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It was introduced by the Spaniards, and “propagated, Many of the smaller paintings appeared to be of value, among the natives," "according to Mr. Ward,“ more by and works of the old Spanish and Italian masters; but the arms of the first conquerors, than by the arguments of they are so placed, and in such an obscure light, that it is the friars who accompanied them;" and it has since been not possible to judge decisively of their merit." The preserved during the last three centuries, “ with all the centre of the church is occupied by a balustrade, which is intolerance of spirit for which the mother-country is so composed, according to Mr. Ward, of a metal brought from remarkable."
China through the Philippine Islands, and which is said It is difficult, indeed, to conceive a stronger picture of men to be a composition of brass and silver; it is massive, and tal debasement, than is exhibited in the religious condition adorned with a great many figures, but, on the whole, not of the great mass of the present population of Mexico. remarkable for beauty. Mr. Bullock says, that the metal What must we think of a country where the whole, or nearly is considered to be of such value, that a silversmith of the whole people are so deeply sunk in superstition, as to Mexico is said to have made an offer to the bishop, to conyield implicit credence to some of the grossest fables that were struct a new rail of solid silver of the same weight, in ever invented for the deception of mankind,-where un-exchange for it. bounded faith is reposed in the efficacy of a set of unmean It is in the outer wall of this cathedral that is fixed the ing or idolatrous mummeries,—where, to use Mr. Beaufoy's curious Calendar Stone, vulgarly called “ Montezuma's words, “not a hut or a garden, a pig-sty or a foot-path, can Watch," by which the ancient Aztecks used to designate be used, until blessed and ornamented with a wooden the months of the year. It is circular in form, and concross,"—where the churches are crowded with images, sists of a mass of porphyry, weighing more than 24 tons ; “ each one more reverenced than the Almighty himself;" | in the centre is a hideous head, sculptured in relief, repreand where “women and even men prostrate themselves on senting “ the sun in his four motions;" around this is a the floor at the raising of the host, and make the sign of double row of hieroglyphics, behind which again there are the cross with their tongues amid the dust and filth ?" All other circles in relief. At a little distance from it, and these things are sad evidences of degradation ; and still sunk in the earth, so as to leave only its surface exposed, further testimony may be found in many incidents which is the famous Stone of Sacrifices, on which it has been are related by travellers. As a specimen of the ludicrous supposed that the human sacrifices were performed in the extravagancies into which intolerance and credulity do ancient temple of Mexico. “ It is in a complete state of lead the inhabitants of this country, our readers may take preservation," says Mr. Ward, “and the little canals for the fact, that some horses which had arrived from England carrying off the blood, with the hollow in the middle, into were actually accused of heresy, (our own country being, which the piece of jasper was inserted, upon which the back of course, thought peculiarly heretical,) and would have of the victim rested while his breast was laid open, and his been stoned to death, but for the timely interposition of a palpitating heart submitted to the inspection of the high guard of soldiers. Unfortunately this state of things is priest, give one still, after the lapse of three centuries, a not confined to the lower classes; at least, so we may very lively idea of the whole of this disgusting operation." infer from the circumstance of there having been some Humboldt, however, dissents from this opinion. “I am debate in the Mexican Congress about the national advan- inclined to think,” he says, “ that the Stone of Sacrifices tages that were likely to ensue from cashiering one patron was never placed at the top of a teocalli, but was one of saint and electing another.
those stones called temalacatl, on which the combat of the When we bear all these things in mind, we shall not gladiators took place between the prisoners of rank, destined find much difficulty in assenting to the position laid down to be sacrificed, and a Mexican warrior. Placed on the by Mr. Poinsett, that “there is no country in Europe or temalacatl, surrounded by an immense crowd of spectators, America, where the superstitious forms of worship are they were to fight six Mexican warriors in succession : is more strictly observed than in Mexico. The Indians,” | they were fortunate enough to conquer them, their liberty adds that gentleman, “who were with difficulty won from was granted them, and they were permitted to return to their idolatry, love to blend the superstition of their former their native country; if, on the contrary, the prisoner sank worship with the rites of the Catholic Church. They are under the strokes of one of his adversaries, a priest dragged fond of pageants and processions; and frequently represent him, dead or living, to the altar, and tore out his heart." the Nativity, Crucifixion, and other sacred mysteries of Among the other churches of Mexico, the chief are our holy religion. This disposition to represent heavenly those attached to the Franciscan Convent, and the Monasthings by sensible images, is common in all Catholic tery of La Professa. The church of Santa Theresa is also countries. I have seen theatrical representations of the mentioned as “handsomely ornamented, and in good taste; Nativity in Rome. They tell us that the distinction and that of La Encarnacion is spoken of as very rich and between the sign and the thing signified is never lost sight splendid, the principal altar being surmounted by a pyraof; but I cannot believe this to be true of the ignorant mid of embossed silver, at least fifteen feet high." multitude of Rome, or of the poor Indians in Mexico. At a short distance from Mexico, on the rocky hill of These poor people are as much idolaters as they were in Tepeyacac, stands the Church of Nuestra Senora de the days of Montezuma."
