ..2 48 Ditto ditto....4,324,322 the barbarous and brutal custom of compulsory drinking, In 1826

Ditto ditto....5,950,941 The importation of smuggled foreign spirits into Lewis In 1827 ....Ditto raised to ....2 10 Ditto ditto....3,985,000

In 1828 ....Ditto

Ditto is much counteracted by the vessels belonging to the

ditto....4,752,000 In 1829 ....Ditto

Ditto ditto....5,695,000 Revenue Service, which cruise constantly along the coast,

In 1830

Ditto ditto....5,756,000 and are very active in procuring information. These In 1831 Ditto raised to ...,3 4 Ditto ditto,..,5,992,421 vessels are dreaded by the traders, who are obliged to

Ditto

Ditto ditto,...5,691,000

In 1833 come to, and to submit to be searched, often losing their

. Ditto

Ditto ditto....5,401,000

In 1834 passage by the detention, or by being compelled to post

....Number of Gallons increasing t. pone their entrance into the harbour to another tide. The usual arguments which I have heard strenuously Serious altercations perpetually occur between them. urged in Lewis, and other parts of Scotland, in behalf of The evils of this system seem to justify the preference illicit distillation, and more especially addressed to the of that of the Preventive Service as introduced now landlords, is that it ensures to them the payment of their along the southern English coast. The importation of rent, and that without the means which it affords to the foreign spirits into Lewis is almost entirely carried on by tenant, that payment would not be effected. This statement vessels of other nations, particularly the Norwegian, which has been made to me, coupled with a general and entire procure them in France, and being permitted to land them negation of the existence of the practice in question. The under bond for exportation, contrive to sell them to the in- motives which prompted it were more intelligible than the habitants. The foreign spirit chiefly imported is gin, but logic. The shadow of reason, which attaches to the statewhisky is the favourite beverage; and, as there has been ment itself, is borrowed from an earlier state of things, before hitherto no legal distillery, it is principally the produce roads were made, and when, consequently, the landlords of illicit distillation.

could not send the produce of their lands, in a bulky shape, The Excise is utterly inefficient. The officers now to market. Their connivance at the illicit distillation of and then set out upon an excursion, and do by chance, spirits by the tenants, receiving comperisation in the higher sometimes, stumble upon a still, when they meet with ratio of rent, might be therefore apparently expedient in no opposition; as the islanders imagine, that the ill an economical point of view. This practice, it may be treatment of an Excise-officer would probably lead to the observed, contributed to rivet in the breasts of the Highquartering amongst them of a detachment of troops. So landers, that aversion to roads which characterized them openly do the people admit the practice of illicit distilla- almost up to the period of the Statistical Survey. tion in their festal hours, that they ask their guests, and The improved access to markets, and generally and my informer was an officer of the Navy, belonging to the principally the erection of distilleries in the immediate Revenue Service, to whom the question had been often put, neighbourhood of the land where the grain is raised, have whether they prefer Coll or Grace; whisky of those farms now realized, in a mode far more efficacious, in an econohaving been celebrated. A more numerous and vigorous mical, and far less pernicious, in a moral point of view, all excise is indispensable, and a cheap legal supply of spirits the benefits imputed to the ancient illegal system. But a a needful preliminary to coercive measures. For this mistake more erroneous and more prejudicial than that on purpose, Mr. Stewart Mackenzie has adopted the plan which the statement we are considering is founded, could which has been successfully pursued by the Duke of Suther not be well imagined. The share of the profits of illegal land, by some of the proprietors in the Orkneys, by Mr. distillation, which accrued to the landlord, was in fact more Campbell of Isla, and others, of erecting a distillery. than counterbalanced by the losses which he sustained,

The morality and expediency of this method of extirpa- from the failures and plunder resulting from the protligate ting the illicit distillation have been questioned. Its efficacy, habits induced by it. The benefit of reform to the landnotwithstanding, the preference of the people to the illegal lord, as well as to the tenant, may be illustrated by a single w bisky, which being made in smaller worms is of finer instance, which was communicated to me by a leading quality, has been proved by experience. Those who push minister of the Kirk, near Elgin, on the eastern coast of the principle adopted, and most beneficially, by the Tem- Scotland. A neighbouring parish had been long notorious perance Societies to an extent further than the very regu- for illicit distillation, and always equally so for extreme lations of those admirable institutions will warrant*, may and most degrading poverty. Its inhabitants happily un. denounee any eompromise with spirits as unjustifiable, and derwent a reformation, abandoned their lawless habits, and insist upon the total disuse of them.

