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will be lasting satisfactions, when the fine ladies, his own incapacities makes him despair of coming and the coxcombs, by whom they form themselves, at fame, or that he has not enough range of thought are irreparably ridiculous, ridiculous in old age. to look out for any good which does not more im“I am, Madam,
mediately relate to his interest or convenience; or “Your most humble Servant,
that Providence, in the very frame of his soul,
would not subject him to such a passion as would be
“ Mary Home.” useless to the world, and a torment to himself. “ DEAR MR, SPECTATOR,
| Were not this desire of fame very strong, the “ You have no goodness in the world, and are not difficulty of obtaining it, and the danger of losing it in earnest in any thing yon say that is serious, if when obtained, would be sufficient to deter a man you do not send me a plain answer to this. I hap-i from so vain a pursuit. pened some days pasi to be at the play, where. | How few are there who are furnished with abiduring the time of the performance. I could not keep / lities sufficient to recommend their actions to the my eyes off from a beautiful young creature who sat admiration of the world, and to distinguish them. ust before me, and who. I have been since informed, selves from the rest of mankind! Providence for has no fortune. It would utterly ruin my reputa- the most part sets us upon a level, and observes a tion for discretion to marry such a one, and by what kind of proportion in its dispensations towards us. I can learn she has a character of great modesty, so If it renders us perfect in one accomplishment, it that there is nothing to be thought on any other generally leaves us defective in another, and seems way. My mind has ever since been so wholly bent careful rather of preserving every person froup on her, that I am much in danger of doing some being mean and deficient in his qualifications, thai thing very extravagant, without your speedy advice of making any single one eminent or extraordinary to,
Among those who are the most richly endowed “Your most humble Servant."
by nature, and accomplished by their own industry
I how few are there whose virtues are no. obscure] I am sorry I cannot answer this impatient gentle by the ignorance, prejudice, or envy of their be man, but by another question.
holders! Some men cannot discern between a noble
and a mean action. Others are apt to attribute " DEAR CORRESPONDENT,
them to some false end or intention; and otbers ;" Would you marry to please other people, or purposely misrepresent, or put a wrong interpretayourself?”—T.
tion on them. But the more to enforce this consi. deration, we may observe, that those are generally
most unsuccessful in their pursuit after fame, who No. 255.] SATURDAY, DECEMBER 22, 1711. are most desirous of obtaining it. It is Sallusi's
remark upon Cato, that the less he coveted glory, Laudis amore tumes? sunt certa piacula, quæ te Ter pure lecto poterunt recreare libello
the more he acquired it.* Hor. Ep. 1. lib. 1. ver. 36. Men take an ill-natured pleasure in crossing our IMITATED.
inclinations, and disappointing us in what our Know there are rhymes, which (fresh and fresh apply'd) hearts are most set upon. When therefore they Will cure the arrant'st puppy of his pride.-POPE.
have discovered the passionate desire of fame in the The soul, considered abstractedly from its pas ambitious man (as no temper of mind is more apt sions, is of a remiss and sedentary nature, slow in to show itself), they become sparing and reserved its resolves, and languishing in its executions. The in their commendations, they envy bim the satisfac. Use, therefore, of the passions is to stir it up, and to tion of an applause, and look on their praises rather put it upon action, to awaken the understanding, as a kindness done to his person, than as a tribute to enforce the will, and to make the whole man paid to his merit. Others who are free from this more vigorous and attentive in the prosecution of natural perverseness of temper, grow wary in their his designs. As this is the end of the passions in praises of one wbo sets too great a value on them, general, so it is particularly of ambition, which lest they should raise him too high in his own pushes the soul to such actions as are apt to procure imagination, and by consequence remove hirr to a honour and reputation to the actor.' But if we greater distance from themselves. carry nur reflections higber, we may discover fur- ! But, further, this desire of fame naturally betrays ther ends of Providence in implanting this passion the ambitious man into such indecencies as are in mankind.
