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the famous Lancelot Brown, who, from a word he by fire on the night of the 24th of September, often used in advising improvements in lawns, 1793, charcoal having been left about by the workgardens, &c., was called Capability Brown, and who men. removed some of the old oaks from Cowdray, placing The ruins of the west side of this magnificent formal clumps instead. Lately, however, a better mansion contain the most perfect traces of the style has prevailed, and among the "sunny spots of general architecture, and exhibit proofs of its amazing greenery” are to be found plenty of fine trees freely strength. Within the quadrangle, and about the spread about the grounds.
premises, lie several fragments of curious sculpture; Cowdray House was built in the form of a square, and the broken column, the chief front being towards the west, in the centre
Like the baseless fabric of a vision, of which was the gate, flanked by two towers. The east side contained the chapel, hall, and dining of human glory departed, but of the fate which, even
presents to the reflecting mind, a fit emblem, not only parlour, superbly fitted up, and decorated with paintings and statues: at the upper end of the hall at the time of this lamentable loss, yet impended was a buck standing, carved in brown wood, having
over the family. For by a sad coincidence, exemon the shoulder a shield with the arms of England, plifying the saying that misfortunes often come and under it the arms of Brown, with many destroyed, the noble owner, the young Viscount
together, a few short weeks after this stately pile was bucks as large as life, standing, sitting, and lying, Montague, during the life of his mother, and before the some with small banners of arms supported by their
, , feet. This hall and staircase were pictured with the together with his fellow-traveller, Sedley Burdett, story of Tancred and Clorinda from Tasso. The Esq., brother of the present Sir Francis Burparlour was adorned by Holbein, or some of his dett, Bart., in rashly venturing to navigate the scholars. On the south of the quadrangle was a long 1793 *. His estates devolved by will to his only
falls of the Rhine at Schaffhausen, in October, gallery, in which were, coloured in stucco, the twelve apostles as large as life; and on the north side was sister, married to W. S. Poyntz, Esq., the present another gallery, containing many whole-length family Member of Parliament for Midhurst, who resides at pictures,-also sacred and historical pieces, some
Cowdray Lodge, a small but elegant house in the of which were brought from Battle Abbey. The park, about a mile from the ruins. paintings on the walls were saved during the Civil
The title went to the next heir male, Mark Anthony War in the time of Charles the First, by a coat of Brown, who was descended from the second son of plaster laid over the stucco: but one of the officers The claim to the peerage then became dormant, if
the first Viscount Montague, and who died in 1797. quartered here, exercising his weapon against the wall, broke out of one of the groups the head of Henry
not extinct. the Eighth, which was afterwards replaced. This beautiful and massive structure was destroyed 'catastrophe which followed it, see the Annual Register for 1793.
• For a mention of the fire, and of the still more disastrous
UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,
APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.
PUBLIC LIBRARY AT CONSTANTINOPLE.
manuscripts are all written on the finest vellum, and " It is a ridiculous notion which prevails among
some of them afford beautiful specimens of penmanus," said Sir William Jones, many years ago, “ that ship; each library has a catalogue. Most of these ignorance is a principle of the Mohammedan religion, different collections are continually being augmented and that the Koran instructs the Turks not to be by the produce of the surplus funds arising from their instructed." There is little question that even now original endowments, and also by the liberal contriwe are too much accustomed to regard the followers butions of private individuals. The scribe who of that faith as necessar:ly rude and ignorant beings, writes a fine hand, generally regards it as a duty to men who will neither cultivate learning themselves, make a transcript of the Koran at some period of his nor allow others to do so; there is still less question life, and bestow the copy upon one of the Kitabthat the articles of their creed afford us no ground Khanès. Notwithstanding the necessary dearness of for such an impression. Mohammed not only per- books where printing is not practised, every citizen mitted, but advised his people to apply themselves to takes care to acquire a certain number in the course the acquisition of knowledge; “Seek learning," he of his life; and the lawyer, the statesman, or the man of tells them, in one of his precepts, " though it were in letters, who possesses a fine library, bequeaths it to China." The high estimation indeed, in which he some public library, that he may receive the benedicheld it, is abundantly shown in his extravagant tions of those who avail themselves of his liberality. declaration, that "the ink of the learned, and the Not many years ago it was a favourite opinion blood of martyrs, are of equal value in the sight of that there must exist in the libraries of ConstanHeaven." Nevertheless, it must be confessed, that tinople some fragments of ancient literature, which at the present day, there is no Mohammedan people had escaped the general destruction occasioned by remarkable for proficiency in literature or science; the Turks, when they captured the city in the fifteenth the existing race of Turks, who afford us the readiest century. In the year 1799, a strong desire of bringing specimen of a Moslem nation, are a set of barba- to light these concealed treasures, or, at all events, rians, as proud as they are ignorant. The early of settling the long-debated question of their existsultans, as well as their predecessors, the Saracen ence, led the English government to determine upon Caliphs, were the zealous patrons of knowledge; sending in the suite of Lord Elgin's embassy some “ Be the support of the Faith, and the pro- | competent person who should conduct the required tector of the sciences," was the dying injunction examination. The plan is said to have originated of the first Osman to his successor Orckan, in the with Mr. Pitt and the late Dr. George Tomline, beginning of the fourteenth century. The later Bishop of Lincoln; in all probability it was conceived sovereigns of the Turkish empire have been less by that eminent prelate, and readily patronized, as a zealous in the cause of learning; it is possible, that matter of course, by the enlightened minister. The as the fanaticism of their subjects has abated, the individual chosen for the execution of the task, was monarchs have become unwilling to remove their the late Rev. Mr. Carlyle, the Professor of Arabic in ignorance, lest the consequences should be detrimental the University of Cambridge; and the results of his to both the spiritual and the temporal despotism labours were communicated in a series of letters to which afflict their country.