Guadalupe-Our Lady of Guadalupe, which is celebrated
throughout the whole of Mexico for its miraculous origin, CHURCHES.
and the possession of an equally miraculous picture
of the Virgin. The absurd legend occupies a huge The churches of Mexico are very numerous; an Ame- folio volume; it may be briefly noticed in a few lines, rican gentleman counted, within the limits of the city, thus. Soon after the conquest, a vision of the Virgin 105 cupolas, spires, and domes; and the actual number of appeared to an Indian peasant, and ordered him to go churches is about 60. Of these the most remarkable is the to the Bishop of Mexico, relate what he had seen, and cathedral, which covers an immense space of ground; it order the prelate to build a chapel on that very spot in her stands on the site of the great temple of the ancient city, honour. The man approached the episcopal palace, but and under its foundations many valuable relics of Mexican was intimidated by the state and magnificence that surantiquity are supposed to be buried. Its appearance is rounded the bishop, and retired accordingly without obeycurious, as our readers may perceive by a reference to the ing the orders he had received. On his return he again Engraving which we gave of its principal front, in the former saw the vision, which rebuked him for his disobedience, Supplement on Mexico. One portion is low, and of bad and delivered a more positive command. The peasant Gothic architecture; the remaining part, which is more
asked for some token, to show that his mission was handsome, is built in the Italian style, and decorated with authentic: he was ordered to climb to the summit of the statues, pilasters, and a variety of ornaments.
rock, and told that he would there find the sign which he The interior of this edifice is highly embellished; but required. The man obeyed, and though it was the midst though riches have been lavished on it with profusion, of winter, he found the heretofore desolate spot covered there is nothing grand or imposing in its general effect. with flowers. He gathered some, went instantly to the Its wooden carvings are beautifully executed, and, altoge- palace, obtained admittance, related all that had happened, ther, it is superior to the other churches of the city; the and then presented the flowers. The tale was instantly prevailing character, however, is gaudiness. “ On enter-credited, a procession to the rock set forth, and the picture ing,” says Mr. Bullock, “ I felt something like disappoint- was discovered. The church was immediately built, and ment, notwithstanding the extent and magnificence of the munificently endowed. interior. The centre is nearly filled by the ponderous Such is the ridiculous fable which is implicitly believed erections, which entirely obstruct its otherwise fine appear- by the inhabitants of this country, as the real history of ance, and the high altar is too large for the place it occupies. the origin and foundation of the church of Guadalupe
So strong is its influence, that even to this day offerings | by a vigorous repression of crime, while at others they are are sent from every part of Mexico to this shrine of the quietly left to take care of themselves in the best way they Virgin. The first chapel was built at the top of the hill; can. It is easy to conceive that under the old Spanish rule, a large one at its foot is now the principal one, and within the jealousy of the government may have led to a better its walls the picture is preserved. Several chapels have system, and to a stricter enforcement of the laws, against been erected at different times by individuals, and the all disturbers of the public peace; nor is it more difficult whole collection presents rather a rich appearance. It is to understand how, in the course of the long revolutionary difficult to say to what style of architecture it belongs, as struggle which has uprooted the whole system of governall pretensions to uniformity are destroyed by the numerous ment in Mexico, and left the country a prey to contending capellas (or chapels) erected in the vicinity of the principal factions, the efficiency of the police may have become edifice, by the more wealthy votaries of the virgin. One relaxed, and a license have been assumed by evil.doers, to of them is very remarkable; having been built to com violate the laws with impunity. memorate an escape from shipwreck, it has assumed as much as possible the form of the sails of a ship. Our
Like most cities of Spain, and cities of Spanish origin,
especially celebrated. Unluckily, however, it has shared The city of Mexico," says Humboldt, “is remarkable in the common decline of all things in this capital, and no for its excellent police. Most of the streets have very longer presents the same scenes of splendour which characbroad pavements, and they are clean and well lighted." terized it in former days; nevertheless it is still a place He must use the word however more in its continental which possesses very considerable attractions, and is looked sense, than in the signification which we commonly attach upon as a very important appendage to the city, by all its to it, or else things must have greatly changed since the pleasure-loving inhabitants. Our extracts will enable our time when he wrote. The Mexican capital still continues readers to compare its present condition with the appearance to enjoy the advantages of broad pavements, and clean which it offered in the olden time, when, as a colony of Spain, well-lighted streets; but, unfortunately, no man can walk Mexico enjoyed some portion of the prosperity