lessening to his reputation. He is still afraid lest It was necessary for the world, that arts should be any of his actions should be thrown away in private, invented and improved, books written and trans- lest bis deserts should be concealed from the notice mitted to posterity, nations conquered and civilized. I of the world, or receive any disadvantage from the Now, since the proper and genuine motives to reports which others make of them. This often these, and the like great actions, would only influ. sets them on empty boasts and ostentations of ence virtuous minds; there would be but small im- bimself, and betrays him into vain fantastical reprovements in the world, were there not some com citals of his own performances. His discourse ge. mon principle of action working equally with all nerally leans one way, and, whatever is the subject men: and such a principle is ambition, or a desire of it, tends obliquely either to the detracting from of fame, by which great endowments are not suf others, or to the extolling of himself, Vanity is the fered to lie idle and useless to the public, and many natural weakness of an ambitious man, which exvicious men are overreached, as it were, and en poses him to the secret scorn and derision of those gaged contrary to their natural inclinations, in a lhe converses with, and ruins the character he is so glorious and laudable course of action. For we industrious to advance by it. For though his actions may further observe, that men of the greatest abi. are never so glorious, they lose their lustre when lities are most fired with ambition; and that, on the they are drawn at large, and set to show by his owo contrary, mean and narrow minds are the least ac. tuated by it; whether it be that a man's sense of
• Sal. Bel. Call c. 49
hand; and as the world is more apt to find fault an exalted character. They publish their ill-natured than to commend, the boast will probably be cen- discoveries with a secret pride, and applaud themsured, when the great action that occasioned it is selves for the singularity of their judgment, which forgotten.
bas searched deeper than others, detected what the Besides, this very desire of fame is looked on as rest of the world have overlooked, and found a flaw a meanness and imperfection in the greatest charac- in what the generality of mankind admire Others ter. A solid and substantial greatness of soul looks there are who proclaim the errors and infirmities of down with a generous neglect on the censures and a great man with an inward satisfaction and comapplauses of the multitude, and places a man beyond placency, if they discover none of the like errors the little noise and strife of tongues. Accordingly, and infirmities in themselves; for while they are we find in ourselves a secret awe and veneration fur exposing another's weaknesses, they are tacitly the character of one who moves above us in a regu- / aiming at their own commendations, who are not lar and illustrious course of virtue, without any subject to the like infirunities, and are apt to be regard to our good or ill opinions of him, to our transported with a secret kind of vanity, to see reproaches or commendations. As, on the con- themselves superior, in some respects, to one of a trary, it is usual for us, when we would take off from sublime and celebrated reputation. Nay, it very the fame and reputation of an action, to ascribe it to often happens, that none are more industrious in vain glory and a desire of fame in the actor. Nor publishing the blemishes of an extraordinary repuis this common judgment and opinion of mankind tation, than such as lie open to the same censures ill founded ; for certainly it denotes no great bravery in their own characters, as either hoping to excuse of mind, to be worked up to any noble action by so their own defects by the authority of so high an selfish a motive, and to do that out of a desire of example, or to raise an imaginary applause to themfame, which we could not be prompted to by a dis- selves, for resembling a person of an exalted repuinterested love to mankind, or by a generous passion tation, thongh in the blameable parts of his characfor the glory of him who made us.
Iter. If all these secret springs of detraction fail, Thus is fame a thing difficult to be obtained by yet very often a vain ostentation of wit sets a man all, but particularly by those who thirst after it, on attacking an established name, and sacrificing it since most men have so much either of ill-nature, or to the mirth and laughter of those about him. A of wariness, as not to gratify or soothe the vanity of satire or a libel on one of the common stamp, never the ambitious man; and since this very thirst after meets with that reception and approbation among fame naturally betrays him into such indecencies as its readers, as what is aimed at a person whose are a lessening to his reputation, and is itself looked merit places him upon an eminence, and gives him upon as a weakness in the greatest characters. a more conspicuous figure among men. Whether
In the next place, fame is easily lost, and as dif- it be, that we think it shows greater art to expose ficult to be preserved as it was at first to be ac- and turn to ridicule a man whose character seems quired. But this I shall make the subject of a fol- so improper a subject for it, or that we are pleased, lowing paper.-C.
