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DRUIDICAL TEMPLE, NEAR KESWICK, is more than probable that these circular stone IN CUMBERLAND.
temples, in the midst of elevated moors or plains, were
places at which the people from the surrounding Time-honour'd pile! by simple builders rear a, Mysterious round, through distant times rever'd,
districts were at stated times assembled either for Ordain'd with earth’s revolving orb to last,
the purposes of justice, or for determining upon Thou bring'st to mind the present and the past. Dr. Ogilvie's Fame of the Druids.
affairs affecting the welfare of the community, and
which meetings were also accompanied with the perThe Druidical Circle represented in the accompany. | formance of religious ceremonies. ing plate, is to be found on the summit of a bold That the earliest temples and altars were formed and commanding eminence called Castle-Rigg, about of stones, rough and unhewn, is we believe admitted a mile and a half on the old road, leading from by all writers. Numerous passages may be quoted Keswick, over the hills to Penrith,—a situation so from the Old Testament in allusion to it, but one wild, vast, and beautiful, that one cannot, perhaps, amongst the rest may be noticed more particularly ; find better terms to convey an idea of it than by viz., Exodus xxiv. 4: "And Moses rose early in the adopting the language of a celebrated female writer, morning, and builded an altar under the hill, and (Mrs. Radcliffe,) who travelling over the same ground twelve pillars according to the twelve tribes of Israel." years ago, thus described the scene. “ Whether our It appears also that, in patriarchal times, they judgment," she says, " was influenced by the autho- planted groves as temples for worship, and in hot rity of a druid's choice, or that the place itself countries this was done, as well for convenience in commanded the opinion, we thought this situation summer season as also for magnificence. Abraham the most severely grand of any hitherto passed. we read “dwelt long at Beersheba, where he planted There is, perhaps, not a single object in the scene a grove, and called upon the name of the Lord," and that interrupts the solemn tone of feeling impressed in these groves were also erected temples of stone. by its general character of profound solitude, great The patriarchal mode of worship passed over all ness, and awful wildness. Castle-Rigg is the centre the western world, and is supposed to have been point of three valleys that dart immediately under it introduced into this country by the neighbouring from the eye, and whose mountains form part of an Celtæ or Gauls, or by the Phænicians, who traded amphitheatre, which is completed by those of Bor- hither for tin. However this may be, when the rowdale on the west, and by the precipices of Romans invaded Britain, they found the Druids Skiddaw and Saddleback, close on the north. The presiding over and conducting the worship of the hue which pervades all these mountains is that of country; acting also as judges and arbiters in all dark heath or rock, they are thrown into every form differences and disputes, both public and private. It and direction that fancy would suggest, and are at is from Cæsar, and other Roman writers, that most that distance which allows all their grandeur to pre- of the information we have respecting them is devail. Such seclusion and sublimity were indeed well rived, for they had no written rules or regulations suited to the dark and wild mysteries of the druids." either as to their religion, their science, or their laws.
These temples of the druids, though all in a The accounts therefore furnished by these historians circular form, (supposed to have been emblematic of of the religion and customs of the Druids, written the Deity,) present three varieties, which Dr. Stukeley principally from mere report, and under an hostile classed as follows. The round temples, simply, he impression towards them, are not altogether to be called temples, and such he considered to be the one relied upon ; indeed, the barbarities ascribed to them, at Rollrich, in Oxfordshire, and which also resembles in the ceremonial of their religion, are so much at this. Those with the form of a snake annexed, as variance with their high and acknowledged character that of Abury, in Wiltshire, he called serpentine in learning and general science, that one cannot but temples, or Dracontia, by which they were denomi- imagine them to be highly exaggerated, if not altonated of old; and those with the form of wings gether fabulous. annexed (as he supposed Stone-Henge to have The best authorities on the subject of the Druids been); those he called Altæ, or winged temples. seem to agree in the following description of them.
