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RURAL CHRONICLE.

than BERNARD GILPIN. This excellent man was APRIL.

raised up by Divine Providence at a critical period Departures. For the north ; Frost, Esq. and suite, of our long and arduous struggle with the church amongst whom we noticed Messrs. Wuodcock, Fieldfare, of Rome ; and if, as a theologian, Gilpin cannot be Red wing, &c. &c.

Arrivals.-Early in the month, Mr. and Mrs. Swallow; ranked with some of the other fathers of our national family expected to follow soon. N.B. Mr. and Mrs. S. go church, we must render our most reverential homage out very little as yet.

to that combination of zeal, piety, and charity, which The Messrs. Blackbird and Thrush have begun to give procured for him the distinguishing title of the Apostle their annual concerts for the season. Their respective of the North. ladies “are at home."

Bernard Gilpin was born of an ancient and honourThe musical foreigner of distinction, the Signor Cuckoo, whose favourite cantatas are so repeatedly encored, is able house at Kentmire, in Westmoreland, in 1517. said to be on the look-out for lodgings in the neighbour. At the age of sixteen, he was sent to Queen's hood : strange stories are in circulation respecting a branch College in Oxford, where he so much distinguished of the Sparrow family.

himself for his proficiency in learning, particularly The Widow Nightingale, to her seat in Poplar Island. in Greek and Hebrew (then rare accomplishments), The Miss Martins for the season.

Dr. and Mrs. Rook have made great progress in their that he was selected as one of the students to be new dwelling, which is built on the old site.

placed on Wolsey's new and magnificent foundation The Wren family, so famous in the annals of architec- / of Christ Church. For some years, however, Gilpin ture, have lately designed some edifices, which show them continued an adherent to the faith of Rome. He to be as skilful as ever in that admirable art.

even held a public disputation against Hooper, Court News. GAZETTE EXTRAORDINARY. the reformer, and afterwards martyr, for the reformed YESTERDAY, her Serene Highness, Queen Flora, held her doctrines; and, subsequently, was one of the persons first drawing-room this season; which was most nume selected to oppose Peter Martyr, when that great rously attended. The court opened soon after sun-rise, Mr. champion of Protestantism was sent by Cranmer, at Skylark was in attendance to announce the company. The Misses Daisy were the earliest visitors; after which

the beginning of King Edward's reign, to occupy arrivals were constant.

the chair of divinity at Oxford.

But the very Messrs. Bugle, Broom, Lilac, Orchis, Periwinkle, Ra- studies and researches which Gilpin instituted for nunculus, Stellaria, &c. &c., all richly and tastefully attired. the purpose of maintaining his cause, led him to

The numerous family of the Anemonies paid their de- doubt its strength; and, when he came to the contest, voirs early; these elegantes were variously habited, he acknowledged, with a candour and sincerity of some wore rich scarlet boddices, others purple and green mind peculiar to himself

, that he could not support train,--the Misses A., in robes of simple white and green, almost surpassed in beauty their more splendid relatives.

his argument. Still, such was his modesty and The Miss Violets, on their return to the country, intro- distrust of himself, that it was only by the most duced by the Ladies Primrose; the amiable and modest cautious and deliberate steps that he receded from appearance of the former was much noticed, the costume the faith in which he had been reared; and it was of each party was thought very becoming, and skilfully not until he had employed some more years at the assorted to set off the charms of both.

The Miss Blue-Bells wore robes of azure tissue, and university, in a patient investigation of truth, that were much admired for the sylph-like elegance of their he was induced to give the preference to the reformed forms.

principle. In 1552, when he was thirty-five years The beautiful Germander family, with their never-to-be- of age, he undertook the living of Norton; which, forgotten eyes of heavenly blue, attracted universal attention. however, he very soon relinquished, having still, it The arrival of the Rose family was anxiously expected.

seems, some lingering scruples on his mind which he The Miss Cowslips were presented: it has been the wished to dissipate, by consulting certain eminent fashion to call them the "pretty rustics ;" but they were most graciously received, and the delicate propriety of divines on the continent; and for this purpose he their dress and manners much admired..

