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relate to those of man, rather than to that of the building. This is not always sufficiently attended to: thus, on Westminster-Bridge,
the large Jotiy balustrade is so managed, that the swelling of each heavy baluster exactly ranges with the eye of a foot passenger; and from a carriage, the top of the balustrade almost entirely obstructs the view of the river. Thus one of the finest rivers in Europe is hid for the sake of preserving some imaginary proportion in architecture, relating to its form or entablature, but not applicable to its uses, as a defence for safety, without impeding the view. If it be urged, that we should judge of it from the water, we should consider that this bridge is seen by an hundred persons from the land, to one from the water. By the aid of an open upright iron fence, the most interesting view of the river might be obtained with equal safety to the spectator." -p.9.
In the infancy of modern gardening, a false taste was introduced by Shenstone, in his Ferme Ornée, at the Leasowes, where,
instead of surrounding his house with such a quantity of ornamental lawn or park only, as might be consistent with the size of the mansion, or the extent of the property, his taste, rather than his ambition, led him to ornament the whole of bis estate ;' and in the vain attempt to combine the profit of a farm with the scenery of a park, ‘he lived under the continual mortification of disappointed hope, and with a mind exquisitely sensible, he felt equally the sneer of the great man at the magnificence of his attempt, and the ridicule of the farmer at the misapplication of his paternal acres.'
Another fashion attempted to be introduced was that of pica turesque gardening, or the art of laying ont grounds according to the principles of painting; and perhaps Mr. Repton's opinion. upon this subject cannot be better illustrated than by an extract from an unpublished letter of the late Mr. Windhan, one of the few relics, alas, of his acute and comprehensive miud.
• The writers of this school shew evidently that they do not trace with any success the causes of their pleasure. Does the pleasure that we receive from the view of parks and gardens result from their afford ing in their several parts subjects that would appear to advantage in a picture?
• In the first place, what is most beautiful in nature, is not always capable of being represented most advantageously by painting. The instance of an extensive prospect, the most affecting sight that the eye can bring before us, is quite conclusive. I do not know any thing that does, and naturally should so strongly affect the mind, as the sudden. transition from such a portion of space as we commonly have in our minds, to such a view of the habitable globe as may be exhibited in the case of some extensive prospects. Many things too, as you illustrate well in the instance of deer, are not capable of representation in a picture at all; and of this sort must every thing be that depends ou motion and succession.
* But in the next place, the beauties of nature itself which painting can exhibit, are many, and most of them probably of a sort which have nothing to do with the purposes of habitation, and are even wholly inconsistent with them. A scene of a cavern, with banditti sitting by it, is the favourite subject of Salvator Rosa. But are we therefore to live in caves? or encourage the neighbourhood of banditti? Gainsborough's country girl is a more picturesque object than a child neatly dressed in a white frock; but is that a reason why our children are to go in rags?
The whole doctrine is so absurd, that when set forth in its true shape, no one will be hardy enough to stand by it; and accordingly, they never do set it forth, nor exhibit .it in any distinct shape at all : but only take a general credit for their attachment to principles which every body is attached to as well as they, and where the only question is of the application, which they afiord you no means of making. They are lovers of picturesque beauty, so is every body else : but is it contended, that in laying out a place, whatever is most picturesque is most conformable to true taste? If they say so, as they seem to do in many passages, they must be led to consequences which they can never venture to avow. If they do not say so, the whole is a question of how much, or how little, which without the instances before you can never be decided; and all tbat they do is, to lay down a system as depending on one principle, which they themselves are obliged to confess afterwards, depends upon many. They either say what is false, or what turns out upon examination to be nothing at all.
• Places are not to be laid out with a view to their appearance in a picture, but to their use, and the enjoyment of them in real life: and their conformity to those purposes, is that which constitutes their true beauty. With this view, gravel walks, and neat mown lawns, and in some situations straight alleys, fountains, terraces, and, for aught I know, parterres and cut hedges, are in perfect good taste, and infinitely more conformable to the principles which form the basis of our pleasure in these instances, than the docks and thistles, and litter and disorder, that may make a much better figure in a picture.'
There are certainly many sources of pleasure in landscape gardening, wholly unconnected with picturesque effect. Mr. Repton has enumerated congruity, utility, order, symmetry, and, among others,' appropriation, or that command over the landscape visible from the windows, which denotes it to be private property belonging to the place.'
* A view into a square, or into the parks, may be cheerful and beautiful, but it wants appropriation ; it wants that charm which only belongs to ownership; the exclusive right of enjoyment, with the power of refusing that others should share our pleasure ; and however painful the reflection, this propensity is part of human nature. It is so prevalent, that in my various intercourse with proprietors of land, I have raroly met with those who agreed with me in preferring the siglt of mankind
to that of herds of cattle; or the moving objects in a public road, to the dull monotony of lawns and woods.—The most romantic spot, the most picturesque situations, and the most delightful assemblage of nature's choicest materials, will not long engage our interest without some appropriation; something we can call our own; and if not our own properly, at least it may be endeared to us by calling it our own home. - p. 235.
Having thus far traced the history of the art of English gardening an interesting subject of inquiry remains to be considered.What will be its future progress, and ultimate fate? Shall we descend from the proud pre-eininence we have attained, or sball we continue to advance uniting comfort with picturesque effect, till Albion smile one ample theatre of sylvan grace?"
Horace Walpole feared the abolition or restriction of the modern taste in gardening from its solitariness, arising from the change which had, even in his time, taken place in the style of living in the country, where, however, 'superb palaces were still created, becoming a pompous solitude to the owner, and a transient entertainment to a few travellers. Our style of living is now indeed changed, but from causes of which he could forni no idea, and it
our nobility do not continue to reside upon their estates, while some of the parks of our country gentlemen are become farms, and others
thers transferred to successful speculators on the necessities of the
times, or on the various demands that a long continued war has produced.
