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to possess one simple fact that could be employed to silence those idle speculations drawn from imperfect data-and the remarkable discordance between Bruce and Nouet, in this particular instance, should have shewn Mr. Legh how necessary it was to have the observations of more than one traveller to get at the truth.
At Dondour was a small temple containing nothing remarkable; the character A + 1 among the fragments shewed it to have been the abode of some early Christians. The weather began now to be exceedingly sultry and oppressive; the thermometer in the cabin was at $6°; in the outer air 96°, and in the sand 126°; but it was a great relief to find the inhabitants every where peaceably disposed ; they brought the travellers dates, milk, and whatever their scanty means enabled them to afford.
The temple of Sibhoi was minutely examined, and no doubt remained of its having been a celebrated sanctuary of pure Egyptian architecture. Mr. Legh thinks it probably of an earlier date than those in Egypt; the walls being built in a ruder style, and the hieroglyphics, though bold, of inferior execution; but the statues,' he adds, and the sphinxes would bear a closer examination. He was greatly struck with the high state of preservation of the stone and outward walls of these venerable ruins, as compared with the state of those below the Cataracts. No reasonable allowance of difference of date,' he says, ' will explain this; and we must seek for the cause in the inild, unalterable climate between the tropics. The corroding hand of time has no effect upon thein, but they are abandoned to the desert, and many of them will in a few years entirely disappear.'
They proceeded about fourteen miles on asses to Dehr, the capital of Nubia, to wait on Hassan Cacheff, the chief of the Barabras. At this moment the people were celebrating the festival of the Cacheff's marriage, which our travellers were rather surprized to hear them call (in lingua Franca) a fantasia. They rode through scattered plantations of date trees among which were interspersed a number of mud huts, till they reached the house of the chief, distinguished only by being built of brick, and consisting of two stories. The natives, many of whom were drunk, were greatly astonished at the sudden appearance of the strangers; but offered them no incivility. They brought them paste, with boiled goat's flesh swimming in butter. After waiting about four hours, the Cacheff made his appearance, attended by five or six officers, and a number of Negro guards; he was a young man, about six feet high, of a handsome person, half drunk with araki, a spirit distilled from dates. He asked them boisterously what they wanted, and why they came to Dehr ? This was but a discouraging reception from a man who had 300 armed Negroes at his elbow, and at least 3000 in the dis
trict, ready to execute any of his commands. On retiring, he ordered his secretary, who spoke Arabic, to conduct them to a lodging for the night; this was a mud hut of two apartments, but without a roof; it was, however, next to that of the Cacheff, the best in all Debr. Early in the morning the secretary called upon them, and hinted that his master expected a present, and that one of their swords would be acceptable. On waiting on the Cacheff, they offered bim a watch, of which he declined the acceptance, as they were unable to make him comprehend its use. Perceiving that any facilities for the further progress of their journey depended on the sacrifice of one of their swords, Mr. Legh presented him with a fine Damascus blade worth at least 500 piastres: the effect was instantaneous; his eyes sparkled with pleasure, and his lips uttered nothing but friendship. He inquired after our author's harem-if he had left it at the Cataract, meaning,' says Mr. Legh, as I understood, to give me a female slave to wait upon my wife.' He afterwards made him a present of a Negro boy, and granted permission for them to proceed to Ibrîm, offering horses and dromedaries or any thing else that could be of service. The Damascus blade accomplished more than all poor Norden's wealth was able to do with the Cacheff Baram, who sent him back from Dehr, telling him, when he claimed the protection of the Grand Signior, • I laugh at the horns of the Grand Signior; I am here Grand Signior myself.? — Baram in Ethiopia felt his own importance, like the porter in London, who, being jostled in the street against Peter the Great, was accosted with— Sirrah! do you know that I am the Czar ?? — Yes, yes,' replied the fellow, 'we are all Czars here!
It required half a day's journey from Delr to reach Ibrîm, and as there was nothing to interest them there, they returned to Dehr the same evening. The following is all that we are told of Ibrîm.