spent three years in the Netherlands and France. The Lady Cardamines, costumes of the finest linen. At length, Gilpin returned to England a confirmed

Mrs. Tulip, body and train of crimson and gold: this and decided Reformer; and it is remarkable that he truly grand dress had a superb effect.

returned at the very time when so many persons of Messrs. Chestnut, Oak, Birch, Lime, &c. &c. sported his own religious principles were quitting the country new bright green liveries, of various shades. Messrs. Blackthorn, Pear, Apple, &c. &c. crowded round

to escape from the persecutions of Queen Mary. their sovereign, eager to pay their dutiful homage: they Gilpin, however, had a protector in his uncle, Cuthmade a magnificent show, 'in rich suits of white, red, and bert Tunstal, Bishop of Durham. This amiable green.

prelate, although still an advocate for the Romish The company were greatly delighted with a concert of Church, maintained his principles with moderation; vocal music from a large party of the best performers in the and, throughout the whole struggle between the two neighbourhood, consisting wholly of amateurs.

The Court broke up, having partaken of a few drops of a systeins of religion, he stands most honourably light and charming beverage ; but not before the Widow distinguished from his brethren, the crafty Gardiner, Nightingale, (who had joined the performers of the morn- and the ferocious Bonner. Neither, although well ing) had been entreated to favour the company with a apprized of the religious opinions of his nephew, did song, -ihat well-bred lady instantly complied, and poured he hesitate to confer upon him some pieces of preferupon the ears of her delighted auditors one of her most ment, and ultimately, the valuable and important heart-thrilling melodies.

benefice of Houghton-le-Spring, in the county of

Durham.
BERNARD GILPIN.

If Gilpin was long in coming to a decision, he We have occasionally wandered into foreign lands, maintained his opinions, once formed, with a resoin order to bring before the notice of our readers lution that could not fail to render him obnoxious to two most exemplary ministers of the Gospel, Oberlin the papal party. These men, after making several and Neff *. In our own country, and in our church, ineffectual attempts to ruin him with his uncle, we rejoice to know there have been many no less proceeded with better hopes of succes, to denounce bright examples of ministerial zeal and fidelity. him before the tribunal of Bonner. Gilpin was not Nor, among them, is there one whose character can insensible of his danger. He even prepared (according be contemplated with greater delight or edification, to a practice not uncommon in that age) a garment, • See Saturday Magazine, Vol. IV., p. 69

in which he might go decently to the stake, and put

It was

it on every day until he was apprehended. In his kingdom of Scotland, kept the inhabitants constantly way to London, he, however, chanced to break his in arms, and nourished the ferocious and predatory leg; and before it could be set, the death of Queen habits peculiarly characteristic of the Borderer. Mary freed the persecuted Protestants from all Moreover, the inaccessible character of the country danger or restraint.

had prevented the introduction of the reformed The reputation which Gilpin had now acquired doctrines, and, with their chieftains, the people were among the Reformers, procured for him, on the ac still blindly attached to the ancient superstitions. cession of Elizabeth, the offer of the Bishopric of In this wild tract of country, Redesdale and TyneCarlisle ; but the mitre had no attractions for him, dale were considered to be pre-eminently savage ; and, although the offer was twice pressed, it still was yet this was precisely the field to which Gilpia, steadily and peremptorily rejected. A short time availing himself of his general license for preaching, afterwards, he had another opportunity of proving directed his steps. For several years, he made an how little he was ambitious of high stations, by re annual progress through the parisbes of this sefusing the proffered Provostship of Queen's College, questered region; selecting for his visits, the winter in Oxford.