Many of these new possessors of the domains of our ancient families have neither taste nor inclination to improve their scenery, but continuing to act upon the principles by which their landed property has been acquired, they are rather solicitous to increase than to enjoy it; regarding their newly purchased estates as intestments of money, from which they must derive the greatest possible return of profit, at the expense, perhaps, of every local association and attachment. They only wish to improve their rental, until other speculations shall transfer the estates to new proprietors. Others consider their estates as occasional retreats from the bustle and anxiety of business. Their objects are privacy and seclusion. They surround the whole place, perhaps, with a lofty pale and a thick plantation, and improve it according to their own taste, with white rails, serpentine walks, spruce firs, and Lombardy poplars, a sheet of water and a Chinese bridge. Novelty usurps ihe place of propriety; and to men whose former lives have been exclusively devoted to mercantile pursuits in London, almost every thing is new in the country. Their ideas of perfection are contained in a few words, ' I know what pleases myself.'
But the man of good taste endeavours to investigate the causes of the pleasure he receives, and to inquire whether others receive pleasure also. He knows that the same principles which direct taste in the polite arts, direct the judgment in morality: that the knowledge of what is good, whether in actions, in manners, in language, in arts, or science, constitutes the basis of good taste, and marks the distinction between the higher ranks of polished society, and the inferior orders of mankind, whose daily labours allow no leisure for other enjoyments, than thuse of mere sensual, individual or personal gratification.'
Many of our new proprietors of estates are, however, gentlemen of liberal education, who have hitherto only wanted leisure to discover the true value of these scenes of active benevolence and tranquil enjoyment; to them it is reserved to extend the dominion of elegance around their own habitations, and diffuse cheerfulness and comfort among those of their dependants.
This is an English gentleman's proper scene of action. He is no where so respectable as at the head of his tenants and his peasantry, and never so well employed as in promoting their welfare. The art of landscape gardening will, above all others, induce him, first to create, and afterwards to enjoy a comfortable home; and the reciprocity of good offices between the higher and lower classes of society, produced by the residence of the former upon their estates in the country, is an object of the greatest national importance. This is the true end of all plans of improvement, and we have therefore read with satisfaction the Fragment on the Duke of Bedford's cottage, (as it is called;) at Endsleigh, where Mr. Repton observes:
* It is with peculiar pleasure that I have been called upon to exercise my utmost skill on this subject, since every thing that can contribute to the enjoyment of its scenery, I know, must also contribute to the improvement of the neighbouring country, in its agriculture, its mineralogy, its civilization, and the general happiness of all who dwell within the influence of this cottage on the banks of the Tamar.'<p. 226. We may appear to bave dwelt too long upon this subject : but the history of its art, is a part of the history of our country; and according to an author who united good taste with profound erudition,* Our skill in gardening, or rather laying out grounds, is the only taste we can call our own; the only proof of nal talent in matters of pleasure. This is no small honour to us : since neither France nor Italy have ever had the least notion of it, nor yet do at all comprehend it when they see it.' And
And we agree with Mr. Repton, that
Perhaps after all, the pleasure derived from a garden has some relative association with its evanescent nature and produce. We view with more delight a wreath of short lived roses, than a crown of amaranth of everlasting flowers. However this may be, it is certain that
the good and wise of all ages have enjoyed their purest and most innocent pleasures in a garden, from the beginning of time.'--p. 147.
We must now take our leave of Mr. Repton and his pleasing ar'l, referring to the book itself such of our readers as have a taste for landscape gardening, or a desire to improve their grounds; convinced, ihat they will tind it both interesting and entertaining. It is embellished with numerous highly finished and beautifully illustrative engravings, and bis Fragmeuts' are worthy of Mr. Repton's former volumes, and of his professional reputation.
Art. VIII. Tales of My Landlord. 4 vols. 12mo. Third Edi
tion. Blackwood, Edinburgh. John Murray, London. 1817 ΤΗ! THESE Tales belong obviously to a class of novels which we
have already had occasion repeatedly to notice, and which have attracted the attention of the public m 10 common degree, we mean Waverley, Guy Mannering, and the Antiquary, and we have little hesitation to pronounce them either entirely, or in a great measure, the work of the same author. Why' he should industrie ously endeavour to elude observation by taking leave 'of us in one character, and then suddenly popping out upon us in another, we cannot pretend to guess withont knowing more of his personal rea; sous for preserving so strict an incognito than has hitherto reached
We can, however, conceive many reasons for a writer observe ing this sort of mystery; not to mention that it has certainly had its effect in keeping up the interest which his works have excited.
We do not know if the imagination of our author will sink in the opinion of the public when deprived of that degree of invention which we have been bitherto disposed to ascribe to him; but we are certain that it ought to increase the value of his portraits, that human beings bave actually sate for them. These coincidences between fiction and reality are perhaps the very circumstances to which the success of these novels is in a great measure to be attributed : for, wițhout depreciating the merit of the artist, every spectator at once recognizes in those scenes and faces which are copied from nature an air of distinct reality, which is not attached to fancy-pieces however happily conceived and elaborately executed. By what sort of freemasonry; if we may use the term, the mind arrives at this conviction, we do not pretend to guess, but every bue must have felt that he instinctively and almost insensibly recognizes in painting, poetry, or other works of imagination, that which is copied froin existing nature, and that he forth with clings to it with that kindred interest which thinks nothing which is human indif. ferent to humanity. Before therefore we proceed to analyse the