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of opinion will be unfavourable to the memory of the dead.

Life does not often receive good unmixed with evil. The benefits of the art of printing are depraved by the facility with which scandal may be diffused, and secrets revealed; and by the temptation which traffick solicits avarice to betray the weaknesses of passion, or the confidence of friendship.

I cannot forbear to think these posthumous publications injurious to society. A man conscious of literary reputation will grow in time afraid to write with tenderness to his sister, or with fondness to his child; or to remit on the slightest occasion, or most pressing exigence, the rigour of critical choice, and grammatical severity. That esteem which preserves his letters, will at last produce his disgrace, when that which he wrote to his friend or his daughter shall be laid open to the publick.

There is, perhaps, sufficient evidence, that most of the plays in question, unequal as they may be to the rest, were written by Shakespeare; but the reason generally given for publishing the less correct pieces of an author, that it affords a more impartial view of a man's talents or way of thinking, than when we only see him in form, and prepared for our reception, is not enough to condemn an editor who thinks and practises otherwise. For what is all this to show, but that every man is more dull at one time than at another? A fact which the world would easily have admitted, without asking any proofs in its support that might be destructive to an author's reputation.

To conclude; if the work, which this publication was meant to facilitate, has been already performed, the satisfaction of knowing it to be so may be obtained from hence; if otherwise, let those who raised expectations of correctness, and through negligence defeated them, be justly exposed by future editors, who will now be in possession of by far the greatest part of what they might have enquired after for years to no purpose; for in respect of such a number of the old Quartos as are here exhibited, the first Folio is a common book. This advantage will at least arise, that future editors having equally recourse to the same copies, can challenge distinction and preference only by genius, capacity, industry, and learning.

As I have only collected materials for future artists, I consider what I have been doing as no more than an apparatus for their use. If the publick is inclined to receive it as such, I am amply rewarded for my trouble; if otherwise, I shall submit with cheerfulness to the censure which should equitably fall on an injudicious attempt; having this consolation however, that my design amounted to no more than a wish to encourage others to think of preserving the oldest editions of the English writers, which are growing scarcer every day; and to afford the world all the assistance or pleasure it can receive from the most authentick copies extant of its noblest poet.



DWARD CAPELL was born in Throston,
Suffolk, June 11, 1713, and died at Brill
Court Temple, London, February 24, 1781.

He was educated at Cambridge, and in 1737 received the appointment of Deputy Inspector of Plays with the functions of a censor. This both gave him time and whetted his taste for the study of Elizabethan dramatic literature. His first essay in letters was “ Prolusions, or Select Pieces of Ancient Poetry," in which appeared the anonymous play of “Edward III.," which the editor tentatively attributed to Shakespeare.

In 1768 appeared his edition of Shakespeare's works, in ten volumes. His “ Notes and Various Readings to Shakespeare ” were published in advance of the text in 1759, but were withdrawn, and the first two volumes, revised, appeared in 1779. The third volume, called the “ School of Shakespeare," appeared in 1783, after his death. The “ School ” consisted of poems, plays, etc., extant in Shakespeare's time and supposed to have formed a part of his literary capital. Two other works, long since forgotten, are credited to Capell, “ Two tables elucidating the sound of letters" (1749), “Reflections in originality of Authors” (1766). He also collaborated with David Garrick in a special edition of “ Antony and Cleopatra."


(Prepared to octavo edition in ten volumes, 1768.] It is said of the ostrich, that she drops her egg at random, to be dispos'd of as chance pleases; either brought to maturity by the sun's kindly warmth, or else crushed by beasts and the feet of passers-by: such at least, is the account which naturalists have given us of this extraordinary bird; and admitting it for a truth, she is in this a fit emblem of almost every great genius: they conceive and produce with ease those noble issues of human understanding; but incubation, the dull work of putting them correctly upon paper and afterwards publishing, is a task they can not away with. If the original state of all such author's writings, even from Homer downward, could be enquir'd into and known, they would yield proof in abundance of the justness of what is here asserted: but the author now before us shall suffice for them all; being at once the greatest instance of genius in producing noble things, and of negligence in providing for them afterwards. This negligence indeed was so great, and the condition in which his works are come down to us so very deformed, that it has, of late years, induc'd several gentlemen to make a revision of them: but the publick seems not to be satisfied with any of their endeavours; and the reason of its discontent will be manifest, when the state of his old editions, and the methods that they have taken to amend them, are fully lay'd open, which is the first business of this Introduction.

Of thirty-six plays which Shakespeare has left us, and which compose the collection that was afterwards set out in folio, thirteen only were published in his lifetime, that have much resemblance to those in the folio; these thirteen are—“Hamlet,” First and Second “ Henry IV.," “ King Lear,” “Love's Labour's Lost," “ Merchant of Venice," “ Midsummer-Night's Dream,” “ Much Ado About Nothing," " Richard II.," “ Richard III.," “ Romeo and Juliet,” “ Titus Andronicus,” and “ Troilus and Cressida.” Some others, that came out in the same period, bear indeed the titles of — “ Henry V.,” “King John,” “Merry Wives of Windsor,” and “Taming of the Shrew," but are no other than either first draughts, or mutilated and perhaps surreptitious impressions of those plays, but whether of the two is not easy to determine: “King John” is certainly a first draught, and in two parts; and so much another play that only one line of it is retain'd in the second: there is also a first draught of the Second and Third parts of “ Henry VI.,” published in his life time under the following title,—“ The whole Contention between the two famous Houses, Lancaster and Yorke”: and to these plays, six in number, may be added the first impression of “Romeo and Juliet," being a play of the same stamp: The date of all these quartos, and that of their several re-impressions, may be seen in a table that follows the Introduction. “Othello " came out only one year before the folio; and is, in the main, the same play that we have there: and this too, is the case of the first-mentioned thirteen; notwithstanding there are in many of them great variations, and particularly in “Hamlet,” “ King Lear," “ Richard III.,” and “Romeo and Juliet.”

As for the plays which, we say, are either the poet's first draughts, or else imperfect and stolen copies, it will be thought, perhaps, they might as well have been left out of the account: but they are not wholly useless ;

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