season, when the greatest number of persons were In fact, Houghton was to Gilpin what “dear likely to be collected together. He prea.hed among Hodnet,” in later times, became to Heber

them peace and good-will, and endear oured, but the station exactly adapted to his disposition and without personal risk, to subdue their barbarous taste, and where his history becomes especially inte. habits. On one occasion, two parties at deadly feud resting. The benefice was valuable, giving him a with each other, came armed into the church where revenue of 4001. per annum,-a large sum in those Gilpin was officiating, and seemed about to proceed days; but the parish was extensive, embracing not to actual hostilities, when the preacher, having less than fourteen hamlets, and the inhabitants were obtained from them a promise to forbear whilst he benighted in ignorance and superstition. Gilpin remained in the pulpit, proceeded with his sermon, addressed himself to the wants of his people; he and spent the remaining time in reprobating their was assiduous in preaching, and was instant, in sea- rude and bloody customs. Another time he saw a son and out of season, in bringing before them the glove suspended over the altar in a church, in token saving truths of the Gospel. He instructed in private of a general challenge from some person desperately as well as in public, condescending to the weak, bear- enamoured of fighting. Finding the sexton afraid to ing with the passionate, and consoling the afHicted. reinove the glove, Gilpin himself took it down with a He interposed his authority to settle the differences long staff, and put it in his breast. When the people of his parishioners, and, blessed by Divine Provi. were assembled, he went into the pulpit; and before dence with ample means, he was almost boundless he concluded his sermon, took occasion to rebuke in his benefactions. The decayed houses on his them severely for their inhuman challenges. "I benefice he repaired, and his own residence was made hear," said he, “ that one among you hath hanged admirable for the variety and neatness of the build up a glove, even in this sacred place, threatening ings. He relieved the wants of the sick and poor, to fight any one who taketh it down. See, I have and both for his own parishioners and strangers, he taken it down !” and pulling out the glove, he held kept an open table every Sunday, from Michaelmas it up to the congregation, and then showed them to Easter. Even their beasts had such care taken of how unsuitable these savage practices were with the them, that it was humorously said, if a horse was profession of Christianity, using such persuasions turned loose in any part of the country, it would to mutual love as he thought would most affect directly make its own way to the rector of Hough- them. It could not be supposed that such kindnesses, ton's. At the same time, in dispensing his charities, accompanied as they always were by a liberal distrihe was always desirous to give no encouragement to bution of alms, should fail to win the heart of these idleness or imprudence; and, with a yet higher view, uncultivated people. Gilpin was esteemed a very from the painful conviction of the want of learned prophet, and little less than adored among them; men to preach the word of God, he founded, at his and a pleasant story is told, that his horses having own cost, a grammar-school, building the house, once been stolen, when the thief (all Borderer as he allowing a maintenance for a master and usher, and was,) learned to whom they belonged, he brought boarding at a moderate rate, or gratuitously where them back with trembling, craving the pardon of need required, twenty-four youths, who received at Father Gilpin, and protesting his fears of immediate his hands the blessings of a learned and pious educa. punishment from heaven, if he had done him any tion. At the University he continued to entertain ten wrong. scholars ; and it was his practice, if he met with a Thus beloved and reverenced, Bernard Gilpin purpoor boy who exhibited any marks of superior intelsued his useful career. With advancing years he ligence, to remove him at once into his seminary, began to feel the infirmities of age, and he received and to charge himself with his maintenance and a serious hurt by being beaten down by an infuriated instruction.

ox, in the market-place of Durham. As his end Such was Bernard Gilpin in his parish; but it is a approached, he expressed to his friends and pa. remarkable part of his history, that to these labours rishioners the consolations that he derived from his of a parochial minister he added those of a mis- faith and hope in Christ; and, at length, he fell asleep sionary. In that age, the limits of pastoral charges in the Lord, in great peace, in 1583, in the 66th were less strictly defined than at present. The want year of his age. of a sound and well-educated clergy occasionally His biographer, Carleton, Bishop of Chichester, procured for divines, of superior attainments, a wło had been one of his scholars, concludes his life license to preach wherever they might judge their of his revered patron by saying, “ He was careful to services to be wanted; nor was there any part of avoid not only all evil doing, but all suspicion thereof. England more in need of spiritual labourers than the He was accounted a saint in the judgment of his mountainous parts of Durham and Northumberland. I very enemies, if he ever had any such ; and, at

