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upon the testimony of consciousness. Consciousness is the mind's recognition of its own exercises or states. I am conscious of thought, volition, emotion, and consciousness is to my own inind the highest possible evidence.
It cannot be doubted. Upon this testimony, reason affirms and cannot doubt the fact of my own existence; or that thought implies a thinker ; reasoning a reasoner,
&c. (3.) This truth is so certainly known by us, that to doubt it implies its truth, because daubt implies the existence of a doubter.
(4.) Pretended doubters of their own existence, therefore, always and necessarily assume the fact which they profess to doubt.
(5.) We have therefore a right to assume in the outset, the fact of our own existence.
(6.). We are conscious of certain mental impressions or states, the causes of which we necessarily refer to objects without ourselves. These states or impressions we call sensations.
(7.) Sensation informs us of the existence of those around us who exhibit the same phenomena of which we are conscious. Hence reason affirms, and cannot doubt the existence of our fellow
(8.) In the presence of this evidence, we can no more doubt their existence, than our own.
2. Nature of man. (1.) Man has a body. a. By consciousness we know that man has a body or a marial habitation.
b. Of the substratum, or ultimate elements or element of body, we know nothing.
c. We call that body or matter which exhibits the phenomena of solidity, extension, form, divisibility, &c. These phenomena åre all we know of matter, and our only means of knowing its nature.
d. Consciousness forces upon us the conviction that we have a body.
e. We can no more doubt it than we can doubt our existence ala together.
f. This truth never was seriously doubted, and pretended doubters have taken as much care of their bodies as others.
(2.) Consciousness itself implies or presupposes the existence of mind. We are conscious of thought--thought implies a thinker, or something that thinks. Besides, consciousness itself presupposes a subject, or that something is conscious.
a. We know nothing of the substratum or essence, gr ultimate element of mind any more than of matter. We are in utter ignorance of what the essence of either is.
b. We call that mind, which exhibits the phenomena of thought, volition, emotion. &c. ine. The phenomena of matter and mind are entirely distinct and dissimilar exhibiting no evidence that their substrata are identicala | lin, Po')
d. The phenomena of matter and mind exhibit the highest evidence that their substrata, or natures, are distinct and diverse.
e. We can no more doubt that we have mind, than that we think. f. But some maintain that mind is only thought, volition, emotion, &c., and that these are the result of exquisite cerebral organization. In other words, that the brain, or matter, thinks, when thus organized. Their argument runs thus: :
1. No thought is manifest where there is no brain.
3. The perfection of thought, intelligence, volition,' is in proproportion to the amount and perfection of the cerebral substance. Hence the inference that matter, in the form of brain, thinks.
But this only proves what all admit, that brain is the organ mind, and the only medium through which it can manifest itself in this state of existence—that the capacities of mental development must, and do depend upon the perfection of the cerebral organization.
To the fact that the phenomena of mind and matter, are entirely distinct and dissimilar, and that therefore it is unphilosophical to infer identity of essence, they reply, that chimistry affords many illustrations and confirmations of their views. The union of chim-' ical elements, and the action of inorganic affinities often, nay,
always result in the production of substances differing entirely from either of the elements of which they are composed.
To this it may be replied,
1. That the result, so far as we have any light from chimistry, is always material and therefore does not differ essentially, or in essence from the elements of which it was composed.
2. Consciousness of continued personal identity proves that the brain is not the thinking agent or mind. It is a well settled truth, that the particles of which the human body is composed are perpetually changing, and that the substance of the entire body is changed several times during the period of an ordinary life. If then mind and matter are identical—if the brain or any other part of the hody, or the whole body, is the man, the thinking agent, we are not the same person at any two moments. But consciousness testifies to our continued personal identity. The body then can only be the organ or' instrument of the mind, and not the mind itself.
3. That there is nothing in natural science at all analagous to that for which they contend, the unvarying results of all combinations of matter being material and exhibiting only the phenomena of matter and that continually. Man therefore is a compound being, uniting in one person two distinct naturés, called Body and Mind,
3. Attributes of man. (1.) Of Body.
a. The body of man possesses all the attributes or properties of matter.
b. The attributes of an organized being,
What are some of the Natural Attributes of God; Prove
of the Moral Attributes of God; Prove that God pos-
senses in which it is used; God is just; An objection an-
cases it can be exercised; To what extent; On what con-
Wisdom of God. Wisdom defined; Wisdom an attribute of God.
to God; Remarks in respect to the manner in which this
now under consideration ; Sources of evidence; Amount
Christ; Christ truly divine, or the true God; Objections
intended by the Divinity of the Holy Spirit; He is truly
of God; God administers over the universe a providen-
Conditions of Moral Obligation; Foundation of Moral
God a moral being; God a
Law a unit; No being can make law; The will of the
Commandments declaratory; The Ten Commandments
Its design ; Its necessity; Its perpetual and universal ob-
c. The attributes of an animal body.
THE NATURAL ATTRIBUTES are what we know of the nature of mind, some of which are.
a. Intellect, or the power to think or reason. b. Will, or the power of volition.
1 c. Reason, or the power to distinguish truth from error, good from evil, or to deduce just inferences from facts or propositions.
d, Conscience, or the power to pass judgment upon the inoral qualities of actions and to approve or condemn accordingly.
Consciousness testifies to the existence of these and other natural attributes of the mind of man.
Their existence cannot be doubted.
THE MORAL ATTRIBUTES of mind are its voluntary but perma nent and controlling moral dispositions, or preferences, such as selfishness or benevolence, justice or injustice, &c. The existence of these is a matter of consciousness and cannot be doubted.
4. Man is an Agent, i. e. he originates his own actions. Proof. Consciousness.
5. Man is a Free Agent, i. e, he possesses intelligence with the
power and liberty of choice. Proof. (1.) Consciousness.: ! * (2.) Agency implies freedom.
3.) The fact that men are governed by motives implies liberty of will.
(4.) We are as sure that we are free as that we exist. That we act freely as that we act at all.
6. Man is a Moral Agent.
Moral agency implies the possession of intellect, - reason, will, conscience. A susceptibility to pleasure and pain, with some degree of knowledge on moral subjects.
Man is conscious of possessing these. He therefore knows him self to be a moral agent. The moral agency of man is further proved by the following considerations :
1. All government is founded upon the universal recognition of this truth.
2. All praise and blame which all men award to each other is founo ded upon the universal acknowledgment of this truth.
3. It cannot be and never was seriously disbelieved. tended doubters of it are as ready as others to praise or blame those around them for their actions.
4. The actual influence of moral considerations upon men, demonstrates their moral agency.
7. Man is an Immortal Agent. Only a few of the proofs of this will be adduced in this place.
Proof. 1. Life of mind is not dependent on the body, for nearly every part of the body has been destroyed in different persons, and yet the mind lived.