Not a vestige of life was seen about us; the destruction of Ibrîm by the Mamelukes, when they passed two years ago into Dongola, had been so complete, that no solitary native was to be found wandering amongst its ruins; there was not even a date tree to be observed. The walls of the houses, which are in some places still standing, alone attest that it has once been inhabited. The population was partly carried off by the Mamelukes, and has partly removed to Dehr.'-p.76.
At Dehr the only monument of antiquity is a temple or grotto, excavated in the solid rock; but at Amada, about an hour's journey from thence, on their return, they saw a fine temple which had been converted by the early Christians into a church; the painted figures that had been stuccoed over were in wonderful preservation, Below Sibhoi they fell in with their old acquaintance Shekh Ibrahim, whom they had left at Siout in good health and condition,
and well dressed like a Turkish gentleman; he had now the appearance of a common Arab, looking very thin and very miserable. He had been living, he said, for some time with the shekhs of the villages on lentils, bread, salt and water, and was most happy to share a mutton chop with our travellers, though cut from a lean and half starved sheep, for which however they had paid the extravagant price of a dollar. Ibrahim then departed on his route to the southward, carrying with him the good wishes of his countrymennot exactly countrymen,' for he is a German. Certainly,' says Mr. Legh, 'no one was ever better fitted for such an undertakiug; his enterprize, his various attainments in almost every living language, and his talent for observation, are above all praise.' His Journals, we understand, which have been received, and with which in due time the public will be gratified, fully justify the character given by Mr. Legh of this extraordinary traveller.
At Dakki there is a fine temple quite perfect, with the hieroglyphics in high relief, and in an excellent state of preservation. The height of the Propylon is about fifty feet; its front ninety feet, and its depth at the base eighteen feet. The space between that and the temple forty-eight feet; the temple itself eighty-four feet in length, thirty in breadth, and twenty-four in height. Many Greek inscriptions are cut on the Propylon, recording the devotion of those who visited these sacred buildings. Of these our travellers copied two. The first, ism I, Apollonius, the son of Apollonius, Commander-in-Chief of the province of Ombi, and of the district about Elephantina and Philæ, came and worshipped.'— The second
- I, Callimachus, the son of Hermon, came with him and worshipped the same God, in the thirty-second year of the Emperor DX001-the meaning of which they pretend not to determine.
At Guerfeh Hassan, nine miles below Dakki, they found an excavated temple that far surpassed any thing they had witnessed above or below Essouan, and was indeed a stupendous monument of the labour bestowed by the ancients on their places of devotion.' It consists of an area or outer court sixty-four feet in length and thirtysíx in breadth, having six columns on each side, to which are attached statues of priests. The passage into the temple, through a door six feet wide, is formed by three immense columns on each side, to which are attached colossal statues of priests, (on pedestals three feet three inches high,) each eighteen feet six inches in height; and whose splendid dresses had once been covered with paint and gold. There are three chambers of considerable size, and four smaller apartments. “We found (the travellers say) no inscription on this temple, which is a most astonishing monument of labour and ancient magnificence. The various apartments we explored,
VOL, XYI. NO. XXXI.
together with the statues that ornament them, are all hewn out of the living rock.'
