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historic changes which have led to the grouping of people speaking various languages into political units. The influence of the German geographer Rätzel, and of his American disciple Miss Semple, is evident in every chapter. Hence, there seems to be too much emphasis on the mere fact of the relative position of one country with reference to another. Moreover, Turkey receives an emphasis which is scarcely justified by the facts. Nevertheless the book is an admirable contribution to science. It describes the present distribution of languages and their relation to political divisions. It shows that in general the language of a people is the determining factor in its political affiliations. Such a book ought to be a great help at the peace conference.

Lastly the Anglo-Saxon gives his word on nationality. Like the Armenian, he does not appear to question its value. He simply tries to show how the “nations” are in danger of losing the power which now makes them the object of the wrath of Zangwill and Tagore. Being an Anglo-Saxon and an American, Humphrey naturally believes that his own race is destined to inherit the earth. But the Anglo-Saxons cannot hope to claim their inheritance unless they pay heed to the fact that they are fast losing the part of their population which makes them powerful. Just as Dominian dwells on purely geographical influences, so Humphrey dwells on racial influences. Both are right. There can be little doubt that to-day America's greatest danger lies in the fact that the poor, incompetent parts of the nation are increasing while the competent parts are relatively decreasing. This theme has lately been dwelt on by several authors. Grant, for example, has published a book which has attracted wide attention and which was reviewed in these pages last year. A revised edition of that book speaks more mildly and hence much more forcibly than the original. Humphrey's follows almost the same lines. His book, like most books that take a forward step, is one-sided. It states as facts many things which are merely speculations. It almost entirely overlooks physical environment as a factor in national development, and pays little attention to social environment. It dwells on the "youth" and "maturity" of nations as if a nation were actually young because its present organization happens to be young. Above all, the book exalts the Aryan race, especially the Anglo-Saxon and Germanic branches.

Nevertheless, in spite of many things that might be criticised, no “lover of mankind” can fail to see the importance of Humphrey's main conclusions. In all the more advanced nations the best are dying off without replacing themselves: while the worst are multiplying. The United States, by reason of its folly in permitting the weakest, even the imbecile, to reproduce themselves, and by allowing all sorts of weak races to invade its shores in search of easy “jobs" and "big pay," is tending rapidly towards mediocrity. We are going on the assumption that good plus poor makes good, which is as senseless as that two plus two makes six. No nation ever tried so great and so foolish an experiment. We all know the argument, but we must hear it until we heed it. Humphrey thinks that at present the science of eugenics does as much harm as good because it leads high-minded, great-souled people to hesitate about having children, while the senseless herd whose progeny makes the nation mediocre reproduce themselves without a thought. What we need, he says, is to face the sex problem with a boldness that we have not yet thought of. Sterilization is possible and harmless. Moreover, he suggests that we must consider a wholly new relationship—a relationship whereby the best men and not the worst may be the fathers, and whereby a woman may honorably have children without tying herself irrevocably to a man with whom she cannot happily live. Just how this can be accomplished without destroying the family, in which case it would do far more harm than good, Humphrey does not make clear. He is right, however, in believing that some revolutionary measures are needed if we would prevent the decay which has in the past been the lot of every great nation. Then nationality will not die, but will become the handmaid of an internationalism far nobler than that of which men yet have dreamed. Washington.

CAPTAIN ELLSWORTH HUNTINGTON.

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