This region was then quite wild and uncivilized. length, being full of faith unfeigned and good works, To the merchant and to the traveller it was imper he was at the last put into his grave, as a heap of vious; and its close neighbourhood to the hostile wheat in due time swept into the garner,"

THE NATURAL AND CIVIL HISTORY OF The bite of the Cobra de Capello is not so' immediately CEYLON.

fatal as is commonly supposed; fowls have been known to V. OF TĦE ANIMALS IN CEYLON-REPTILES. live two days after being bitten, though they frequently die Of the animals known in this island, the principal is the within half-an-hour. Upon dissection, it has been found that elephant, which is found in large herds, and is an object the lungs are the principal seat of diseased action. This is

the snake which the jugglers exhibit, and it is generally of very profitable traffic. The Ceylon elephant is particularly valued, and always fetches a high price. The next imagined to be perfectly harmless when exhibited, in conmost remarkable animal is the Elk, of which there is a

sequence of its fangs having been extracted by these adepts species, I imagine, peculiar to this island. It differs from in the art of legerdemain; but this is a mistake. The fangs the common elk, in having a short thick mane, that covers

are not extracted, and the creature is presented to the the neck and throat. When full-grown, it measures about spectator with all its powers of mischief unimpaired. five feet from the extremity of the fore hoof to the top of

The bite of a snake of this species shown by any of these the shoulder. Its colour is dark brown, except on the itinerant conjurors would as certainly prove fatal as from neck, belly, and hind part of the thighs, where it apo strange to those who have heard of these reptiles being con

one encountered in the jungle. This will, perhaps, appear proaches nearly to black. The habits of this animal are gregar.ous, though it is occasionally met with alone in the stantly shown in the houses of the curious, and more espe.

i cially when they are told that this snake is frequently perwoods. Its appearance betokens gentleness, and even timidity, but it is, nevertheless, very tenacious of a strangersmitted to put its head against the cheeks of the children of approach ; and at a particular season it is extremely dan- those who show them. The dexterity of the jugglers in gerous to go near it. It is very difficult to tame, for though managing these dangerous reptiles is truly extraordinary. playsui and harmless while young, as soon as it begins to They easily excite them to the most desperate rage, and by a have a consciousness of its power, it becomes wiid, and so

certain circular motion of the arms appease them as readily; impatient of restraint, that it cannot be reconciled even to

then, without the least hesitation, they will take them in its keeper. The female precisely resembles the male, except fingers to ibeir mouths, even while their jaws are furnished

their hands, coil them round their necks, and put their that it is smaller, and has no horos.

Buffaloes are common in Ceylon, and the white huffalo with deadly venom, and the slightest pui.cture from their is sometimes found; but these are very rare, and have a

fangs would most probably produce deaih. sickly appearance. It is therefore probable, as many of the

The power which these people exercise over this species natives suppose, that the whiteness is occasioned by some

of venomous snake, remains no longer a mystery, when its disorder, similar to that kind of leprosy in the blacks which habits are known. It is a remarkable peculiarity in the turns their skin to a dull sickly white.

Cobra de Capello, and I believe in most poisonous snakes

of this class, that they have an extreme reluctance to put THE SNAKES OF CEYLON.