by some implicit kind of revenge, to see him taken
down and humbled in his reputation, and in some No. 256.1 MONDAY, DECEMBER 24, 1711. ineasure reduced to our own rank, who had so far
raised himself above us, in the reports and opinions Hame is an ill you may with ease obtain,
of mankind. A sad oppression, to be borne with pain.—Hesiod
Thus we see how many dark and intricate motives THERE are many passions and tempers of mind there are to detraction and defamation, and how which naturally dispose us to depress and vilify the many malicious spies are searching into the actions merit of one rising in the esteem of mankind. All of a great man, who is not always the best prethose who made their entrance into the world with pared for so narrow an inspection. For we may the same advantages, and were once looked on as generally observe, that our admiration of a famous his equals, are apt to think the fame of his merits a man lessens upon our nearer acquaintance with reflection on their own indeserts; and will therefore himand that we seldom hear the description of a take care to reproach him with the scandal of some celebrated person, without a catalogue of some notopast action, or derogate from the worth of the pre- rious weaknesses and infirmities. The reason inay sent, that they may still keep him on the same level be, because any little slip is more conspicuous and with themselves. The like kind of consideration observable in his conduct than in another's, as it is often stirs up the envy of such as were once his su. not of a piece with the rest of his character; or beperiors, who think it a detraction from their merit 'cause it is impossible for a man at the same time to to see another get ground upon them, and overtake be attentive to the more important part of his life, them in the pursuits of glory; and will therefore and to keep a watchful eye over all the inconsider. endeavour to sink his reputation, that they may the able circumstances of his behaviour and conversabetter preserve their own. Those who were once tion; or because, as we have before observed, the his equals envy and defame him, because they now same temper of mind which inclines us to a desire see him their superior; and those who were once of fame, naturally betrays us into such slips and unhis superiors, because they look upon him as their warinesses, as are not incident to men of a contrary equal."
disposition. But further, a man whose extraordinary reputa- After all, it must be confessed, that a noble and tion thus lifts him up to the notice and observation triumphant merit often breaks through and dissi. of mankind, draws a multitude of eyes upon him, pates these little spots and sullies in its reputation ; , that will narrowly inspect every part of him, con, but if by a mistaken pursuit after fame, or through sider him nicely in all views, and not be a little human infirmity, any false step be made in the pleased when they have taken him in the worst and more momentous concerns of life, the whole scheme most disadvantageous light. There are many who of ambitious designs is broken and disappointed. find a pleasure in contradicting the common reports the smaller stains and blemishes may die away, and of fame, and in spreading abroad the weaknesses of disappear amidst the brightness that surrounds
them: but a blot of a deeper nature casts a shade faction and acquiescence in their present enjoyon all the other beauties, and darkens the whole ments of it. character. How difficult, therefore, is it to preserve Nor is fame only unsatisfying in itself, but the de a great name, when he that has acquired it is so sire of it lays us open to many accidental troubles obnoxious to such little weaknesses and infirmities which those are free from, who bave no such a tender as are no small diminution to it when discovered; regard for it. How often is the ambitious man cast especially when they are so industriously pro- down and disappointed, if he receives no praise claimed, and aggravated by such as were once his where he expected it? Nay, how often is he morti. superiors or equals; by such as would set to show fied with the very praises he receives, if they do not their judgment, or their wit, and by such as are rise so high as he thinks they ought; which they guilty, or innocent of the same slips or misconducts seldom do unless increased by flaltery, since few in their own behaviour.
men have so good an opinion of us as we have of But were there none of these dispositions in ourselves ? But if the ambitious man can be so others to censure a famous man, nor any such mis-much grieved even with praise itself, bow will be be carriages in himself, yet would he meet with no able to bear up under scandal and defamation ? for small trouble in keeping up his reputation, in all the same temper of mind which makes him desire its height and splendour. There must be always a fame makes him hate reproach. If he can be transnoble train of actions to preserve his fame in life ported with the extraordinary praises of men, he will and motion. For when it is once at a stand, it pa- be as much dejected by their censures. How little, turally flags and languishes. Admiration is a very therefore, is the happiness of an ambitious man, who short-lived passion, that immediately decays upon gives every one a dominion over it, who thus subjects growing familiar with its object, unless it be still himself to the good or ill speeches of others, and puts fed with fresh discoveries, and kept alive by a new it in the power of every malicious tongue to throw perpetual succession of miracles rising up to its him into a fit of melancholy, and destroy his natural view. And even the greatest actions of a cele- rest and repose of mind; especially when we conbrated person labour under this disadvantage, that, sider that the world is more apt to censure tban ap. however surprising and extraordinary they may be, plaud, and himself fuller, of imperfections than they are no more than what are expected from him; virtiles, but, on the contrary, if they fall any thing below
We may further observe, that such a man will be the opinion that is conceived of him, though they
more grieved for the loss of fame, than he could might raise the reputation of another, they are a have been pleased
have been pleased with the enjoyment of it. For diminution to his.
though the presence of this imaginary good caunot One would think there should be something make us happy, the absence of it may make us miwonderfully pleasing in the possession of fame, that, serable: because in the enjoyment of an object we notwithstanding all these mortifying considerations, only find that share of pleasure which it is capable of can engage a man in so desperate a pursuit; and vet giving us, but in the loss of it we do not proportion if we consider the little happiness that attends a our grief to the real value it bears, but to the value great character, and the multitude of disquietudes to our fancies and imaginations set upon it. which the desire of it subjects an ambitious mind, 1. So inconsiderable is the satisfaction that fame one would be still the more surprised to see so many
brings along with it, and so great the disquietudes to restless candidates for glory.