The one here represented is of the first, or simple They were the first and most distinguished order class, and consists, at present, of about forty stones amongst both the Gauls and Britons; they were of different sizes, all, or most of them, of dark chosen from the best families, and the honours of granite,—the highest about seven feet, several about their birth, joined with those of their function, profour, and others. considerably less; the few fir-trees in cured them the highest veneration amongst the people. the centre are, of course, of very modern growth. They were versed in astrology, geometry, natural The form may, with more propriety, be called an philosophy, politics, and geography; they were the oval, being thirty-five yards in one direction, and interpreters of religion, and the judges of all affairs thirty-three yards in another, in which respect, it indifferently; they were the instructors of the youth, assimilates exactly to that of Rollrich ; but what and taught by memory, as they never allowed their distinguishes this from all other druidical remains of instructions to be written. a similar nature, is the rectangular enclosure on the Their garments were remarkably long, and when eastward side of the circle, including a space of about employed in religious ceremonies they always wore a eight feet by four. The object of this is a matter of white surplice. They generally carried a wand in conjecture;—by some it is supposed to have been a their hand, and wore a kind of ornament enchased in sort of Holy of Holies where the Druids met, sepa- gold, about their necks, called the Druid's egg; they rated from the vulgar, to perform their rites, their are also represented with a hatchet in their girdle, divinations, or sit in council to determine contro used for the cutting of the mistleto.
others consider it to have been for the pur They believed in the immortality of the soul, and poses of burial, probably it might have been intended worshipped one Supreme Being. They attached a for both,
degree of sanctity to the oak, and wore chaplets of That the Druids also performed their worship in it in their religious ceremonies. They were deeply the seclusion of groves is a fact generally stated in versed in astronomy, and computed their time by history. The Isle of Anglesey, formerly covered with nights and not by days, and all their great solemwood, was a celebrated sanctuary for them; and it nities, both sacred and civil, were regulated by the
age and aspect of the Moon. Their most august | by way of preparation for the incantation, says to
I'm for the air
Upon the corner of the moon sessed, in fact, great store of knowledge in all
There hangs a vaporous drop profound, sciences; so much so, that Pliny speaks of them as
I'll catch it, ere it come to ground;
And that, distillid by magic slights, practising magic, and being so great proficients
Shall raise such artificial sprights, therein, as to equal the Persian and Chaldæan Magi,
As, by the strength of their illusion,
Shall draw him on to his confusion.
Part of the ingredients of the caldron were
Slips of yew
Slivered in the moon's eclipse silent bowings.
and there are other passages alluding to their cereThe Romans, on their invasion, endeavoured to monials. exterminate the Druids, but it does not appear that “ Time rolls his ceaseless course," bearing on his they induced the natives to adopt their own system wings the lessons of Divine Truth to the different of polytheism. The seeds of their ancient religion regions of the earth. How many forms of religion still continued implanted in their minds, and opened have already been cast into the shade by them? a ready access to the doctrines of Christianity, which And the period will doubtless arrive when the Temple are said to have made more progress in this country of Jagganatha, now an object of veneration to and Gaul (from the time of the first preaching of the millions, will, with his ceremonies, become the subGospel) than in any other.
ject of some legendary tale, or like the Druid's tem. Of this old patriarchal religion, the only remains, ple, a mere theme for the antiquary. in substance, to be found at present, are the stone
[Compiled from various Authors.] temples, of which few, if any, are in so perfect a state as the one here represented. The groves have When we see the year in his prime and pride, decked long since fallen beneath the axe, and most of the with beautiful blossoms, and all goodly varieties of flowers, stone temples have been spoiled for the value of the cheered with the music of birds, and stated in a sweet and materials in making fences or roads, or mending moderate temper of heat and cold, how glad we are that we habitations; the mallet of the geologist now comes have made so good an exchange for a hard and chilling in to aid the destruction, as was witnessed when the winter; and how ready we could be to wish that this sketch of this plate was taken; so that, in a few years But herein (were our desires satisfied) we should wish to
pleasure and happy season might last all the year long. more, this temple, like the rest, may disappear.
our own disadvantage; for if the spring were not followed Of the forms and ceremonies of the religion no with an intention of summer heat, those fruits, whose traces are to be found, except in the representation hopes we see in the bud and flower, would never come to of scenes of magic, in which we invariably see the any perfection, and even that succeeding fervour, if it magic circle,—the witch in a robe, with a wand in health and life of all creatures ; and if there were not a
should continue long, would be no less prejudicial to the her hand, and various other allusions to druidical relaxation of that vigorous heat in Autumn, as the sap ceremonies. Who can think of the subject without returns back into the root, we could never look to see but calling to mind the scene in Macbeth, where Hecate, one year's fruit.—Bishop HALL.