which them after night-fall, without running a considerable chance attached to the mother-country. The first is from the pen of being robbed or murdered. “ We intended to go to the of Thomas Gage, commonly called Friar Gage, who resided theatre," says Mr. Poinsett,“ but first drove home to get in the capital for some time, during the year 1625. our sabres, that we might walk home in the evening with " The gallants of this city," he says, “ show themselves safety. This will seem a very strange precaution in a daily here on horseback, and most in coaches about four of civilized country, but it is absolutely necessary. The porter the clock in the afternoon, in a pleasant shady field called of our house seeing me go out in the evening when I first la Alameda, full of trees and walks, somewhat like unto arrived, without being armed, remonstrated with me on our Moor-fields, where do meet as constantly as the merwhat he was pleased to call my rashness; and, on inquiry, chants upon our Exchange, about two thousand coaches, full I found that it was considered imprudent to do so.
of gallants, ladies, and citizens, to see and to be seen, to told robberies and assassinations were frequent, and that court and to be courted, the gentlemen having their train not lesss than twelve hundred assassinations had been
of blackmore slaves, some a dozen, some half-a-dozen, committed since the entrance of the revolutionary army waiting on them, in brave and gallant liveries, heavy with into the capital. I could not learn that any of them had gold and silver lace, with silk stockings on their black legs, been detected and punished." Surely, then, if the police and roses on their feet, and swords by their sides; the ladies be excellent in the one sense, it is execrable in the other. also carry their train by their coaches side, of jet-like dam
But this is not the worst; in the immediate vicinity of the sels, whó, with their bravery and white mantles over them, capital, robberies are openly committed in the face of day. seem to be, as the Spaniard saith, mosca en leche, a tlie The ruined suburbs afford every advantage for the commis in milk. But the train of the viceroy, who often goeth to sion of crime, and the concealment of the offender; so that no this place, is wonderful stately, which some say, is as great one thinks of taking a walk into the outskirts of the capital as the train of his master, the king of Spain. At this without pistols and companions. It is not, however, by the meeting are carried about, many sorts of sweetmeats and lowest classes alone of the community that these offences are papers of comfits to be sold, for to relish a cup of cool water, committed; individuals of a much higher order have been which is cried about in curious glasses. But many times, known to be engaged in them. Their mode of proceeding continues this quaint describer, " their meetings, sweetened is to sally forth, well mounted, in large parties, and drag with conserves and comfits, have sowre sauce at the end, their victim from his horse by means of the well-known for jealousie will not suffer a lady to be courted, no, nor lasso; they then strip him of bis clothes, as well as his sometimes to be spoken to, but puts fury into the violent money, and, should he be unwise enough to resist, some hand, to draw a sword or dagger, and to stab or murther times murder him. Mr. Beaufoy says, that soon after he whom he was jealous of, and when one sword is drawn, left Mexico, an English gentleman, newly arrived in the thousands are presently drawn, some to right the party capital, was stopped, robbed, and stripped, close to the gate wounded or murthered, others to defend the party murof the city. He was riding quietly about the environs, thering, whose friends will not permit him to be apprehended, comparing the open pages of Bullock's book with what he but will guard him with drawn swords, until they have saw himself, when he was disagreeably interrupted by a conveyed him to the sanctuary of some church, from whence lasso, and rather a violent fall from his horse. Some five the viceroy his power is not able to take him for a legal and-twenty Mexican gentlemen rode by, but, seeing what tryal." was going on, they very prudently did not interfere; had It would certainly be quite useless to look now-a-days for they done so, one of two evils must have occurred; either such a scene of splendour on the Alameda of Mexico; the the Englishman would have got stabbed, or their country- trains of slaves "with silk stockings on their black legs men would have lost their booty. Pistols are the mast and roses on their feet, and swords by their sides," have all formidable weapons which the traveller can carry for his passed away with the prosperity of this country. Of the own protection ; indeed, they are the only weapons to be size of this place our readers may, perhaps, be unable to relied on as a means of defence, for the natives are very form an idea from Gage's statement, that it was
“ like unto good swordsmen, and when they have the advantage of our Moor-fields" of the sixteenth century. Mr. Beaufoy numbers, will not be intimidated by any thing but fire says it is about as large as Lincoln's Inn Fields. It is arms. Europeans are generally provided with them, and laid out in lines radiating from different centres, and have, therefore, seldom been openly assaulted; whereas, planted with avenues of trees, shrubberies, &c. It has a some ludicrous instances have occurred of Mexican gentry carriage-road round it, to which it is the fashion for ladies coming back to town without their shirts.