into operation the deadly power with which they are It has been supposed that the island of Ceylon is par- endowed. The Cobra nerer bites unless excited by actual ticulariy infested with renomous snakes; I shall, therefore, injury, or extreme provocation, and even then, before it confine myself chiefly to an account of the snakes found arts upon its aggressor, it always gives bim timely notice there, by which it will be seen how far that idea is well of his danger not to be mistaken. It dilates the crest founlel. The Pimberah, as it is called by the natives, and upon its neck, which is a large tlexible membrane, having the Rock-snake by Europeans, is the largest of the serpent on the upper surface two black circular spots, like a pair of tribe known in Ceylon. It does not belong to the Boa spectacles, waves its heail to and fro with a gentle unduspecies, but to the new genus Python of Cuvier. In size latory motion, the eye sparkling with intense lustre, it never excee Is thirty feet, and seldom attains to this and commences a hiss so loud, as to be heard at a conlength. It has a couple of sharp horny spurs, a short dis- siderable distance: sv that the juggler has always warning tance from the extremity of its tail, which are useful to the of his danger when it is perilous to approach his captive. creature in climbing trees, and in holding fast its prey. The suake nerer bites while the hood is closerl, and as The colour of this snake is generally a mixture of brown long as this is not erected, it may be approached and and yellow; the back and sides are strongly and rather han lled with impunity. Even when the hood is spread, handisomely marked with irregular patches of dark brown, while the creature continues silent there is no danger. Its with very dark margins. The jaws are powerful, and fearful biss is at once the signal of aggression and of capable of great dilatation ; and they are armed with large, peril. Though the cobra is so deadly when under excitestrong, sharp teeth, reclioing backward. As the muscular ment, it is, nerertheless, astonishing to see how readily it strength of this snake is iminense, and its activity and is appeased, even in the highest state of exasperation, und courage considerable, it may be credited that it will occa this merely by the droning music with which its exhibitors sionally attack man. There can be no doubt that it over seem to charm it. It appears to be fascinated by the dispowers deer, and swallows them entire*.

cordant sounds that issue from their pipes and tomtoms *. " The body of this creature," says Knox, " is as big as The snake called Carawilla, by the Cingalese, is the most a man's middle, and the length proportionable. It is not common of the poisonous kind in Ceylon, but its bite is swift, but by subtilty catches its prey. He lies in the path scarcely more fatal than that of the viper in this country. where the deer use to pass, and as they go, he claps hold Its average length is about a foot. Its back is of a dull of them by a kind of peg that grows on his tail, with which reddish-brown colour, its belly nearly silver-white, and lie strikes them. He will swallow a roebuck whole, horns grayish towards the tail. On each side, between the ridge and all, so that it happens sometimes the horns run of the back and the boundary-lines between the back and through his belly, and kill him. A stag was caught by the belly, there are two rows of black velvety spots; and one of these Pimberahs, which seized him by the buttock, of these there are three in the tail. The head is nearly and held him so fast, that he could not get away, but ran triangular, and compressed; it is of a darker colour than a few steps this way and that way. An Indian seeing the the body, and is free from spots. Its jaws are very dilatestag run thus, supposed him in a snare, and having a gun, able. Its fang teeth are long, slender, and sharp. It shot him, at which he gave so strong a jerk, that it pulled lies coiled up, its head projecting nearly at right angles to the serpent's head off, while his tail was encompassing a its body. When provoked, it hisses, darts its head with tree, to hold the stag the better."

great rapidity at the irritating object, and wounds almost The first among the poisonous snakes known in Ceylon to a certainty. It is active, and when frightened and is the Cobra de Capello of the Portuguese, the Hooded-snake anxious to escap, moves with great rapidity. From of the English, the Noya of the Cingalese, and the Coluber several experiments made by Dr. Davy, it appears that the naja of Linnæus. Its length is from three to six feet. bite of this snake is not usually fatal, even to small animals. It varies much in colour, from light to dark brown. The The symptoms are pretty uniform, and quite different from natives in general rather venerate this snake than dread it. those produced by the poison of the Hoviled-sr.ake; the They conceive that it belongs to another world, and that diseased action being more local, and much more inflaniwhen it appears in this, it comes merely as a visiter. They matory, commencing in the part bitten, spreading progresimagine that it possesses great power, being somewhat sively, losing its force as it extends, and, probably, never akin io the gods, and greatly superior to man. In conse- proving fatal, except it happen to reach a vital organ. quence of this notion, they superstitiously refrain from The snake called by the Cingalese Ticpolonga, is by no killing it, and always avoid it, if possible. Even should

It is considered, and no doubt justly, the they happen to find one in their house, they will not destroy most dangerous snake on this island; though, if we take its it, but pul it into a bag, and throw it into ihe water. scarcity into the account, it would really be the least See Davy's Account of the Interior of Ceylon,

