Imágenes de páginas

be pursued, would be dependent on the form and physical nature, to the God who made him, so forinclination of the different parts of the hill, upon the cibly present to the mind as the degradation of his nature of my own muscular energies, and upon other moral nature, and its fall from that perfect image in data, of which I could scarcely by any possibility which we may reasonably conclude that it too, as acquire a knowledge, and on which, when known, well as his physical nature, was first created. my intellectual powers would be quite insufficient to

[Abridged from Moseley's Mechanics applied to the Arts.] enable me to found a conclusion. Under these circumstances, the chances are infinitely greater, that I should select the wrong than the right path. Now,

HINDOO RIDDLES. if I were to project a stone up the hill, or obliquely The Hindoos (especially their females) take great across it, or suffer it to roll down it, whatever ob- delight in riddles, apologues, and fables. By this stacles opposed its motion, whether they arose from method they convey pleasure, instructior, or reproof: friction, resistance, or any other cause, constant or see them in their marriage feasts, or in their “evencasual, still would the stone, when left to itself, ever ings at home,” how pleasantly they pass their time pursue that path in which there was the least possible in thus puzzling each other, and calling forth the expenditure of its efforts ; and if its path were fixed, ! talents of the young. The story of Sinthā-manni then would its efforts be the least possible in that and Vera-māran is a striking instance of the impath. This extraordinary principle is called that ot portance which they attach to riddles. least action; its existence and universal prevalence, The king, called Veerasoora-toora-tān, and his admit of complete mathematical demonstration. nobles went out with their chariots, horsemen, foot

Every particle of dust blown about in the air, men, and elephants, to hunt the savage beasts of every particle of that air itself, has its motions sub- the desert. After some time the king complained of jected to it. Every ray of light that passes from one thirst, when the prime minister took him to a deep medium into another, deflects from its rectilinear well, and whilst his majesty was looking down, his course, that it may choose for itself the path of least faithless minister pushed him in; he then returned possible action, and for a similar reason, in passing to the capital, published the death of the sovereign, and through the atmosphere, it bends itself in a parti- proclaimed himself king. The queen of the deceased cular curve down to the eye. The mighty planets too, monarch immediately went to a distant country, and that make their circuits ever within those realms of procured a living by selling fire-wood. Not long space, which we call our system; the comets, whose after her residence there, some officers, on a hunting path is beyond it; all these are alike made to move excursion, saw her, and told their sovereign of a so as best to economize the forces developed in their majestic woman they had seen selling fire-wood. progress.

The king sent for her, became enamoured with her, Now, those forces which are not developed by and determined to make her his wife; but she, on living beings, are planted in the substances in which pretence of going out a little, departed to another they reside, by the hand of God, and subjected to country. After travelling some days she came in the laws which he from the beginning imposed upon sight of the cottage of a despised pariah, and, on them. It has pleased the Almighty then that the going near to it, he came out, and, seeing her noble works of his hands should every-where be wrought in mien, bowed to the earth. She said “I am a seller of accordance with that principle of least effort, which fire-wood, and beg you will allow me to live near to he has also implanted as a principle of our nature in you.” The pariah replied, “Madam, you must be of us, and which, thus impelled, we ever develop more another rank; you look like a queen. I will build or less, in our own feeble efforts. The difference lies your majesty a cottage, and supply your wants.” only in this, that in Him this principle acts controlled She had not been long there before she brought forth by infinite wisdom, and therefore, its operation is a son to the late Veerasoora-toora-tān, to whom she perfect ; with us, it manifests itself under the guidance gave the name of Vera-māran. The infant was of a limited knowledge and most erring judgment, anointed with oil, and rubbed with holy ashes. The and its developement partakes of their imperfections. pariah went forth, and blew the victorious chank,