were then in possession of the sum of at least £3000, Experience, the result whether of choice or of necessity, To the legal provision of spirits by means of regular has invariably ratified the opinion of medical practitioners, distilleries must be attributed in a great measure the respecting the mischievous effects of drinking ardent spirits, progressive diminution of crime, and all the concomitant both physical and social, and has strengthened the conclu- vices and evils of smuggling and illicit distillation. Still sion thai a total abstinence from them, except medicinally, the very legal provision may become in itself a bane, occasionally in sickness or decrepitude, or even after by, facilitating and encouraging the consumption of severe labour or exposure, promotes the health, as well as spirits. The conscientious landlord must experience a the comfort and happiness of a people. We must be careful, painful struggle between considerations of personal interest however, not to argue against the use of God's good gifts and those which regard the moral welfare of his people, from the abuse to which they are liable. Our very Temper- when he calculates the success of a distillery, and exerance Societies provide a salvo for the moderate use of spirits cise some little self-denial in employing, as he is in upon this principle. A legal supply of this beverage is duty bound, all his influence in counteracting the practice therefore not intrinsically immoral or irreligious; and of drinking spirits, and substituting a less ardent and experience has proved its tendency to supersede the illicit pernicious bererage. Notwithstanding the tlagrant missupply, whether by distillation or importation, and therefore chief produced by beer-drinking, as now exemplified to extirpate all those evils, indolence, crime, profligacy, and in England, (the consequence of the multiplication of disregard of constitutional authorities, involved in the beer-shops, at a low rate of license,) there can be no infraction of the laws. The confirmed habits of smuggling question that it is far preferable to spirit-drinking; and which the people of Lewis bave acquired, inclined them to the substitution of beer for whisky in Scotland would predict the failure of the distillery at Stornaway. Yet it prove a most important benefit to that country. Nor has been so successful that another has been since erected could the most rigorous stickler for ancient customs object on the opposite coast of the island. How far the legal to it as an innovation, since ale, as General Stewart insupply of spirits, coupled with the reduction of duty on the forms us, on the testimony of tradition, formed the universal spirits brought to charge, have tended to supersede smug- national beverage of the people till the middle of the last gled spirits, may be inferred froin the statement made by century; French wines and brandy being drunk by the Lord Althorp, in the House of Commons last year. gentry. " Whisky-house," he states, “is a term unknown

* As a specimen of some of the ultra manifestoes put forth under in the Gaelic. Public-houses are called Tai-Leanne, that the implied sanction of the Society referred to, in defiance of its own avowed principle, it has been declared that the success of the Insti + Since the preceding observations were originally written, the altetution cannot be expected till spirits are prohibited, even as a ration in the mode of levying the duty, together with the legal supply, medicine. “ Defend me from my friends," is a petition which cannot have nearly put an end to the illicii trathc in Scotland. One lady, be too frequently on the lips of the supporters of those magnificent possessed of immense property, has prohibited the use of spirits philanthropic and religious institutions which form a distinguishing altogether on her estates. The success of the experiment is matter feature of this age and of this country.

of national interest,

ię, ale-houses. Had whisky been the favourite beverage the minister, who had been recently appointed, a man of of the Highlanders, as many people believe, would not much piety and zeal,' received the sudden and unexpected their songs, their tales, and names of houses allotted for aid of an eminent Gaelic preacher, Mr. Macdonald, convivial meetings, bear some allusion to the propensity, minister of the parish of Farintosh in Ross-shire, who had which has no reality in fact, and is one of those numerous been blown to the island by a contrary wind, whilst shaping instances of the remarkable ignorance of the true cha- his course to $t. Kilda on a voluntary mission, for å racter of the Highlanders on the part of their Lowland purpose which has since proved successful, of providing friends and neighbours ?" He might have added, that that island with a minister and place of worship. The there was a law of the old Scotch Parliament, “anent" addresses of Mr. Macdonald produced a sensation which (against) auld wives brewing evil ale."

has spread through the island: he was now employed in Dr. Macculloch disputes the fact of ale having been preaching to the Irish in the Gaelic, which they well unmuch drunk by the Scotch, as their poverty prevented any derstood, in the north of Ireland. but the landed proprietors from brewing. But as under To all the plans for the moral and religious improvement the ancient system, the landlords, whether chief or subor- of the people of Lewis, the proprietor and his lady have dinate, were numerous, and their labourers and other de contributed their zealous assistance, and their temporary pendants lived much more in their houses, or depended residence in the island has consequently proved very more upon their bounty in compensation for service, they beneficial*.