DRUIDICAL REMAINS, NEAR KESWICK, IN CUMBERLAND,
LONDON: Published by JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, West STRAND; and sold by all Booksellers,
PRICE 2 ONE PENNY.
UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,
APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.
THE CATHEDRAL OF CHRIST-CHURCH, ancient altar-tombs, and the shrine of Frideswide, an OXFORD.
elaborate and magnificent tomb, consisting of three
tiers of tabernacle work, the upper tier of which is KING Henry the Eighth, on dissolving the monasteries in this country, determined to apply a portion richly ornamented with canopied niches. Many of of the funds arising from them to the erection and the windows were destroyed during the parliamentary
Among the monuments are those of Lady Elia endowment of some new collegiate churches and bishoprics. Thus he added six episcopal sees to the zabeth Montacute; of Robert Burton, author of the old number, five of which are retained ;-Bristol, Anatòmy of Melancholy; of several members of the Chester, Gloucester, Oxford, and Peterborough, (the university, and of other eminent persons who died at two latter having been taken out of Lincoln ;) but the Oxford, while Charles the First held his court at sixth, the bishopric of Westminster, after continuing Christ-Church; also a very fine statue of Dr. Cyril ten years, was abolished in the reign of Edward the Jackson, by our eminent living sculptor Chantrey. Sixth. It is a curious fact, that five other dioceses Part of the cloisters remain. The chapter-house is were contemplated by Henry; viz., Bodmin, Col- a beautiful specimen of the early English style. chester,' Dunstable, Shrewsbury, and Southwell; The following is, we believe, a correct statement of neither of which, owing to the king finding other the dimensions of this cathedral.
ver matured according to ways for his money, was
Length from east to west.
Height of choir the plan devised. In 1546, he removed the see of
Height in the western part
411 Oxford from the ancient abbey-church of Osney,
Length of cross aisle, from north to south 102 where it had been established for five years, to the
Height of steeple.
144 church of St. Frideswide, from that time called ChristChurch Cathedral; Dr. R. King, abbot of Osney, building, to pass by without notice “ the bouny Christ
It would not be right in our short account of the becoming the first bishop of Oxford. Antiquaries Church bells," which, ten in number, hang in the tower have been eloquent in the praise of the abbey-church of the Cathedral, and which were brought thither of Osney, which was about half a mile from Oxford,
from Osney Abbey. Nor must we omit to mention assuring us that in extent and beauty, “it was not
“ the Mighty Tom," the largest bell in England, which only the envy of other religious houses in England,
was also brought from Osney to this church, and has but also beyond the seas.”
formed the subject of more than one classical copy of As the venerable structure represented in the plate
verses, On hearing its well-known sound, the students was originally the church of St. Frideswide, on the of the University take it as a signal to retire within their site of whose monastery the noble and distinguished respective colleges. Willis says “ Bishop John Fell, college of Christ-Church (first founded by Cardinal who built the noble tower in front of the stately gate Wolsey,) also stands, we cannot forbear giving the of Christ-Church, removed thither, out of the camlegendary history of this lady. Frideswide, anciently panile or bell-tower in the cathedral, the great bell honoured as the patroness of Oxford, was the daughter called Tom; which Thomas, now called Great Tom of of Didanus, a petty prince in those parts, who had Christ-Church, had this inscription anciently on it:founded an abbey. Algar, Earl of Leicester, fell
In Thomæ laude deeply in love with the maiden, and coveted her for
Resono Bim Bom sine fraude.” his wife, though she was a nun, and had been set Which monkish couplet of bad latin may be thus apart as sacred from the world. Meeting with a “ done into English ;" refusal, he wickedly resolved to carry her off by force;
In praise of Thomas, I repeat but the virgin, as it is said, miraculously warned of
My Dong! Ding! Dong! without deceit. his design, withdrew privately in a boat, to a place “Dr. Tresham, a papist, is said to have baptized this ten miles from Oxford, called Benton, where she lay bell by the name of Mary, when it was removed from concealed with two of her ladies, in a forsaken hut Osney to Christ Church, where he was canon, for the covered with ivy. Algar in the mean time, following joy of Queen Mary's reign." The excellent Dr. Fell up his purpose, threatened to destroy the town of had it recast in 1680, by Christopher Hodson of Oxford, if the inhabitants did not inform him where London, with additional metal *. Frideswide was hidden; till at length, being struck
Diameter of the Bell .