In the adjustment of his efforts, so as to produce put up the triumphant flag, purchased anklets, a the required effect with the least posible expense of waist-chain, bracelets, armlets, and neck-rings, for force--it has been shown then, again, that (according the infant prince. So great was his joy, that he to a great truth of revelation) man is created in the made gifts in money, robes, and cows to the brahimage of God, and that he retains the resemblance. mins, and offerings to the gods. The principle of force lodged in each particle of In course of years, the youth became exceedingly matter, has been believed to be but a direct emana beautiful and accomplished. In the battle or the tion of the Deity, there acting continually, and at chase he was always the hero of the field. He every moment. The scrupulous economy of force, having heard of the fascinating princess Sinthāthe wonderful store (if the expression may be used) manni, determined to try to get her for his wife, but which Nature sets by it, points to that conclusion. was told she would not give her hand to any one who

Man was created in the image of God. And it could not explain all her riddles, and those who failed has been shown, that, in the possession of a power, were to forfeit their lives. His soul was fixed on the almost absolute, over the material existences around attempt; and, notwithstanding many princes had him; and, in the exercise of an intellect whose re fallen a sacrifice to the talented princess, and in sources no effort would seem to exhaust; and, in the despite of the entreaties of bis friends, he took his manner in which he exercises that power and that departure for the palace of Sinthä-manni. When he intellect; he may yet be said to retain traces of that came in sight of the city, he was perfectly astonished original from which he first sprung, and that image with its splendour. Now he thought of all he had wherein he was first created.

heard of the nine hundred. and ninety-nine gates; Do not these reflections at once suggest the con of the ponds and streams of perfumed waters; of trast of his moral condition ? What does this de- the groves ; of the fair deity of the palace, with her scription of his majestic bearing in creation, the attendants, the astronomers, the heralds, the bearers extent of his physical powers, the resources of his of incense, the beautiful footmen, the nobles, the intellect, and his resemblance, in respect to his musicians; he thought on her banners of gold, her


throne of precious stones and gold; her shield, made | hand for him to desist, and said, “I was your visiter of the same metal; her couch made of the nine - I am conquered. Come, sit on my throne." She precious stones ; and his mind became enraptured then made obeisance to him ; the courtiers worshipwith the prospect of having her for his own. With ped him; and Veera-māran became the husband of joy he entered the fort without asking permission, the beautiful Sinthā-manni. and gallopped about the streets; after which he By this account, we gain a clearer view of the ordered his attendant to make a triumphal arch of importance attached to the riddle proposed at the fragrant flowers. He then spread his carpet on the marriage of Sampson; of the Psalmist, who said, ground, and sate there, that he might be seen by the “ I will open my dark sayings ;" of the riddle “put passers by. They soon began to inquire about his forth" by the Prophet Ezekiel at the Divine comcountry, and his object in coming to their city; and mand; of the skill and industry of the Queen of when they heard it, they laughed and clapped their Sheba; and of the adroitness of Solomon who gave hands, saying, “Another madman has come to ex an answer “to all her questions.” plain the riddles of the princess, and to add another

(Roberts’s Oriental Illustrations of the Scriptures.] to the list of those whose lives have been sacrificed to their ambition."

He arose, and went on till he came to the tenth gate, when the guards pushed him away, and treated

A FABLE, him with great contempt. He then sent a letter to

Too oft when Force and Cunning seek the Princess by a confidential person, stating his

To injure or delude the weak, object, and requesting to be allowed to come into her

They prosper in their plan of shame, presence. The next day Veera-māran stood before

Whilst Vengeance waits to take her aim; the beautiful, the splendid Sinthā-manni; there she

For, till the cup of sin is full,

She walks unheard, with feet of wool! was seated on her throne of diamonds and rubies ;

Again, some cases I have known there were the warriors, with their shields of gold;

Of Force and Fraud at once o'erthrown there were the poets, there the players on instru

By guardian spirits, who defend ments, the tambour, the harps, and the lutes. Near

The steps of Innocence, their friend. her were females of great wisdom, and all around

Thus Una* in the wilderness

Was succoured in her sore distress; were garlands of flowers ; there was the precious ointment, and there were those who sprinkled the

The lion (says the legend sweet)

Crouched harmless at the maiden's feet. guests with perfumed waters. Veera-māran looked

And so the simple may prevail, around, and then with great dignity walked up to the