This excavated temple of Guerfeh Hassan reminds our travellers of the cave of Elephanta, on the little island of that name in the harbour of Bombay. Its resemblance, indeed, is singularly striking, as are in fact all the grand leading principles of Egyptian arcbitecture to that of the Hindoos. They differ only in those details of the decorative parts, which trifling points of difference in their religious creeds seem to have suggested to each; but many even of the rites and emblems are precisely the same, especially those of the temples dedicated to Iswara, the Indian Bacchus. Indeed, in most respects, they are so much alike-they each partake so much of the same gigantic character, and delight so much in stupendous masses, conveying rather the idea of strength and solidity, than of elegance and proportion---that the same identical workman might almost be supposed to have superintended the execution of them in both countries. In India and in Egypt the hardest granite mountains have been hewn down into the most striking if not the most beautiful fronts of temples, adorned with sculpture; in both countries solid masses of rock have been excavated into hollow chambers, whose sides are decorated with columns and statues of men and animals hewn out of the same rock, and in each country are found solid blocks of many hundred tons weight, cut from the living stone and lifted into the air.-By whom and by what means these wonderful efforts have been accomplished is a mystery sunk too deep in the abyss of time ever to be resolved. To Greece none of them are indebted for any part of their architecture, but she has evidently taken many hints from them. Excepting at Alexandria and Antinoë nothing of Grecian architecture appears in Egypt. But we need only compare the monolithic temples of Nubia with those of Mahabalipoor, the excavations of Guerfeh Hassan with those of Elephanta, and the grottos of Hadjur Silcily, as described and delineated by Pococke, with the excavations of Ellora, to be convinced that these sacred monuments of ancient days derived their origin from the
—and that many of them were probably executed under the influence of the same directing mind. We may observe, by the way, that the ruins of Hadjur Silcily have not been sufficiently examined. The excavated chambers seen there by Mr. Hamilton were each 300 feet long by 100 broad; and he measured a single cubical block of stone whose side was eighteen feet. This enormous mass, exceeding 400 tons in weight, was supported by a small column of soft white stone three feet in diameter.
The temple of Kalaptshi, though in a state of great dilapidation, eshibits the remains of a magnificent building; and the plain of El
Umbarakat is strewed with ruins. At Sardab and Debode are also many interesting ruins which are briefly described. On the second arrival of our travellers at Philæ they observe that it is impossible to behold the profusion of magnificerit ruins with which this island abounds, without feelings of admiration and astonishment:' at the same time it is avowed that 'the excavated temple of Guerfeh Hassan and the ruins of Dakki and Kalaptshi appeared to rival some of the finest specimens of Egyptian architecture. These specimens of Ethiopian grandeur sliew the fallacy of Denon's theory,– that Phile being the entrèpot 'of commerce between Ethiopia and Egypt, the Egyptians, desirous of giving to the Ethiopians a grand idea of their means and their magnificence, had raised a number of splendid edifices on the confines of their empire, at the natural frontier, marked out by Syene and the Cataracts.'
A French philosophe is never at a loss for a reason.—The fact is, that the resistance of the brave inhabitants of Philæ put an end to the hopes and the progress of the French general in Nubia, and all the grapes that grew beyond it turned instantly sour. Our travellers, however, have convicted at least, though probably not convinced, M. Denon of his error:-But even what they have seen and described shrinks into nothing, when compared with the discoveries of Mr. - Banks, a précis of which has been received by his father. This gentleman pushed on as far as the second Cataract, beyond which no modern European, with the exception of Shekh Ibrahim, had proceeded, nor any before him reached. Bruce saw nothiug of the Nile from Syene till he crossed the Tacazze, near its junction with the main stream of the Nile, in the 18th parallel of latitude. Poncet has given his route from Moscho to Kortie, through Dongola; but these places are farther to the southward: besides, Poncet disdained to look at any thing but gold and silver and precious stones, and Christian churches and apostolic miracles. All beyond Ibrîm, therefore, to the cataract of Genådal, may be considered as new ground. Mr. Banks appears to have examined minutely those numerous ruins of which Messrs. Legh and Smelt took but a rapid glance; he discovered a great number of extraordinary excavations in the mountains, and of colossal statues, compared with which even the gigantic fragments of the Memnonium and Luxorappeared but as pigmies. To give some idea of the immensity of those wonderful productions of early art, he states that, having mounted upon the tip of the ear of a statue which was buried up to the shoulders in sand, he could just reach to the middle of its forehead; that the length of its head, from thechin upwards, was tirelve feet, the parts in good proportion and well cut: allowing, therefore, seven heads for the length of the whole figure, its height, if in a standing posture, must have been equal to eighty-four feet; a height far exceeding that of the supposed