P. S. Q. R. probably received ale or beer as part of it. He also doubts • The late Lord Seaforth, father of Mrs. Stewart Mackenzie, the whether the brewing the superfluous barley instead of dis- last male representative of the Seaforth line," high chief of Kintail,” tilling it would be profitable, as even now the quantity was one of the most accomplished and princely characters of whom consumed in the shape of spirits is small. But if the Scotland could boast. His acquirements, classical taste and crudi

tion, powers of conversation, urbanity and liberality, rendered him profits derived from it in England are so enormous and the delight of every society in which he appeared, the pride of universal, would they not in some degree correspond in his clansmen and the ornament of his country. The infirmity of Scotland, provided the practice of spirit-drinking be much deafness debarred him to a great degree from that free intercourse discontinued ?

with mankind for which the enlargement of his mind and the deep

fund of his resources pre-eminently qualified him; and Mr. Fox LEWIS; MORAL AND RELIGIOUS IMPROVEMENT.

is reputed to have said of him, that it was in compassion to the rest

of mankind that Providence by means of this defect deprived him The moral and religious improvement of the natives of of that transcendent superiority to which he would otherwise have Lewis has been retarded by the inadequacy of ministerial Castle in the eastern

part of Ross-shire : here he acted the part and superintendence. One pastor only, except a missionary on supported the hospitality of a chieftain. His visits to Lewis were the western coast, supported by the Royal bounty, is ap- unfrequent, but the authority which he exercised was almost feudal: pointed to each of its four extensive parishes, containing a he raised in person the 78th regiment among the natives of this total population of 14,000 persons; and besides this, there island, and in some instances, forced into the service able-bodied are physical impediments which oppose great difficulties to young men, who were reluctant to obey the call of their chief, intercourse between the clergy and their parishioners. The the same Aame of enthusiasm wherever it blazed along. The followdeficiency has been partly supplied by catechists and ing amusing anecdote is related of the late Lord Seaforth. The readers, who instruct the people in the forms appointed by women in Lewis are compelled to submit to much drudgery, from the Established Church, in the most neglected districts, by which they are elsewhere exempted. It was formerly, I know not schools, and by the excellent custom adhered to by the whether it is still, the practice in this island for the men to ride the people here, as in other parts of Scotland, of meeting horseback, while a peasant so mounted was very contentedly together at each other's houses, for the purpose of reading crossing. 'He rode up to the man just as his fair pad had reached and expounding the Scriptures. To this practice, emi- mid-channel, and then laid his whip about his back and shoulders nently beneficial, though abused, more direct reference will till

he dismounted, clad as he was, into the water. be hereafter made.

of the toil to which the women are subjected in this island, Dr. In no part of Scotland have the Gaelic schools proved the neighbourhood, trudging into the town from the moors, with

Macculloch says: “ Droves of these animals were collected in more salutary than in Lewis, where, except in the town of loads of peat on their backs. The men dig the peat, and the women Stornaway, the Gaelic language is exclusively spoken; yet supply the place of horses, being regularly trained to it. I was the inadequacy of the funds of the Society has compelled also informed that they did actually draw the harrows, but this I them to limit the advantage to a period, and thus the did not witness.”. Yet it must be said in behalf of the natives of schools formerly established in the wild parish of Lochs and highly-cultivated Belgium are not a whit behind thein. I have

Lewis, that in defect of gallantry the civilized inhabitants of opulent have been withdrawn. The British and Foreign Bible seen a woman dragging a boat along a canal in that country con. Society has distributed a considerable number of copies of taining two stout fellows contentedly smoking their pipes, whilst the Scriptures in Lewis.

crowds of passengers swept by without noticing the circumstance, as A recent Sacrament in the parish of Vig, in Lewis, ex

in any degree strange. hibited a scene of much interest. A considerable number accomplishments, died before their father ; thus fulfilling a part of the

The sons of the late Lord Seaforth, men of high promise and of persons had assembled, as usual, on the occasion; and I mournful prophecy

which is current in Scotland respecting this family.

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CORMORANTS.

LONDON: Published by JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, West STRAND; and sold by all Bookscllers.

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UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATI ON

APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.

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VOL. VI

182

THE CITY OF COLOGNE,

spoken of in very flattering terms; it is styled "one IN GERMANY.

of the strongest, largest, and most beautiful cities COLOGNE, or, as it is called in German, Köln, is a large in Germany,” and is said to be remarkable not only city, built in the form of a crescent, on the left bank for the cleanliness of its streets, and the magnificence of the Rhine. Its antiquity is very great, its origin of its edifices, both sacred and secular, but also for being referred to the earliest days of the Roman the “sweet humour and civility” of its inhabitants, empire. The first name which it bore was Oppidum, who count among them a great many men of letters. or Colonia, Ubiorum,-(The town or colony of the Modern travellers concur in representing Cologne as Ubii,) and this it derived from the circumstance of one of the dirtiest cities in Europe ; the streets are being founded by that people, a native race of Ger narrow and lonely, and contain few buildings dismany, who passed the Rhine in the reign of Augustus, tinguished for beauty. “ Cologne," says the author and established themselves on its left bank, under of An Autumn near the Rhine, once the Holy City, the protection of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, the now the dirty focus of decaying Catholicism, loses celebrated general, and son-in-law of that em all its grandeur, and much of its interest, on a nearer peror. Some years afterwards it gave birth to survey; it is, beyond question, the dirtiest and most Agrippina, so well known as the mother of Nero, and gloomy city of its size in Europe. It runs along the this circumstance materially conduced to its progress. Rhine, about a league from one wall to the other; Soon after her marriage with Claudius, that em its depth is about half a league ; but its streets are press was seized with a desire of imparting celebrity all shabby, narrow lanes, and its places irregular to the place of her nativity; with this view she open spaces, overgrown with weeds, whose dreary caused the circuit of the city to be enlarged, and chasms and mouldering tenements are only now and then established in it a colony of veterans. Hence then varied by a solitary spacious mansion,-a forward it is spoken of by the Latin writers under gloomy vestige of old-fashioned splendour. The the name of Colonia Agrippinensis.