7 feet 1 inch. with blindness near the north gate, for his bold im From the crown to the rim
5 piety, he acknowledged the hand of Providence, im Thickness of striking-place plored and obtained the virgin's prayers, was restored
18000 lbs ! to sight, and, going home, ceased to trouble her more.
Weight of Clapper . “Froin which time," as the legend declares, "for divers respecuve weighits, see Saturday Magazine, Vol. 1., p. 21.
* For an account of the different bells in Europe, and of their ages, none of our kings durst enter Oxford, lest they should have met with a like disaster!" She died in The Love of Truth is a most important habit to cultivate, 739.
and it claims an alliance with the heart as well as the Christ-Church Cathedral is supposed to have been head. - It must be grounded on a virtuous disposition, for
no vicious person can be a lover of truth. We ought built about the year 1200. It has much of the Nor
always to remember that our reasoning faculties were not man style, with a tower in the centre, surmounted by given us to exercise them as mere whim or fancy might a spire of early English architecture. The exterior dictate, but to be the active instruments of guiding us to is greatly hidden by the college-buildings with which truth, and promoting our happiness as rational and imit is surrounded; being on the east of the grand
mortal creatures. To enter into verbal or written dispu
tations for the mere sake of argument, is a pernicious square of Christ-Church. The interior contains many
practice. It will, if continued for any length of time, interesting objects of attention. The arches of the
make a person altogether insensible to truth, and will unnave, part of which have been demolished, are in a hinge the whole fabric of his mind. Unless, therefore, a double series. The choir, which was wainscoted with love of truth occupies a conspicuous station among our oak in the time of Charles the First, is very handsome; mental excellencies, we shall make no progress in real the roof, a fine piece of stonework, put up by Wolsey, knowledge.
knowledge. Our mind will present an unseemly and being richly groined and adorned with pendants. The
disorderly assemblage of contradictory systems and opinions: pulpit is antique, and curiously carved. On the north it will be without order, symmetry, or grace, and the clouds
of prejudice will hang over the chaotic mass, just admitting of the choir are chapels of a later period than the rest
as much light through the hazy medium, as to make the of the building In the Dean's chapel are some scattered fragments of truth darkly visible.—BLAKEY.
ON THE MORAL AND PHYSICAL CONDITION design in the operation of that first cause to which it OF MAN.
owes its being; and thus it proclaims the existence
of a living and intelligent Creator. II.
Turning again from the contemplation of the It is not in respect to his physical nature alone, works of God in the universe, to the consideration of that man is so highly elevated in nature. In respect his own powers, man perceives that not only can he to his moral and religious nature also, man enjoys a render those powers available for the production of high privilege in the converse which it is permitted certain remote effects, but, further, that he can render him to hold with the Most High in his works. those other external powers, over whose action he has
However a knowledge of the truths of Natural no control, available to the same end. Not in any Science may offer to him the means of augmenting way modifying those powers, for that is impossible, his temporal welfare, did the study thereof produce the mode or law of their action being by the will an influence pernicious to him, in regard to that wel of the great First Cause,-but applying them. Thus, fare which is eternal, who would not wish that it he can avail himself of the gravitating force, or should for ever be to him as a sealed book? But it is weight, of a stone, to produce either pressure or not so. The principles of physical science, if rightly impact; the action of the stone is the same, but in viewed, point directly to some of the great and most the one case, the impulses of gravitation which it important truths of REVELATION ; above all, they continually receives, are as continually destroyed, , lead directly to an assured knowledge of the exist- whilst in the other, their accumulated energy is ence and attributes of God. “For the invisible destroyed altogether. Nay, further, he has power to things of him from the creation of the world are bring about the action of these natural causes upon clearly seen, being understood by those things which one another. He can bring, for instance, matter are made, even his eternal power and GODHEAD*." under the action of force, and he can subject both to
There is a perpetual chain of cause and effect the influence of time and space. He can, further, visible through all Nature. Wherever man directs induce the operation of these combinations in every his investigation, he finds causes which are but the possible degree upon one another, effects of others, and these of others in a perpetual Now, looking into the natural world, he perceives chain. Is it wonderful, that he should look for a that there must have taken place in it some such first cause, to which this infinity of effects stands in operation as that of which he thus finds himself the same relation that he does to such as are the capable. All that now exists, might have existed consequences of his own actions.