When Guilt and its devices fail. Princess, and requested to have a seat by her side,

To these reflections shall be tack'd on the throne. She then commenced her riddles

A Fable, which is nearly Fact. (which in number amounted to a thousand); but

Where London spreads its precincts wide, Veera-māran, so fast as she proposed them, gave

There's many a house, whose smoky side, the most complete explanation. The Princess

In lane, or court, or alley placid,

Bears tokens of a rural taste, became greatly agitated, as she thought she must

And ’midst a busy town's alarms, now give her hand to this young stranger. They

Tells of the country, and its charms. sprinkled her with rose-water, all the courtiers were

Here on the window-sills are set, much excited, and one thing only remained to be

Geranium, myrtle, mignonette; done, before this wonderful transaction should come

And higher ’mongst created things, to its crisis. The Prince had to give her a riddle,

Canaries trim their golden wings, which if she failed to explain, she became his own ;

Or wrapped within his dingy coat but if she succeeded, his life was the forfeit. Veera

A goldfinch strains his little throat.

True he is caged: but what of that? māran boldly gave his riddle, and retired for the

He sings, and cares not for the cat. night. In the course of the evening, a beautiful

A LINNET, in his prime of song, female, in elegant attire, came to his lodgings, and

And happy as the day was long, said, “O you who have beautiful arms, I have come

Though in a dark and narrow way, to touch your majestic feet, and gain your favour."

Poured forth his merry roundelay. He inquired who she was, when she replied, “ I am

His bars unknown; (though bars indeed)

His little manger full of seed; the daughter of the Prime-Minister to the Princess

Wbat danger should he apprehend, Sintha-manni, to whom, I am told, you have pro

In health and tune, with man his friend ? posed a riddle, which she cannot explain. Now I

But ah! he shrinks with sudden fear, wish you to unfold it to me, that I may tell the

And feels a mortal foe is near! meaning in the morning.” The Prince then said,

Wheeling around in rapid flight “Give me the jewels and ornaments which you now

A cruel HawK has caught the sight, have on as a pledge, and I will unfold the riddle.”

Has seen the bird! but blind with rago This being done, she expresed a wish to retire for a

And fierce desire, has seen no cage.

So when to glut his ruthless maw moment, but did not return.

With the poor trembler that he saw, The morning came, and there was the Princess,

He headlong pounc'd the prize to gain, with great pomp seated on her throne. In her hand

The bars of iron stunn'd his brain ! was a large sword, and near her were the execu

Reeling he fell, with broken limb, tioners, ready to drag off the body of Veera-māran.

And no one stopp'd to pity him t. She then, with great triumph, explained the riddle

So may they fall whose base intent he had proposed the day before, and was about to

Is laid against the innocent: order him for execution, when he begged to be

So may some barrier in the way,

Betwixt the wicked and their prey allcwed to relate a dream he had during the night.

Though hid at first from mortal sight, This being granted, he said, “A young female, dis

Prevent the wrong, DEFEND THE RIGHT! M. guised like a parrot of the groves, came and pledged her jewels to get the meaning of my riddle. I will

* Spenser's Fairy Queen, Book I., Canto 3. show them to you.” He then began to take them

+ That a Hawk did lately fly at a Linnel, in a cage which was sus. from his waist-cloth, when the Princess waved her pended against the window of a house, in a crowded neighbourhood

in the city is a fact. He was taken, and is still living.


THE NATURAL AND CIVIL HISTORY OF supplying a valuable wood for exportation, is of the greatest

importance to the natives, its fruit and roots being used by
VI. VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS.-THE COCOA-NUT TREE. them for food, and many other parts being very successfully
THE PALMYRA.-THE-AREEKA Tree.--TAE JAG applied to the purposes of manufacture. The cocoa-nut tree
GREE PALM.—THE TALIPAT-TREE.-The CINNAMON- is almost exclusively confined to the southern, and the

palmyra to the northern parts of the island, on the coast. The most remarkable vegetable productions of Ceylon