people you meet are as motley and miserable as the Until the middle of the fifth century, Cologne con buildings. It is difficult to give you an idea of the tinued to be the capital of the district which Augustus squalid wretchedness of the savage-looking, bustling had styled Germania ; but about the year 462 it was crowds, who few upon us when we landed on the wrested from the Romans, and subjected to the quay. Porters, commissioners, guides, valets-de-place, dominion of the Franks. In the tenth century, and voituriers, assailed us with a clamouring activity, Otho the Great annexed it to the German empire, doubly striking after the phlegmatic and decorous and, after bestowing a variety of privileges upon its respectability we had experienced in Germany." inhabitants, placed over them his brother, who was The Cathedral of Cologne is one of the most their archbishop. Under the protection of the Em famous in Germany; we shall speak of it on another peror Frederick Barbarossa, the increase of the city occasion, and also of the other ecclesiastical edifices was rapid. About 1260 it entered the Hanseatic of the city. The town-house is a large building of a league, and became the capital of one of the four curious kind of architecture; it has a lofty tower, classes of the Hanse Towns, having under it all ' from which is obtained a delightful prospect of the those which existed in Cleves, Gueldres, and West- city and the surrounding country. The Arsenal and phalia. In 1364 it had arisen to such importance as the building belonging to the Central School, formerly to be the place where a formal act of alliance was the University, are also worthy of notice. executed between the different members of the Con The trade which Cologne possesses at the present federation, which had for its object to protect mer- day is of considerable importance, though, of

course, chandise from pirates and robbers, and to ensure the not to be compared with that which it enjoyed in honour and safety of merchants abroad, and to ex former times; its situation is advantageous, as an tend the foreign trade of the allied towns, and, as intermediate point between Germany and Holland. far as possible, to obtain a monopoly, or to exclude The Rhenish wine forms a principal article of its all other towns from a share in it; to maintain justice commerce; and the exports of its own manufactures, and order in every market, and to prevent fraudu- of linen, lace, cotion, silk, and earthenware, are also lence by means of properly-constituted officers and considerable. Among these also we must not omit courts of arbitration.

to class the produce of the distillation of Cologne Cologne continued to form a part of the Germanic water, or the famous Eau de Cologne, which is in such empire until the changes occasioned by the French' high repute throughout Europe; there are fifteen Revolution; but, in 1794, it was taken by General manufactories of it in the city, and several millions Jourdan. Till 1814 it was retained by France, and, of bottles are annually exported. Only a small upon the general peace of that year, it passed into the portion, however, of what is sold under the name is hands of Prussia. It is now the capital of the genuine; one of the best ways," says the German Prussian district of the same name, in the province Conversations-Lexicon, of distinguishing the genuine of Cleves-Berg ; it is the residence of many func- from the spurious, is to rub a few drops on the hand, tionaries, including an archbishop and a high-presi- when the good Eau de Cologne must not smell of dent, and is the seat of government and of the Court any spirituous liquor, or of musk, or of any foreign of Appeal for the Rhenish provinces. Its condition substance, but only of the ethereal odour proper to at the present day is far inferior to that which it en- | the water.” joyed in former times, when it was enriched by an The population of Cologne is large, though very extensive and lucrative trade; it has lost also the variously stated; it amounts probably to somewhere advantages, or, at least, the honour, of its inde about 50,000 without the garrison. The character pendent political position. Under the old constitu- of the great mass of its inhabitants is not very tion of the German empire it was a free city; its favourably spoken of; they are said to be both lazy archbishop and elector (for both offices centred in and superstitious in an excessive degree. The city the same person), who possessed a moderate share has always been remarkable for its large number of of authority over it, was a sovereign prince, and one beggars; under the old order of things full one-third the most important members of the empire.

of its population were professed mendicants, having The present appearance of Cologne is not very their appropriate stations, which used to pass, in the prepossessing. In Moreri's Grand Dictionnaire it is way of inheritance, from father to son,

It was said

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