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will be received in all the cases in which documents in the English language are received; but, in the cases where the employees whose duty it is to make use of these documents do not understand French, it shall be incumbent, provisionally, on the party interested, to furnish a translation of the document produced, which, to prevent all error and discussion, shall be certified by him as true. Honolulu, 25th March, 1851.


Minister of Foreign Relations. Le Commissaire de la République Française,


From the foregoing papers it will be seen that the controversy of the Hawaiian government with the French is in the way of adjustment. “All that is wanting is for France to restore harmony; for, on behalf of the king's government, they have never for one moment deviated from their policy of treating France, her citizens, and all their interests, on the footing of the most favored nation. That this wise and unresenting policy will be duly appreciated by the French government, is not to be doubted. But, to crown all, King Kamehameha III., with a magnanimity worthy of a sovereign, refers his claims for indemnity for severe losses sustained, without requiring the punishment of the authors, to the President of France himself; thus proving to the world alike his confidence in the justice of his own cause, and in the justice of Prince Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, in whose hands he places it.”

In his speech at the opening of the Hawaiian Parliament, on the 10th of May, 1851, the king uses the following language : “ Diplomatic Relations have not been fully restored with France, but having, on my part, referred certain claims for indemnity to the Presi



dent of the French Republic, I hope that he, nieeting me in a corresponding spirit, will issue such instructions as to put an end to an attitude of hostility towards my kingdom, taken by France, which I have ever regretted, and have never sought, in any way, to retaliate. I am not conscious of any act of my government, of which France has any reason to complain."

The simple utterance of the above sentence by His Majesty, says the Polynesian, felt, as it is, to be the simple truth, has more force than a thousand volumes of subtle reasoning, in convincing the judgment, and in nerving the heart. And the sentiment is not confined to the breast of His Majesty ; it is entertained by every member of his government, and is the universal sentiment of the world. Its truth calls forth the sympathies of all his subjects, and unites the opinions of all classes upon his shores.

It is understood that negotiations are in progress with the United States, at Washington, through an authorized agent of the Hawaiian kingdom, which have for their end either the establishment of an American Protectorate at the Sandwich Islands, or their annexation to the American Union, in the event of the non-establishment of permanent friendly relations with France on a satisfactory and independent basis. Certain significant events of Providence, and the fact that the Hawaiian Islands are already a virtual colony of the United States, a missionary offshoot from the stock of New England, together with the “manifest destiny" view of the extension of American institutions,

give a strong probability to what might otherwise seem but a presumption, namely, that the lapse of a few years will find the Heart of the Pacific a twin heart with the great American Republic, organized under the same laws, and beating with the same Anglo-Saxon blood that shall animate the united millions of all North America between the Atlantic and Pacific. The law of progress and of conquest by arts and emigration is so clearly impressed upon the American division of the Anglo-Saxon family, that it is like a denial of Providence and Destiny to doubt its great and glorious issues, or the triumphs it is yet to achieve on the field of social progress and humanity. We quote, as in place here, the following paper on


By a fortunate coincidence, the general total of the American census taken last year has just been received, and we are enabled, in conjunction with the returns made on the 31st of March for this country, to measure the absolute progress of the Anglo-Saxon race in its two grand divisions, and to compare the laws of their respective growths in relation to each other and to the rest of the world. It is estimated, including Ireland and the colonies, that there is a grand total of men speaking the same language and manifesting the same general tendencies of civilization, of fifty-six millions, from which is to be deducted the three millions of negro slaves in the United States, leaving a remainder of fifty-three millions, chiefly of Anglo-Saxon descent, and deeply impregnated with its sturdy qualities of heart and brain, as the representative of this advancing stock.

Two centuries ago there were not quite three millions of this race on the face of the earth. There are a million more persons of Magyar descent, speaking the Magyar language, at the present moment in Europe than there were in Europe and America of this conquering and colonizing people in the time of Cromwell. How vain, then, for men to talk of the political necessity for absorbing small races! Sixty years ago, the Anglo-Saxon race did not exceed seventeen millions in Europe and America." At that time it was not numerically stronger than the



Poles. Thirty years ago it counted only thirty-four millions ; being altogether only three millions and a fraction more than the population of France at that time, and considerably less than the Teutonic population of Central Europe. In 1851 it is ahead of every civilized race in the world. Of races lying within the zones of civilization, the Sclaves alone are more numerous, counted by heads; but comparatively few of this plastic and submissive stock have yet escaped from the barbarism of the dark ages. In wealth, energy, and cultivation, they are not to be compared with the Frank, the Teuton, and the Anglo-Saxon. Number is almost their only element of strength.