which it makes us liable. The desire of it stirs up Ambition raises a secret tumult in the soul; it very uneasy motions in the mind, and is rather ininflames the mind, and puts it into a violent burry flamed than satisfied by the presence of the thing of thought. It is still reaching after an empty, I desired.
| desired. The enjoyment of it brings but very little
? imaginary good, that has not in it the power to abaie pleasure, though the loss or want of it be very senor satisfy it. Most other things we long for, can allay sible and afflicting ; and even this little happiness the cravings of their proper sense, and for a while set is so very precarious, that it wholly depends upon the appetite at rest; but fame is a good so wholly the will of others. We are not only tortured by the foreign to our natures, that we have no faculty in the reproaches which are offered us, but are disapsoul adapted to it, nor any organ in the body to pointed by the silence of men when it is unexpected; relish it; an object of desire, placed out of the pos- and humbled even by their praises.--C sibility of fruition. It may indeed fill the mind for a while with a giddy kind of pleasure, but it is such a pleasure as makes a man restless and uneasy under No. 257.) SATURDAY, DECEMBER 25, 1711 it; and which does not much satisfy the present thirst, as it excites fresh desires, and sets the soul on
No slurnber seals the eye of Providence, new enterprises. For how few ambitious men are
Present to every action we coinmence.-HOBXUS. there, who have got as much fame as they desired, That I might not lose myself upon a subject of and whose thirst after it has not been as eager in the so great extent as that of fame, I have treated it in a very height of their reputation, as it was before they l particular order and method. I have first of all conbecame known aud eminent among men ? There is sidered the reasons why Providence may have iinbot any circumstance in Cæsar's character which planted in our mind such a principle of action. I gives me a greater idea of him, than a saying which have in the next place shown from many consideCicero tells us he frequently made use of in private rations, first, that fame is a thing difficult to be obconversation, " That be was satisfied with his shaietained, and easily to be lost; secondly, that it brings of life and fame.” “ Se satis vel ad naturam, vel the ambitious man very little happiness, but subjects ad gloriam virisse." Many indeed have given over him to much uneasiness and dissatisfaction. I shall their pursuits after fame, but that has proceeded in the last place show, that it hinders us from obe! either from the disappointinents they have met in it, taining an end which we have abilities to acquire, or from their experience of the little pleasure which and which is accompanied by fulness of satisfaction. attends it, or from the better informations or natural I need not tell my reader, that I mean by this end, culdness of old age; but seldom from a full satis. I that happiness which is reserved for us in another
world, which every one has abilities to procure, and flames and tortures, and will hereafter en title many which will bring along with it “fulness of joy, and to the reward of actions which they had never the pleasures for evermore."
opportunity of performing. Another reason wby How the pursuit after fame may hinder us in the men cannot form a right judgment of us is, because attainment of this great end, I shall leave the reader the same actions may be aimed at different ends, to collect from the three following considerations: and arise from quite contrary principles. Actions
First, Because the strong desire of fame breeds are of so mixed a nature, and so full of circumseveral vicious babits in the mind.
stances, that as men pry into them more or less, or Secondly, Because many of those actions, which observe some parts more than others, they take dif- ! arc apt to procure fame, are not in their nature con- ferent hints, and put contrary interpretations of ducive to this our ultimate happiness.
them; so that the same actions may represent a Thirdly, Because if we should allow the same man as hypocritical and designing to one, wbich actions to be the proper instruments, both of ac- make him appear a saint or hero to another. He, quiring fame, and of procuring this happiness, they therefore, who looks upon the soul through its outwould nevertheless fail in the attainment of this last ward actions, often sees it through a deceitful meend, if they proceeded from a desire of the first. dium, which is apt to discolour and pervert the
These three propositions are self-evident to those object; so that, on this account also, he is the only who are versed in speculations of morality. For proper judge of our perfections, who does not guess which reason I shall not enlarge upon them, but at the sincerily of our intentions from the goudgess proceed to a point of the same nature, which may of our actions. but weighs the goodness of our open to us a more uncommon field of speculation.