as it does now; there might have been every atom Although his search for that first cause among the of matter, every particle of force, and the same beings whose existence is made known to him through space occupied through the same time, and these the medium of sensation, be in vain, yet, ascending subject to the same laws; and yet, had not these been through the chain of causes, he has a distinct con- brought under the operation or influence of one sciousness that he is approximating to the first cause. another, there would have remained a state of things, The number of facts which he perceives to stand in the disorder of which it is beyond the power, or even the relation of causes to the rest, continually dimi- the province, of imagination to conceive. The whole nishes as he proceeds, until at length, he arrives at would have remained without form and void, replete certain of them, beyond which his senses refuse to with the elements of disorder, and the subject of carry him ; and these seem to him to stand next in perpetual change. order to the first cause. They may be classed under Here, then, we trace again, evidence of the operathe heads of Time, SPACE, MATTER, and Force. tion of a First Cause, bringing together what we
In considering the relations of Time, Space, Mat- have termed second causes, and thus applying their ter, and Force, one of the first things that strikes us, combined action according to the laws which He has is the uniformity of those relations. Such that the himself first imposed upon them, according to a same cause shall, under the same circumstances, method of operation to which man finds something always produce the same effect. This uniformity similar, but inconceivably inferior in degree, in his constitutes a Law; and each particular relation of own power. cause and effect, thus uniform, is a Law of NATURE, There is yet another proof of the existence of the
With regard to such actions as are the immediate Deity, drawn from strictly scientific considerations, subjects of man's own will, every one perceives that and founded indeed in the very principles of science. he has the power of modifying and varying them, Not only, do the planets revolve round the sun, together with the sequence of cause and effect grow but about certain axes within themselves, produing out of each, in every conceivable degree; and that cing thereby the alternations of day and night; he has also the power of adjusting his effort as first and these axes are inclined at certain angles to the cause, so as to produce a certain remote effect, and planes of their revolution, thereby bringing about neither more nor less than that effect. This adap- | the variety of the seasons. Now to effect all this, tation of the primary cause (and with it of all the as we find it effected, the one original impulse must intermediate causes,) to the remote effect, he calls have been made with a certain force, in a certain DESIGN. It is this power of design, or contrivance, direction, and at a certain point, on the surface of which distinguishes the relation of cause and effect, in each planet. Here, then is design. And when we living and intelligent beings, from that which exists consider that the whole of animated nature is conin the operation of inanimate agents and unintelligent trived with a view to the alternations of light and beings. Wherever we trace this relation of cause heat,—the green leaf, the bud, the blossom, and the and effect, coupled with design, we may conclude the fruit, in vegetables; the clothing, the internal orexistence and operation of an intelligent being. ganization, and the principle of life, in animals-do
Now this design is MANIFEST throughout Nature. we hesitate to admit that design to be the emanation Every blade of grass, every bud, every leaf, every of infinite wisdom ? blossom that the wind strews around us, every one If I wished to ascend or descend a hill
, or pass of those organized and living beings by which we are from one portion of it to another, with the least possurrounded, each of these, in its order, proclaims sible muscular exertion or expense of force, a slight * Romans i, 20. consideration would show me that the precise path to