* See the Oriental Annual for 1835,

means common.

dangerous, as it is much more rarely met with than those were bitten. One of the unfortunate men was a Sepoy, alreaily mentioned. The natives have great dread of it. the other a grass-cutter. When full-grown, it is from four to five feet long, and There is a snake, sometimes, but very rarely, found in very thick in proportion to its length. It has not the Ceylon, which appears to be the same mentioned by gracefully tapering symmetry of the Cobra de Capello, Dr. Russell in his account of Indian serpents, under the neither is it of so brilliant a hue. The head is small, and name of Bodroo Pam. The Cingalese have no name for nearly triangular; its tail is tapering, round and short, it, which is sufficiently accounted for, by its being so something like that of the common English viper. The seldom seen. It is little more than two feet long, its colour of its upper surface, is a dark, dull, brownish-gray; head is large, and shaped like a heart, but irregularly. of its under surface, light-yellow. Its belly is not spotted, Its neck is small, and its body thin; its sides are combut its back is marked very regularly. In some specimens pressed, and the tail is rather abrupt and tapering, like the mark is oval, in some they are more pointed, having that of the Tiepolonga. Between the eye and nostril it has the form of a trapezoid ; in some they are surrounded with two large cavities, one on each side, the diameter of which a white margin; in others, the spots are lightest in the mid- rather exceeds one-tenth of an inch. Its lower surface is dle. This snake is rather indolent and inactive. It is very yellow, variegated with green; its upper, bright appleaverse to exercise the deadly powers with which Providence green. This colour is confined to the scales; the cutis has gifted it. It lies coiled up like the Carawilla, and also, beneath is black, consequently, where the scales are very like that snake, when irritated much, darts suddenly for close, as they are in patches along the back, black is ward, and strikes with a precision and activity that seldom excluded : and where they do not overlap, the green fails of producing the most fatal consequences. From appears to be shaded with black. A line of black scales several experiments which Dr. Davy made with this snake, may be mentioned, as occurring above the upper jaw, and on a dog and fowls, he found that its poison was much more a few of the same colour appear along the back. suddenly fatal, than that of any other snake in India. The fowls that were bitten, all died within two minutes,

REPTILES. and some within one. A rat expired within a few seconds It will appear from this, that the vulgar notion of Ceylon after it was bitten, the poison causing convulsions, and abounding with venomous reptiles, is quite erroneous. almost instant death.

Scorpions, centipedes, and two or three species of spiders, After a very minute inquiry into the matter, and con are the only other poisonous creatures known in this firming his researches by experiments, Dr. Davy has come island. Dr. Davy considers the sting of the scorpion little to the conclusion, that there are only two species of snake more severe than that of a wasp or a bee, but I think this in Ceylon, the bite of which is likely to prove fatal to man, is underrating its severity, as I knew of its proving fatal in the Hooded-snake and the Ticpolonga, and that the danger one instance to a European artilleryman, at Poonah, who from the latter, is very much greater than that from the was stung in the finger by a large black scorpion. The former. He, moreover, seems to think, that the bite of inflammation was so great, that he died within twenty-four the Cobra de Capello is much less fatal than is generally hours. There might have been some inflammatory represented; for he states, that he has seen several men tendency in the man's constitution, which was excited by who had recovered from the bite of that snake, and that the poison ; but I have known several in which the suffering he had heard of two or three only to whom it had proved has been intense, and for a considerable period. fatal. If this be the case, the poison of the Ceylon snakes It is astonishing, that where snakes and other poisonous must be of a less virulent kind than that of similar snakes reptiles are supposed to abound, not only in Ceylon, but in on the peninsula, for I have known two instances, in which India generally, so few accidents should occur, and indeed, death has ensued within a few hours after the persons their infrequency is a strong presumptive proof that they

* See Dr. DAVY's Account of the Interior of Ceylon, and Dr. are much less abundant than is commonly supposed. Russell on ludian Serpents.

J. H.C.

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