the bishop, who afterwards placed them in Mr. WalOne of the modes in which the early sovereigns pole's hands, for publication in the Memoirs on Turkey. of Turkey have testified to posterity their regard for The attention of the professor was especially directed letters, is the establishment of Kitab-Khanès, or to the Library of the Seraglio; and we give our public libraries, in the great cities of their empire, readers a short detail of his proceedings, in endeaeither in connexion with the mosques and colleges, or vouring to examine that repository, both because apart as distinct institutions. Constantinople pos- they are interesting in themselves, and because they sesses thirty-five, none of them containing less than afford an illustration of the obstacles which oppose 1000 manuscripts, and some more than 5000. all such undertakings in a land like Turkey.
Our readers may acquire a good idea of the As soon after Mr. Carlyle's arrival in Constantiinternal appearance of one of these libraries, from the nople as circumstances permitted, an application engraving contained in the preceding page; the form was made with all the weight of the British Embassy of the books, which, with some very few exceptions, to Youssuf Aga, who possessed extensive influence are all manuscript, may also be seen in the group over the reigning Sultan, through the agency of which occupies the front of the view. Each volume the Valida, or Empress mother, for permission to is bound in coloured leather (red, green, or black,) examine the Library of the Seraglio. The request and is enclosed in a case of similar material, which was favourably received; not only did Youssuf protects it from the dust, and from the worms. The regard it as one which ought to be granted on account title of the work, instead of being written, as with of the friendship subsisting between his country and us, upon the back of the book, is marked first upon England, but he even thought (strangely enough for the edges of the leaves, and then again on the edge of a Turk,) that the inspection might be productive of the outer covering. Cases, with glass or wire-work some advantages to literature in general. A promise fronts, are ranged along the walls of the library, or was immediately given that an inquiry should be set in its four corners; and in those the volumes are on foot; and subsequently, Youssuf declared “that deposited, resting on their sides, one above another. he had made every investigation in his power, and
These libraries are open on every day of the week, had found that no collection whatever of Greek except Tuesday and Friday; visiters are allowed to manuscripts remained at present in the Seraglio." read any books, to make extracts from them, and A request was then preferred for permission to exaeven to transcribe a whole manuscript. The subjects mine the repositories of Oriental books in the palace; of the greater part of the works, are, of course, and to this it was answered, “ that there were two analogous to the usual studies which are followed in of these, one in the Treasury, the other in what is the colleges, or medressès ; and as law and theology properly called the Library; that the former conalone occupy the attention of the students, the mass tained only copies of the Korán, different comof books consists of copies of the Koran, and com mentaries upon it, and treatises peculiar to the Momentaries upon it, with collections of the oral laws of hammedan laws and religion, and as such could not Mohammed, and works on jurisprudence, The be subjected to Mr. Carlyle's inspection, but that the
Library should be open to him, and a day should be some Persian, and some Turkish,-"but, alas," to fixed for his admission."