to drive out about four in the afternoon, and their carriages Judging from the accounts of different travellers, we may being drawn up in a long line, often remain stationary for infer that the state of the police in the capital, depends alto- hours. gether on the character of the government generally, or of Amongst the many curious scenes that Mexico preihe individual functionary, within whose department the sented," says Mr. Ward, “I know none with which we were care of the lives and properties of its inhabitants may more struck than the Alameda. As compared with the happen to fall. It would appear, that sometimes the autho- Prado* of Madrid, it was, indeed, deprived of its brightest rity of the state is exerted for the protection of its subjects,
* To be described in a future portion of this work.
ornament, the women, for few or none of the ladies of the lazzaroni of Naples in every thing, with this only Mexico ever appear in public on foot : but to compensate this, į difference, that instead of eating maccaroni they drink it had the merit of being totally unlike any thing that we pulque. had ever seen before. On a Sunday, or Dia de Fiesta This pulque is the favourite beverage of the lower classes (Festival Day,) the avenues were crowded with enormous in the city of Mexico, and in a very considerable portion coaches, in each of which were seated two or more ladies, of the republic around; it is the produce of a plant called dressed in full evening costume, and whiling away the time Maguey, or Metl, or Pittes, a species of Agave Americana, with a segar, in awaiting the approach of some of the or American Aloe. The growth of the plant is slow, but numerous gentlemen walking or riding near. Nor were when it has reached maturity, its height varies from six the equestrians less remarkable; for most of them were to eight feet, with leaves of corresponding size; it will equipped in the full riding-dress of the country, differing flourish with very little culture, on the poorest soil. In from that worn by the lower orders, only in the richness of some parts of the country, there are regular plantations of the materials." We have already described this dress, as this useful production; the plants are there arranged in well as the enormous coaches here spoken of.
lines, with an interval of about three yards between each. The Paseo Nuevo is another walk of note; it consists When the period of flowering arrives, the plant begins to of a broad road, raised about three feet above the meadow be productive; it is on this account extremely important that surrounds the city, and planted on both sides with to the cultivator, to know exactly the time of efflorescence, trees. The Paseo de las Vigas forms a third; it runs The Mexicans learn its approach by certain signs which by the side of the Chalco Canal, along which the native they attentively observe ; they know almost the very hour Indians convey to the city the fruits, flowers, and vegetables in which the stem, or central shoot, which is destined to which are produced in their gardens. At an early hour produce the flower, is about to appear, and they anticipate in the morning, when the canal is crowded with boats it by making a deep incision, and extracting the whole pushing along to the markets, it presents an animated scene. heart or bundle of central leaves (el corazon), leaving
nothing but the thick outside rind, which forms a natural THE POPULATION.