THE AREEKA-TREE. are the Palms", the Cinnamon-tree, and the tree bearing Eve's-Apple, or the Forbidden-Fruit”. Of these I shall The areeka-tree is the smallest of the palms, the stem not give a brief description. The cocoa-nut-tree usually grows to being more than a foot in circumference, though it attaing the height of from seventy to eighty feet. It has a sheer, to the height of sixty feet. It grows perfectly straight, and bránchless stem, surrounded by annular indentations, the the leaves are confined to the top. The nuts, which grow number of which ascertains the age of the tree, as each

in clusters at the bottom of the leaves, are of an oval year an additional circle is produced. The stem is nearly shape, and somewhat smaller than those of the palmyra. the same size from the root to the top, from which a crest They resemble nutmegs in consistence, being solid all of large pinnated leaves radiates about a yard in breadth, through, and of a faint white, streaked with red. and four yards in length. These leaves are invariably :

One of these trees yields from 300 to 1000 nuts, and twelve in number, and form a circle, divided from the

some produce 1500. They bear," says Knox, “but once circumference to the centre, like the spot of a wheel.

in the year, generally; but commonly, there are green The leaf is separated by a strong woody fibre, from which nuts enough to eat all the year long. The leaves fall off smaller fibres shoot out on either side, exactly opposite to

every year, and the skins, upon which they grow, with one another, as in the common fern ; of these, excellent

them. These skins grow upon the body of the tree, and brooms are made by the natives. The nuts grow in

the leaves grow out of them. They also clasp about the clusters, within the leafy crest, and each tree, when full-, buds or blossoms which bear the nuts, and as the buds grown, produces from two to three dozen. The fibrous swell, so this skin cover gives way to them, till at length husk, which covers the nut, is manufactured into cables it falls quite off with the great leaf on it: it is somewhat and cordage of various descriptions; and these cables have

like leather, and of great use to the country people; it the remarkable quality of suffering no injury from long serves them instead of basins to eat their rice in, and when immersion in salt-water, but on the contrary; are said to be

they go a journey, to tie up their provisions; for in these preserved by it,

skins or leaves they can tie up any liquid substance, as oil In Ceylon, this filament, which is called coire, is obtained or water, doubling it in the middle and rolling it on the two from a tract of cocoa-nut trees, forming a belt, a hundred and sides, almost like a purse. Ordinarily, they are about two thirty miles long, and one mile and a half broad, along the feet in length, and a foot and a half in breadth. In this south-western coast. It has been calculated that this belt

country there are no inns, therefore, when people travel, contains between ten and eleven millions of cocoa-nut trees, the manner is to carry, ready dressed, what provisions they and produces, besides a vast quantity of oil, six thousand can, made up in these leaves. The trees within have only leaguers of arrack, and upwards of three million pounds'

a kind of pith, and split easily from one end to the other. weight of coire, sufficient to rig twenty first-rate ships of war.

The wood is hard and very strong; it is used as laths for The produce of a good tree in this belt, has been estimated houses, and also as rails instead of hedges. Money is not very at from fifty to a hundred cocoa-nuts in the year, each nut, plentiful in this land; but, by means of these nuts, which as food, being equivalent to at least three ounces of rice. are a great commodity to carry to the Coromandel coast, From the kernel of the cocoa-nut is extracted a thick

the inhabitants furnish themselves with all things they oil, used by the natives throughout India, for lighting

want. The common price of nuts, when there is a trade, their houses and anointing their bodies. The shell is

as there was when I came first on this land, is twenty converted into ladles. At the top of the tree grows a large

thousand for one dollar; but now (A.D. 1681) they lie and shoot, two feet long, and as thick as a man's thigh; com

grow, or rot on the ground under the trees." monly called the cocoa-nut cabbage; when boiled, it is an