use the Professor's pathetic exclamation, “ not one After the usual delays, permission was granted; volume in Greek, Hebrew, or Latin !" The subjects and Mr. Carlyle was requested to attend on a par- to which they related were various, but, of course, ticular morning at the house of Youssuf. The Pro. the prevailing class was theological. Of the Koran fessor attended by a Dragoman (interpreter belonging there were 17 manuscripts, and no less than 6-19 to the Embassy,) arrived about eight o'clock. relating to the Mohammedan religion, or jurispru“ Youssuf was gone out to wait upon the Sultan,” is dence; on mystical subjects there were 47 treatises, the account which he gives in his letter to Bishop and on philosophy 86; logic and philology numbered Tomline, “and we found his Kiaia (steward) ready 343, and medicine 31; while the histories were 13, to receive us; we were ushered into a room where and the works of poetry and the belles lettres 79. that gentleman lodged, who, with five others of the Such, my lord,” adds the learned examiner, “ is principal officers or attendants belonging to the Aga, the famous Library of the Seraglio ! respecting which were still at dinner. We sat down upon a sofa so many falsehoods have been advanced ; but I am beside them, and as soon as their repast was over, now very clear, both from the manner in which it is and they had finished their ablutions, the Kiaia gave secured, the declarations of the Turks, and the con. us a letter to the Bostangee Bashi, (chief of the tradictory accounts of the Franks, it was never before guard, and in fact, superintendent of the Seraglio.) subjected to the examination of a Christian." Furnished with his passport, we rowed to the During Mr. Carlyle's residence in Constantinople, Kiosk, or Pavilion, where the Bostangee Bashi he examined, besides the repository contained in the usually passes the day. He was engaged at the Seraglio, several other collections, omitting, indeed, Porte, and we were shown into a small guard- no one within his reach “ which was likely to con. chamber, in order to wait his return; a messenger, tain any valuable manuscripts." The Library of the however, soon arrived to conduct us to him. Thus Patriarch of Jerusalem,—the largest of the empire, escorted, we were suffered to pass the guard and to -was visited, and a catalogue taken of its contents, enter the court, or rather, garden of the Seraglio. which comprised nothing remarkable; the libraries After waiting some time for intelligence respecting attached to the mosque of Santa Sophia, to the the Bostangee Bashi, his deputy arrived, read the schools, mosques, and colleges of Dervises, and even to letters we had brought, and as his principal was the monasteries which are established on the Prince's engaged in the Seraglio, took upon himself to send Islands, in the Sea of Marmora, were also inspected. for the keeper of the library, and direct him to conduct In these researches Mr. Carlyle was aided by Dr. us thither; we accordingly accompanied him and Hunt; and their result is shortly summed up by the three Moulahs, to a mosque at a little distance, latter gentleman, in a declaration, that “in none through which the entrance to the library lies." of those vast collections is there a single classical Passing through this mosque “without speaking, and fragment of a Greek or Latin author, either ori. upon tiptoe,” as they were directed, the party reached ginal or translated. The volumes were in Arabic, the outer door of the library, which was locked and Persian, or Turkish, and of all of them Mr. Carlyle had a seal fixed upon the lock; over it was a short took exact catalogues." We must tell our readers, Arabic inscription, containing the name and titles of however, that very competent judges have questioned Sultan Mustapha, who founded both the mosque and the propriety of so decided an assertion, grounding the library in the year 1767.
their objection on the necessarily cursory, and, there“ The library,” continues the letter, " is built in fore, unsatisfactory nature of the examination which the form of a Greek cross; one of the arms serves was made. “ It was not possible,” is the opinion as an anti-room, and the remaining three, together expressed in the Quarterly Review," for these with the centre, constitute the library itself. You gentlemen, without an examination of the books proceed through the anti-room by a door, over themselves, to ascertain that they contained no which is written in large Arabic characters, “Enter translated fragments of a classical author. We think in peace.' The library is small, for, from the it on the contrary very probable, that some of the extremity of one of the arms to the extremity of Arabie manuscripts may contain portions of Aristotle the opposite one, it does not measure twelve yards. or Galen, or of later Greek writers." The authority Its appearance, however, is elegant and cheerful. of the Rev. Mr. Renouard, a well-known Orientalist, The central part of the cross is covered with a dome, who was chaplain to the British factory at Smyrna, which is supported by four handsome marble pillars; tends to the same point. “It is not impossible," the three arms, or recesses, that branch off from this, says that gentleman, “after all that has been said have each of them six windows, three above and as and done about these supposed relics of the Library many below. So small an apartment cannot but be of the Cæsars,' that some volumes may be still extant rendered extremely light by this great number of in the subterranean recesses of the Seraglio. The windows, and perhaps this effect is not a little in- Turks allow the monuments of antiquity to fall to creased by the gloom of the mosque, and the dark- ruin, but they seldom destroy any thing; and Mr. ness of the anti-room which leads to it. The book. Barthold, formerly one of the Dragomans at Concases, four of which stand in each of the three re- stantinople, declared that an eminent Greek merchant cesses, are plain but neat. They are furnished with assured him that he had seen books from the Library folding wire-work doors, secured with a padlock and of the Palæologi* in one of the chambers of the the scal of the librarian. The books are laid upon Sultan's Treasury, when admitted for the purpose of their sides, one above another, with their ends out ascertaining the value of various articles in gold and wards, and having their titles written upon the silver, which the government wished to send to the edges of the leaves.”