d of speculation. actions by the sincerity of our intentions. From what has been already observed, I think we But further, it is impossible for outward actions to may make a natural conclusion, that it is the represent the perfections of the soul, because they greatest folly to seek the praise or approbation of any can never show the strength of those principles being, except the Supreme, and that for these two from whence they proceed. They are not adequate reasons; because no other being can make a right expressions of our virtues, and can only show us judgment of us, and esteem is according to our what habits are in the soul, without discovering the merits; and because we can procure no considerable degree and perfection of such habits. They are at benefit or advantage from the esteem and appro- best but weak resemblances of our intentions, faint bation of any other being.
and imperfect, that may acquaint us with the general In the first place, no other being can make a right design, but can never express the beauty and life judgment of us, and esteem us according to our of the original. But the great Judge of all the earth merits. Created beings see nothing but our outside, knows every different state and degree of human and can therefore only frame a judgment of us from | improvement, from those weak stirrings and tebe our exterior actions and behaviour ; but bow unfit dencies of the will which have not yet formid these are to give us a right notion of each other's themselves into regular purposes and designs, to the perfections, may appear from several considerations. last entire finishing and consummation of a good There are many virtues, which in their own nature habit. He beholds the first imperfect rudiments d are incapable of any outward representation; nany a virtue in the soul, and keeps a watchful eye over silent perfections in the soul of a good man, which it in all its progress, until it has received every are great ornaments to human nature, but not able grace it is capable of, and appears in its full beau:) to discover themselves to the knowledge of others; and perfection. Thus we see, that none but the they are transacted in private without noise or show, Supreme Being can esteem us according to our and are only visible to the great Searcher of hearts. proper merits, since all others must judge of us ir D What actions can express the entire purity of our outward actions; which can never give them a thought which refines and sanctifies a virtuous man? just estimate of us, since there are many perfeitas That secret rest and contentedness of mind, which of a man which are not capable of appearing ja gives him a perfect enjoyment of his present con-actions; many which, allowing no natural inceputul dition ? That inward pleasure and complacency of showing themselves, want an opportunity ol duikg which he feels in doing good ? That delight and it; or should they all meet with an opportunity satisfaction which he takes in the prosperity and appearing by actions, yet tbose actions may be . happiness of another ? These and the like virtues interpreted, and applied to wrong principles: af, are the bidden beauties of a soul, the secret graces though they plainly discovered the principles frus which cannot be discovered by a mortal eye, but whence they proceeded, they could never she is make the soul lovely and precious in his sight from degree, strength, and periection of those prin whom no secrets are concealed. Again, there are And as the Supreme Being is the only provient many virtues which want an opportunity of exerting judge of our perfections, so he is the only at reand showing themselves in actions. Every virtue warder of them. This is a consideration that one requires time and place, a proper object and a fit home to our interest, as the other adapts itsel: 100 conjuncture of circumstances, for the due exercise ambition. And what could the most a spirit' k ** of it. A state of poverty obscures all the virtues of the most selfish man desire more, were he tu liberality and munificence. The patience and forti- the notion of a Being to whom he would retu. tude of a martyr and confessor lie concealed in the himself, than such a knowledge as can discover L. flourishing times of Christianity. Some virtues are least appearance of periection in him, and sout # only seen in affliction, and some in prosperity; goodness as will proportion a reward to it? some in a private, and others in a public capacity. Let the ambitious man, therefore, turn ali ks But the great Sovereign of the world beholds every desire of fame this way; and, that he may propiset perfection in its obscurity, and not only sees what bimself a fame worthy of his ambition, le t o we do, but what we wouid do. He views our be. sider, that if he emplors his abilities to the bes haviour in every concurrenre of affairs, and sees us vantage, the time will come when the SU engaged in all the possibilities of action. He dis-Guvernor of the world, the great Judge of mask covers the martyr and confessor without the trial of who sees every degree of perlecuion in others, w
possesses all possible perfection in himself, shall pro- amazement I see so wonderful a genius laid aside, claim his worth before men and angeis, and pro- and the late slaves of the stage now become its nounce to him in the presence of the whole creation masters; dunces that will be sure to suppress all that best and most significant of applause, “ Well theatrical entertainments and activities that they done, thou good and faithful servant, enter thou into are not able themselves to shine in ! thy Master's joy.”-C.