THE JAGGREE-PALM. excellent vegetable for the table; but as soon as it is cut off, the trunk gradually perishes. The toddy, from A FOURTH species of palm is the jaggree, so called from which arrack is distilled, is drawn from this tree; a pot, its fertility in the production of sugar. It has the measuring two quarts, is fixed to a shoot, in which an same tall branchless stem as the cocoa-nut tree; but the incision is made at night, and is brought down at sun-rise fruit hangs from the top in straight lines upwards of a filled with the exuded sap. The filaments that surround yard long, all round the trunk. The leaves are serrated. the stem are manufactured into a kind of sackcloth, which The nut is about the size of a common marble, and is is very durable. The wood of the trunk is porous and chewed in every part of India with the betel-leaf. Sago is spongy, and therefore of little value, but it is occasionally the pith of this palm, dried and granulated. employed for pillars to support temporary buildings. The leaves are used for thatching the roofs, and covering the

walls, of huts; they are also converted into torches, when The most remarkable of the palm tribe is the talipat-tree,
dry, and, when fresh, are a favourite food of the elephant. of which a detailed account was given in No. 152 of the

Saturday Magazine, of which Knox says, “This tree is as

big and tall as a ship's mast, and very straight, bearing The next most useful of the palms in Ceylon is the pal

only leaves, which are of great use and benefit to the inhamyra: its manner of growth is similar to that of the bitants; one single leaf being so broad and large, that it cocoa-nut tree; the stem attains nearly the same height,

will cover fifteen or twenty men, and keep them dry when put is more uniformly perpendicular, and the texture of it rains. The leaf, being dried, is very strong and limber, the timber much firmer and more durable. The blacker and most wonderfully made for men's convenience to carry this is the more valuable, and it has the rare quality of along with them: for though this leaf be thus broad when resisting the depredations of insects. The leaves are

it is open, yet it folds close, like a lady's fan, and then it is shorter, harder, and thicker, than those of the tree just

no bigger than a man's arm, and extremely light. The descrived, having the form of an opened fan, as which people cut them into pieces and carry them in their hands. they are frequently used: upon slips of these leaves all

The whole leaf spread out is round, almost like a circle ; the Cinga 'ese manuscripts are written with an iron style. but the pieces cut for use are nearly like unto a triangle. The fruit of this palm is a firm pulp, about the bigness of They lay them upon their heads as they travel, with the a new-born child's head, of a black colour, emitting an

peaked end foremost, which is convenient to make their way agreeable perfume, and containing in its centre, from one through the boughs and thickets. When the sun is to three nuts, about the size of a common plum. The

vehement they use them to shade themselves from the toddy drawn from the palmyra makes better arrack than

heat: all soldiers carry them; for besides the benefit of that extracted from any other palm-tree, and a very good these leaves make their tents to lie under in the night.

keeping them dry, in case it should rain upon the march, sagar is obtained by mixing the toddy with the pulp of the fruit, and boiling them together. This tree, besiles

“ This tree bears no fruit until the last year of its life, and

then it comes out on the top, and spreads abroad in great * See Saturday Magazine, Vol. II., p. 203; and Vol. V., p. 186. branches, all full first of yellow blossoms, most beautiful + Ibid, Vol, Y., p. 90.

to behold, but of a very strong smell; then it comes to a

fruit, round and very hard, as big as our largest cherries, oil, which floats on the top, and is used for burning in but good only for seed to set: and though the tree bears lamps. As soon as it congeals, it becomes a solid substance but once, it makes amends, bearing such great abundance, like wax, and is formed into candles. that one tree yields seed enough for a country. If these The trees planted for the purpose of obtaining cinnamon, trees stand near any houses, the smell of the blossom so shoot out a great number of branches apparently from the much annoys the inhabitants, that they, regarding not the same root, and are not permitted to rise above ten feet. seed, forthwith cut them down. The stem has within it a The sprouts which are cut for barking, are about the length pith only, which is very good to eat, if the tree be cut down and thickness of a common walking-stick. before it runs to seed. It is beaten to flour in mortars, Those trees which are cultivated, may be reared in the and baked into cakes, which taste much like wheat bread. four ways following: from seeds sown during the rains; It serves instead of corn before the harvest is ripe." from shoots cut from large trees; from layers; and by