mint." Mr. Carlyle proceeded to take a rapid survey * The Palæologi wers a noble race who ruled over the Greek of the contents of this celebrated repository, but the empire for the last two hundred years of its existence, with some
slight intervals. jealousy of the Moulahs, who accompanied him, prevented him from making out a detailed catalogue of the separate articles. He found the whole number
Every man has something to do which he neglects;
every man has faults to conquer which he delays to come of manuscripts to be 1294 ; there were many Arabic, bat.-JOHNSON.
THE LARGE FLOWERING SENSITIVE PLANT. | leaves, approaches the main stem. If the touch has (Mimosa grandiflora.)
been forcible, not only the twig supporting one series of leaves is affected, but the same effects take place in the compound leaf, on the opposite side of the stem, and this motion is sometimes communicated to the whole plant.
It is very difficult to touch the leaf of a healthy sensitive plant so lightly as not to make it close: after the leaves are closed, some time clapses before they regain their original position, and the duration of this interval depends on the time of day, the season of the year, and the more or less healthy state of the plant. It seems, however, that light is az agent necessary to the production of some of these movements.
In the month of August, a sensitive plant was carried in a pot from its usual situation, into a dark cave; the motion it received in carriage, caused it to close its leaves, and they did not open until fourand-twenty hours afterwards: by this time they had become moderately open, but were afterwards subject to no changes at night or morning, remaining three days and nights with their leaves in the same state. At the end of this time it was brought out again into the air, where the leaves recovered their natural periodical motions, shutting every night, and opening every morning, as naturally and strongly as ever : but although while in the cave, their periodical motions were suspended, they shrunk from the touch with almost as much power as when in the open air.
Although a sensitive plant is, as we have seen, easily affected by the slightest touch, and closes when subjected to a heavy fall of rain, it remains unmoved if only exposed to a gentle shower. If the leaves are touched with sufficient force, the branches are also affected, but it is possible, if the experiment is carefully performed, to cause the branch to move towards the stem, the leaves still remaining in their original position with reference to each other; thus proving, that the power of motion belonging to each part of the plant is independent of that possessed by any other part.
The same species of irritability has also been This splendid shrub grows wild, both in the East noticed in many other plants; one instance occurs in and West Indies. It is frequently found in the the flower of the common barberry. The experimountains of Jamaica, and was introduced into our ment was made on a bush in full flower (it was about gardens in 1769, by Mr. Norman. It belongs to the one o'clock, the day was bright and warm, with very same tribe as the common sensitive plant, but does little wind,) and is thus related by Dr. Smith. not possess the power of closing its leaves at the “The stamina of such of the lowers as were open approach of danger, in nearly so high a degree as its were bent backwards to each petal, and sheltered less-splendid companion. We must all have noticed themselves under their concave tips. No shaking the folding back of the leaves, and the rolling up of of the branch appeared to have any effect upon the flowers, of many well-known plants, in the them. With a very small bit of stick I gently evening, or at the approach of rain, and their touched the inside of one of the filaments, which subsequent expansion in the morning, or after the instantly sprung from the petal with considerable passing by of the shower. But the sensitive plants force, striking its anthera against the stigma. I include within themselves a power of motion far repeated the experiment a great number of times in exceeding this, and approaching, in appearance, the each flower, touching one filament after another, until voluntary movements of an animal. The origin of the tips of all six were brought together in the centre this singular power has never yet been discovered, over the stigma. although numerous experiments have been made, to “ I took home with me three branches laden with ascertain the fact. These experiments all tend to flowers, and placed them in a jar of water, and in demonstrate the infinite variety of ways, in which the the evening tried the experiment on some of these Creator of all things has furnished every object of flowers, then standing in my room, with the same his crcation with the means of self-preservation. SUCCESS.
We have already alluded to the periodical closing “ This irritable power appears, however, to reside of the leaves of plants: the same motion takes place only in the inside of the filament, as when touched in the sensitive plants, but the wonderful fact in the in any other part it remained unmoved." history of the latter is, that this movement can be produced at any time, and by merely touching the THERE are few occasions in life in which we are more leavcs gently, they will instantly recoil
, and fold called upon to watch ourselves narrowly, and to resist the themselves together, as if for self-protection; and at assaults of various temptations, than in conversation.--the same time, the small twig which sustains the HANNAH MORE.