basin or wall, about two feet deep, and one and a half in
diameter (see the Engraving.) Into this the sap, which The best place for obtaining a general view of the popula- would have gone to support the large shoot which has been tion of Mexico is the Portales. Here," says Captain cut off, is continually oozing in such quantities, that it is Lyon, " the stranger sees the most extraordinary variety found necessary to remove it two or three times a day. This of people and things huddled together, into an apparently sap is allowed to ferment, and in a week or two it becomes confused, yet well-ordered mass. Several principal shops pulque in the best state for drinking. open to the Portales, and innumerable petty venders of
“The natives," says Mr. Ward, “ ascribe to pulque as both sexes also display their wares crowded on tables, in many good qualities as whisky is said to possess in Scotboxes and baskets, in frames, or spread on the ground; land. They call it stomachic, a great promoter of digestion while half-naked leperos, sleeping, overpowered by pulque, and sleep, and an excellent remedy in many diseases. It or begging of the passers-by; priests, monks, officers, requires a knowledge of all these good qualities, to reconIndians, ladies, and Europeans, form a continually-moving cile the stranger to that smell of sour milk, or slightlymotley crowd. At one turn may be met the water-carrier tainted meat, by which the young pulque-drinker is usually with an immense jar hanging at his back, suspended by a disgusted; but if this can be surmounted, pulgue will be broad leather belt from the head, while a smaller vessel found both a refreshing and a wholesome beverage, for its hangs by another strap in front to maintain the balance. intoxicating qualities are very slight, and as it is drunk In a different quarter is seen a stout lepero bearing a always in a state of fermentation, it possesses, even in the chair slung from his head and shoulders, and in which is hottest weather, an agreeable coolness.". The offensive seated an old importunate beggar. On turning to avoid this smell in question is attributed to the dirty pig-skins in object, there is a chance of stumbling over the fruit and which it is conveyed from the place of culture to large flowers of some poor quiet Indian woman, as she sits crouched towns. There is also a strong sort of brandy, called against a pillar, while the ear is frequently saluted by the Mexical, or aguardiente de Maguey, prepared from this loud cries of the newsmen, who sell in considerable quan- plant, and of this the consumption is great. tities the publications of the day; proclamations for or The cultivation of the maguey thus possesses considerable against the Gapuchines (Spaniards), the priests, the advantages. To use Humboldt's words, a proprietor who election of deputies, or whatever may be the most agitating plants from 30,000 to 40,000 maguey is sure to establish the topic of the day."
fortune of his children." But it reqires a degree of patience The 'leperos mentioned in this extract are the most seldom found among the Indians of Mexico, to pursue a curious class of the population of Mexico; they resemble species of cultivation which only begins to grow lucrative at
the end of fifteen years. In a good soil, the plant reaches the period of flowering in five years; in a poor one, no harvest can be expected in less than eighteen years. The plant is destroyed, if the incision be made too early,—that is to say, long before the flowers would have naturally developed themselves.
THE PULQUE PLANT,
LONDON : Published by JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, West STRAND; and sold by all Booksellers.
PRICE 2 ONE PENNY,
UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,
APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE.
SHOES, AND THEIR VARIOUS FORMS.
cut off, leaving the remainder of the usual size, and The invention of this useful article of dress must bandaged like the stump of an amputated limb; they necessarily be attributed to a very remote period in undergo, indeed, much torment, and cripple themthe history of the world, for as soon as mankind selves in a great measure, in imitation of ladies of had made even a moderate progress in the arts of life, higher rank, among whom it is the custom to stop, their attention would naturally be directed to the ' by pressure, the growth of the ancle, as well as the contrivance of some method for preserving the soles foot, from the earliest infancy; and leaving the great of the feet from injury. In preparing a covering for toe in its natural position, forcibly to bend the others, the head, the most delicate materials, such as straw, and retain them under the foot, till at length they shavings of wood, &c., were in the first instance adhere to it, as if buried in the sole, and can no more resorted to, the only object being to protect the head be separated. Notwithstanding the pliability of the from the heat of the sun, and occasionally from human frame in tender years, its tendency to expansion rain ; but any substance calculated to guard the at that period, must, whenever it is counteracted, feet from injury, must be capable of enduring much occasion great pain to those who are so treated; and wear and tear. On this account it is, that the before the ambition of being admired takes possession earliest coverings for the feet, of which any traces of these victims of fashion, it requires the vigilance exist, were formed of leather.
of their female parents to prevent their relieving The first three engravings represent shoes, or themselves from the firm and tight compresses which rather sandals, (for the covering of the upper part of bind their feet and ancles. When these compresses the foot is a much later invention,) of Egyptian are constantly and carefully kept on, the feet manufacture, and show the high state of civilization are symmetrically small. The young creatures are, in Egypt nearly three thousand years ago.