transplanting old stumps. A dry soil and frequent rain THE Eve's APPLE,

is necessary to produce cinnamon of the finest quality. This is one of the most remarkable vegetable productions of The tree blossoms in the month of January, and it is then the island. The tree which bears this singular fruit, grows to that the plantations look most beautiful. In April the the height of from twenty to thirty feet. It has an fruit is ripe, and soon afterwards the process of decortiirregular inelegant stem, with a scanty growth on the lower cation begins. May and June are esteemed the best parts, but on the top the leaves germinate luxuriantly, months for this purpose, and are styled the great harvest. forming an extensive and graceful crest. The branches November and December are likewise considered favourshoot upward, though a few strike out horizontally, and able months, and are called the little harvest. these are generally charged with the greatest quantity of In order to ascertain whether the bark is ripe, the peeler fruit. This is a deadly poison, and as if to remove the strikes his knife obliquely into a branch; if on drawing it danger of mischief, Providence seems to have placed it out, the bark divides from the wood, the cinnamon has above the reach both of rational and brute animals, as attained its maturity, but if it adhere, it must remain until it hangs chiefly upon the crest of the tree, and never it be detached from the limbs. The knife employed in grows so low as to be reached from the ground. The trunk peeling, is a small sharp-pointed hook. is about the size of a man's body, and covered with a When a branch is completely cleared of small shoots and dark corrugated bark. The leaves are long and narrow, leaves, the cinnamon-peeler, seated on the ground, makes shaped like those of the bay tree, with a smooth shining two parallel cuts up and down the length of the bark, surface, the fibres crossing the filament that divides the which after being gradually loosened with the convex edge leaf longitudinally, being strongly marked and regular. of the knife, he strips off in one entire slip, half the cirThe fruit, which hangs from the bough on a long limber cumference of the branch. This slip he passes to a comstem, about the size of a quill, is shaped something like panion, who is seated in a similar manner by his side, with the large white magnum-bonum plum, somewhat flattened one foot pressed against a piece of wood, from which a at the extremities, but exhibiting a feature as singular as round stick slopes towards his waist. Upon this stick he it is unpleasing. From the upper side it appears precisely lays the slip of bark, keeps it steady with his other foot, as if a portion had been bitten off, and from this circum- and holding the handle of the knife in one hand, and the stance the Mohammedans, who imagine the primitive point of it in the other, scrapes off the epidermis or superparadise to have been situated in Ceylon, have called it ficial cuticle, which is very thin, of a brown colour on the the forbidden fruit; conceiving that the mark of that outside and white within. In doing this considerable breach of the Divine interdiction, which entailed so attention is necessary, for if any of the outer bark remain, grievous a curse upon the posterity of Adam, has been it gives a bitter taste to the cinnamon. When this opeplaced by the Almighty upon this singular tree, and that, ration has been performed, the cinnamon is of a pale-yellow in consequence of Eve's crime, the fruit was rendered colour, and about the thickness of parchment. When poisonous, in order to secure it from future profanation. spread on mats to dry in the sun, it curls up and becomes The blossom is a white flower something larger than that darker. The smaller pieces are then inserted into the of the apple-tree, opening into five long pointed leaves, larger, and, both contracting still closer, assume the form slightly pinnated, and presenting a pod which shoots from of solid rods. These are tied up into bundles with pliant the extremity of a capsule, something like that of the common gilly-flower. The fruit is very tempting to the When cinnamon is shipped for exportation, a quantity of eye, being of a vivid orange on the outside, and looking loose black-pepper is thrown in upon it, which, by attracting exceedingly beautiful, as the rays of the sun fall upon its the superfluous moisture, preserves and improves the cinsmooth and glowing surface. When cut, the pulp, which namon, while at the same time its own flavour is improved. is solid and without any stone, is of a deep ardent crimson, Thus the two spices prove mutually beneficial. but exceedingly acrid when the smallest quantity is placed The best cinnamon is of a light-brown colour, and does in contact with the tongue. The Mohammedans of Ceylon not much exceed the thickness of royal paper. It is of a formerly expressed great veneration for this tree, and con- fine texture, of a smooth surface, and brittle. Its taste is necting it with the print of Adam's foot on the summit of a sweet and sharp. The coarse cinnamon is dark, thick, and mountain in the interior, of which they are very tenacious hard. It has a hot and pungent taste, exciting the tongue, in their belief, they feel satisfied that this island is the and leaving upon the palate a somewhat acrid bitter. locality of the earthly Paradise. This belief is moreover The quantity of cinnamon sent from Ceylon to England strengthened by the legend of Adam's bridge, and the yearly, amounts to four thousand bales, or three hundred tombs of Cain and Abel in the island of Ramisseram, and fifty-three thousand pounds weight, for which the THE CINNAMON-TREE.