“ Every man that goes to a play is not obliged to
have either wit or understanding ; and I insist upon No. 258.) WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 26, 1711.
it, that all who go there should see something which
may improve them in a way of whicb they are ca. Divide et impera
pable. In short, Sir, I would have something done, Divide and rule.
as well as said, on the stage. A man may have an PLEASURE and recreation of one kind or other active body, though he has not a quick conception; are absolutely necessary to relieve our minds and for the imitation therefore of such as are, as I may bodies from too constant attention and labour : so speak, corporeal wits, or nimble fellows, I would where therefore public diversions are tolerated, it fain ask any of the present mismanagers, why behoves persons of distinction, with their power and should not rope-dancers, vaulters, tumblers, ladder. example, to preside over them in such a manner as walkers, and posture-masters appear again on our to check any thing that tends to the corruption of stage ? After such a representation, a five-bar gate manners, or which is too mean or trivial for the would be leaped with a better grace next time any entertainment of reasonable creatures. As to the of the audience went a hunting. Sir, these things diversions of this kind in this town, we owe them to cry aloud for reformatiou, and fall properly under the arts of poetry and music. My own private the province of Spectator-general; but how indeed opinion, with relation to such recreations, I have should it be otherwise, while fellows (that for heretofore given with all the frankness imaginable; twenty years together were never paid but as their what concerns those arts at present the reader shall master was in the humour) now presume to pay have from my correspondents. The first of the letters others more than ever they had in their lives; and with which I acquit myself for this day, is written in contempt of the practiee of persons of condition. by one who proposes to improve our entertainments have the insolence to owe no tradesman a farthing of dramatic poetry, and the other comes from three at the end of the week. Sir, all I propose is the persons, who, as soon as named, will be thought public good; for no one can imagine I shall ever capable of advancing the present state of music. I get a private shilling by it; therefore I hope you
will recommend this matter in one of your ihis “MR. SPECTATOR,
week's papers, and desire, when my house opens, “I am considerably obliged to you for your you will accept the liberty of it for the trouble you speedy publication of my last in yours of the 18th have received from, instant, and am in no small hopes of being settled
“Sir, your humble Servant in the post of Comptroller of the Cries. Of all the
“Ralph CROTCHET. objections I have hearkened after in public coffee- «P.S. I have assurances that the trunk maker houses, there is but one that seems to carry any I will declare for us. weight with it, viz. That such a post would come too near the nature of a monopoly. Now, Sir, be
“MR. SPECTATOR, cause I would have all sorts of people made easy, “We whose names are subscribed, think you and being willing to have more strings than one to the properest person to signify what we have to my bow; in case that a comptroller should fail me, offer the town in behalf of ourselves and the art I have since formed another project, which being which we profess, music. We conceive hopes of grounded on the dividing of a present monopoly, I your favour from the speculations on the mistakes hope will give the public an equivalent to their full which the town run into with regard to their pleacontent. You know, Sir, it is allowed, that the sure of this kind; and believing your method of business of the stage is, as the Latin has it, jucunda judging is, that you consider music only valuable, et idonea dicere vitæ. Now, there being but one as it is agreeable to, and heightens the purpose of dramatic theatre licensed for the delight and profit poetry, we consent that it is not only the true way of this extensive metropolis, I do humbly propose, of relishing that pleasure, but also that without it a for the convenience of such of its inhabitants as are composure of music is the same thing as a poern, *oo distant from Covent-garden, that another theatre where all the rules of poetical numbers are obof case may be erected in some spacious part of the served, though the words have no sense or meaning; city; and that the direction thereof may be made a to say it shorter, mere musical sounds are in our franchise in fee to me and my heirs for ever. And ! art no other than nonsense verses are in poetry. that the town may have no jealousy of my ever | Music, therefore, is to aggravate what is intended coming into a union with the set of actors now in by poetry; it must always have some passion or being, I do further propose to constitute for my sentiment to express, or else violins, voices, or any deputy my near kinsman and adventurer, Kit other organs of sound, afford an entertainment very Crotchet, * whose long experience and improve- little above the rattles of children. It was from ments in those affairs need no recommendation. this opinion of the matter, that when Mr. Clayton It was obvious to every spectator, what a quite dif- had finished his studies in Italy, and brought over ferent foot the stage was upon during his govern- the opera of Arsinoe, that Mr. Haym and Mr. ment; and had he not been bolted out of his trap-Dieupart, who had the honour to be well known doors, his garrison might have held out for ever; he and received among the nobility and gentry, were having by long pains and perseverance arrived at zealously inclined to assist by their solicitations, in the art of making his army fight without pay or introducing so elegant an entertainment as the provisions. I must confess it is with a melancholy Italian music grafted upon English poetry. For
this end, Mr. Dieupart and Mr. Haym, according • Christopher Rick
| to their several opportunities, promoted the intro