indeed, obliged for a considerable time, to be The sandals of the Greeks are the next we have supported when they attempt to walk; but even to notice, and in these, the upper part of the foot is afterwards they totter, and always walk upon their still left uncovered, although, perhaps, greater dex- heels. Some of the very lowest classes of the terity is exhibited in the different methods of Chinese, of a race confined chiefly to the mountains, fastening them on the feet. Much uncertainty, and remote places, have not adopted this unnatural however, exists, as to the correct forms of the custom. But the females of this class are held by sandals of this celebrated nation, as most of the the rest in the utmost degree of contempt, and are statues which have been preserved are greatly da- employed only in the most menial domestic offices. maged, and the feet have been restored by modern “So inveterate is the custom which gives preartists: in addition to this, the greater number of eminence to mutilated over perfect limbs, that the inthe statues of their heroes, or gods, are represented terpreter averred, and every subsequent information with their bare feet. The form of the coverings for confirmed the assertion, that if of two sisters, otherwise the feet of the ancient Romans is evidently derived every way equal, the one had been thus maimed, while from the Greeks, but they assumed a greater variety nature had been suffered to make its usual progress of shapes; in general, however, the upper part of the in the other, the latter would be considered as in an foot was either wholly or partially covered. The en abject state, unworthy of associating with the rest of graving No. 4, represents what may perhaps be most the family, and doomed to perpetual obscurity, and appropriately called a boot.
the drudgery of servitude.” The four next engravings (Nos. 6, 7, 8, 9,) are re How this singular fashion arose, is uncertain; the presentations of ancient shoes and sandals, of dif common story in China is, that a certain lady of ferent kinds. The first, with spikes attached to the very high rank, happened to be gifted by nature with sole, is, evidently, intended for the purpose of ren extremely small feet, and, no doubt, took good care dering the wearer sure-footed, in ascending or des- that her advantage over the rest of her sex, should cending steep acclivities, or in crossing plains of ice, not be unknown; this naturally excited the emulation or frozen snow. The next is almost a perfect shoe, of others, and an endeavour was made to supply by but to what nation it belonged is uncertain. The third art, that which was considered a deficiency on the is a species of wooden clog, and is almost similar to part of nature. those worn at the present day by the ladies of Syria. This curious covering for the leg and foot (No. 12,) The fourth appears to be formed of leather; it is was in use among the Anglo-Saxons, it was employed copied from an ancient fragment, but it is uncer chiefly by the higher classes, and by the clergy in getain to what country it is to be attributed.
neral; a shoe was also worn along with it. These leg Referring to the shoes of modern nations, the bandages, or garters, were at times very richly emfirst, and perhaps the most antique, are those worn broidered, and sometimes instead of being rolled one by the Chinese. Like every other article of dress way, as in our engraving, they were employed and of this singular people, the shoes of the richer bound round contrary ways, so that when they were classes are chiefly formed of silk, and beautifully of two colours, the appearance resembled a Highland embroidered. Nos. 10 and 11 represent the foot stocking; this was called cross-gartering. and shoe of a Chinese lady of rank, which, from its The shoes of the Anglo-Saxons were very simple, extremely small size, was, no doubt, of the most but, at the same time, well contrived for comfort; fashionable form.
they were usually tied at the instep by a leather thong. This strange desire of the Chinese females of all After the time of the Anglo-Saxons, when the ranks, to reduce the size of their feet, is only another nation began to import its fashions from other proof of the inconveniences and torments which countries, the form of the shoes and boots was conhave been endured for fashion's sake; and, although stantly varying, indeed, they appear to have been at first sight it appears extremely singular, it is not a made rather according to the whim or caprice of the whit more unnatural than the tight lacing of the wearer, than in consequence of any settled fashion; we ladies of Europe. To such an extent is this practice must not, however, omit to notice the long-toed boot carried, that, says Lord Macartney, “Even among (No. 15,) so much worn in the reign of Richard the the middle and inferior classes, the feet were un Second. It is said by historians that these were so innaturally small, or rather truncated. They appeared convenient in walking, that the wearer was obliged to as it the fore-part of the foot had been accidentally loop them up to the knee by means of metal chains;