India Company pay to the British Government, a stipulated

price of sixty thousand pounds sterling, and transport it to THE Cinnamon-tree, which is the most profitable vegetable England at their own expense. production of this island, is a kind of laurel, growing to Oil of cinnamon was formerly made at Columbo, of the the height of from twenty to thirty feet. The trunk is fragments and small pieces broken off in packing. A great about the size of an ordinary man's body, giving out a quantity of this oil is obtained from the coarse cinnamon, great number of large horizontal branches, clothed with which is considered unworthy of exportation in any other thick foliage. The roots, which strike deep into the earth, shape. Three hundred pounds weight of the bark, are and spread considerably, are covered with an odoriferous said to yield no more than twenty-four ounces of oil. It is, bark on the outside, of a grayish-brown, and on the inside therefore, necessarily dear, and used commonly to sell at of a reddish hue. Camphor is extracted from them. The the rate of ten guineas a quart. It is highly esteemed stalk of the leaf when chewed, tastes strongly of cinnamon, both as a medicine and as a perfume. That of the best but is fresher and more juicy The leaves are oval, from quality, extracted from the finer sorts of cinnamon, is of a four to six inches long, and about three broad, with a pale-gold colour, and different from all other oils. Its smooth surface and plain edge. The blossoms are numerous excellence is determined by its sinking in water. The oil clusters of small white flowers, about the size of the lilac, distilled from coarse cinnamon is of a dark-brown hue, which they much resemble. The tree produces a-fruit of the and does not sink in water. The wood of the tree, when deform of an acorn, but not larger than a small black-currant, prived of the bark, has no smell, and is chiefly used for fuel. and in taste like the juniper-berry. When removed from The persons employed in the cultivation and barking of its socket, it has the shape of an olive, and when dry, cinnamon, are called Chalias. They are a distinct tribe of becomes a thin shell, containing an oval kernel

, no larger people ; not the lowest, but almost the poorest of the Cinthan the seed of an apple. If boiled in water, it yields an | galese casts. They appear, however, to be contented with


their condition, never repining at its severity. They feel Government, he draws extra payment for the surplus few or no wants, wear no clothing but a coarse bandage portion* round the waist, and live almost in a state of barbarous The principal figure represented in our engraving, is desuetude. They are governed in the same manner as RAJA Paxa, chief of the cast of cinnamon peelers in other casts, by their own officers, over whom is placed an Ceylon. When the Duti n slave-masters agreed to consider English superintendent, who is looked up to as the chief of as free, all the children of their slaves, born after the 12th the whole tribe. The inhabitants of each district where of August, 1816, this amiable person not only followed their cinnamon grows, are bound to deliver yearly, a certain example, but was even anxious to bestow immediate liberty quantity ready prepared for the market. Upon which con- upon all slaves, possessed either by himself or by any of his dition they are allowed to have gardens and pieces of land relatives. He is extremely hospitable to Europeans, a man rent free, besides enjoying other privileges. They likewise of extensive information, and the best Sanscrit and Pali obtain additional remuneration, sometimes in rice, and scholar in the island. The print represents Raja Paxa in sometimes in money, according to the time and labour the rich costume of his country, attended by two servants, employed by them in the public service. Every individual bearing umbrellas. It is copied from a picture by a native is obliged to furnish a stated proportion of cinnamon in artist, kindly lent by Sir Alexander Johnston. the season; and if any one deliver a larger quantity than

J. H.C. what is required of him by the stipulation of the British


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LONDON; Published by JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, West STRAND; and sold by all Booksellers,

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