Of all the races which are now striving for the mastery of the world, to impress on the future of society and civilization the stamp of its own character and genius, to make its law, idiom, religion, manners, government, and opinion prevail, the Anglo-Saxon is now unquestionably the most numerous, powerful, and active. The day when it might possibly have been crushed, absorbed, or trampled out, like Hungary and Poland, by stronger hordes, is gone by forever. That it was possible at one time for this people to be subdued by violence, or to fall a prey to the slower agonies of decline, there can be little doubt. In 1650 the United Provinces seemed more likely to make a grand figure in the world's future history than England. Their wealth, activity, and maritime power were the most imposing in Europe. They had all the carrying trade of the west in their hands. Their language was spoken in every port. In the great Orient their empire was fixed and their influence paramount. England was then hardly known abroad. Her difficult idiom grated on foreign ears, and her stormy coasts repelled the curiosity of more cultivated travellers. And if the thought of a day arriving when any single European language would be spoken by millions of persons, , scattered over the great continents of the earth from New Zealand to the Hebrides, and from the Cape of Storms to the Arctic Ocean, occurred to any speculative mind, Dutch, not English, would probably have been the tongue to which he would have assigned the marvellous mission.

Yet Holland has fallen nearly as much as the Saxon has risen in the scale of nations. Her idiom is now acquired by few. Her merchants conduct their correspondence and transact their business in French or in English. Even her writers have many of them clothed their genius in a foreign garb. On the other hand, our literature and language have passed entirely out of this phase of danger. Dutch, like Welsh, Flemish, Erse, Basque, and other idioms, is doomed to perish as an intellectual medium ; but whatever may be the future changes of the world, the tongue of Shakspeare and of Bacon is now too firmly rooted ever to be torn away. No longer content with mere preservation, it aims at universal mastery. Gradually it is taking possession of all the ports and coasts of the world ; isolating all rival idioms, shutting them up from intercourse with each other, making itself the channel of every commu

nication. At a hundred points at once it plays the aggressor. It contends with Spanish on the frontiers of Mexico; drives French and Russian before it in Canada and in the Northern Archipelago; supersedes Dutch at the Cape and Natal; elbows Greek and Italian at Malta and in the Ionian Islands; usurps the right of Arabic at Suez and Alexandria; maintains itself supreme at Liberia, Hongkong, Jamaica, and St. Helena ; fights its way against multitudinous and various dialects in the Rocky Mountains, in Central America, on the Gold Coast, in the interior of Australia, and among the countless islands in the Eastern Seas. No other language is spreading in this way. French and German find students among cultivated men; but English permanently destroys and supersedes the idioms with which it comes in contact.

The relative growth of the two great Anglo-Saxon States is note worthy. In 1801 the population of Great Britain was 10,942,646; in 1800 that of the United States was 5,319,762, or not quite half. In 1850 the population of the United States was two millions and a third more than that of Great Britain in 1851; at this moment it probably exceeds it by three millions. The rate of decennial increase in this country is less than 15 per cent., while in America it is about 35 per cent. In the great Continental States the rate is considerably lower than in England. According to the progress of the last fifty years in France and in America, the United States will have the larger population in 1870; in 1900 they will exceed those of England, France, Spain, Portugal, Denmark, Sweden, and Switzerland combined. Prudent statesmen should bear these facts in mind. Many persons now alive may see the time when America will be of more importance to us, socially, commercially, and politically, than all Europe put together. Old diplomatic traditions will go for little in face of a transatlantic power numbering one hundred millions of free and energetic men of our own race and blood.--Athendum.



THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, equally animated with the desire of maintaining the relations of good understanding which have hitherto so happily subsisted between their respective States, and consolidating the commercial intercourse between them, have agreed to enter into negotiations for the conclusion of a treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation, for which purpose they have appointed Plenipotentiaries, that is to say:

The President of the United States of America, John M. Clayton, Secretary of State of the United States ; and His Majesty the King of the Hawaiian Islands, James Jackson Jarves, accredited as his Special

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