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corered barges of the country. In others of the quad- 1 palace, and private residences. All these buildings are Tangles were planted trees, and in the largest, a heap of rocks built of brick, plastered, and whitewashed, and present no Tas rudely piled; and at one end was a spot laid out for a specimens of architectural elegance. The general nature of gerden in ininiature, but not yet finished.

the private dwellings in the city, even those inhabited by 5. IIOUSES OF AMERICA.

the wealthy classes, may be estimated from the fact, that

the usual materials are ill-shaped sun-dried bricks, and mud Under the general name of America are included as great instead of mortar. The cathedral is the only stone building & diversity of countries as were, perhaps, ever classed toge- in the city. ther. There is Canada, with its British institutions mingled Valparaiso, the principal port of Chili, consists of little with those of the French inhabitants of the Lower Province; more than one street: the houses are huddled together withLuthe United States, with its northern states almost English, out order:--the church is built chiefly of mud. There is a and its southern almost Spanish ;--Mexico, with its Spanish suburb called Almendral, the houses of which are small and character engrafted upon the ancient Aztecs ; --and the incommodious, of one ground-floor only, built of sun-dried numerous states of South America, all of which once bricks, plastered with mud and whitewashed. Some have belonged to Spain and Portugal, but all of which are now rude corridors projecting over the foot-way; others have republics, or something approaching thereto :-lastly, there raised brick paths in front of their houses; but generally the are the native Indian tribes, from the fur-hunters of the foot-path is merely a raised heap of earth. Some of the frozen regions in the north, to Patagonia in the south. It houses are roofed with tiles, while others are thatched with may well be supposed that the dwellings, as well as the cha- rushes, grass or palm-leaves; some have passages leading racter of the inhabitants vary exceedingly in different parts from the street; but in most cases, the door opens directly of this wide tract. Still, we may class all under three from the street to the apartments; and as many of them heads, Indian extraction, English extraction, and Spanish have no light but what they receive from the door, this door or Portuguese extraction. The dwellings of the Indians we is generally left open. Some of the rooms have small winneed not consider here, for they universally come under the doors with panelled shutters, having clumsy wooden bars denomination of “rude” habitations. Those of Canada, in front, rudely carved: some few are painted red; but and the northern portions of the United States, we may onnit generally they are not painted at all. for a different reason, viz., the better classes of habitations It will thus be seen that Chili does not present much to very closely resemble those of England. We shall therefore call forth admiration in the construction or appearance of merely offer a few remarks on those parts which have once its houses. Indeed along the whole western coast of South been either Spanish or Portuguese colonies.

America, but little attention seems to be paid to the conHumboldt considers the modern city of Mexico' to be struction of private dwellings; for earthquakes are so freone of the finest cities ever built by Europeans. There are quent that anything lofty would almost inevitably be made but few cities that can be compared to it, for the uniform a heap of ruins. Ulloa's description of the houses of Lima, level of the ground on which it is built, the regularity and the capital of Peru, though requiring alterations in somo breadth of the streets, and the extent of the public places parts to suit it to the state of things at the present day, or squares. The architecture is generally of a very pure may be taken as a tolerably near approach to the truth. He style; and there are edifices of a very beautiful construction. says:-" The houses, though for the most part low, are The exterior of the houses is not loaded with ornament. commodious, and make a good appearance. They are all of Two sorts of hewn stone (the porous amygdaloid called baxareque and quincha. They appear indeed to be comtetzontli, and especially a porphyry of vitreous feldspar posed of more solid materials, both with regard to the thickwithout quartz,) give to the Mexican buildings an air of ness of the principal walls, and the imitation of cornices on solidity, and sometimes of magnificence. There are none of them.” The principal parts are of wood, morticed into the those wooden balconies and galleries to be seen which disfi- rafters of the roof. The walls are lined within and withgure so much all the European cities in both the Indies. out with wild canes and osiers, so that the timber-work is The balustrades and gates are all of Biscay iron, omamented wholly inclosed. The osiers are plastered over with clay, with bronze; and the houses, instead of roofs, have terraces and whitewashed. Cornices and porticos of rough worklike those in Italy, and other southern countries. Many manship are then added, and whitewashed to imitate stone. of the streets are nearly two miles in length, perfectly level The roofs are flat, and covered only so far as is necessary to and straight, and with the ends terminating in a view of the keep out wind and sun. Such is the general character of mountains that surround the valley in which the city is the houses in Lima. Those which are inhabited by Eurosituated. The houses are, in general

, of a uniform height, peans are in many cases built somewhat in the style prevamost of them having three stories, each from fifteen to lent in their own country; but always with attention to twenty feet high. The fronts of most of the houses are the necessary character of being low, seldom exceeding two painted in distemper, white, crimson, brown, or light green; stories in height, and very often not exceeding one. Mr. and owing to the dryness of the atmosphere, they retain their Miers, a recent traveller in South America, describes the beauty unimpaired for many years. Some inscriptions are houses at Mendoza, an important town in the La Plata propainted upon them taken from Scripture, or stanzas addressed vinces, as being nearly such as we have here described :to the Virgin. Many of the houses are entirely covered all of one story: built of adobes, (sun-dried bricks,) plastered with glazed porcelain in a variety of elegant designs, by with mud, and whitewashed. Even the governor's house whick a rich mosaic-like appearance is produced. The walls was of this character. of the great staircases are frequently covered in the same On crossing to the eastern shore of South America, the manner, and mixed with a profusion of gilding, which in city of Buenos Ayres does not seem to present many more contrast with the blue and white porcelain has a splendid attractions than those we have described, --considered with effectui,

reference to the houses. Mr. Miers says, “The houses frontThere are no other cities or towns of Mexico at all merit- | ing the beach I mistook for gaols, as they had po glass ing notice in respect of their dwellings, as the farther we sashes, and the open windows were defended by iron recede from the capital the more does a commingling of gratings; but on entering the town, I found all the houses European and Indian manners become perceptible.

constructed in the same manner, mostly of one ground floor: At the southward of Mexico, and occupying the northern their deserted appearance, and shabby exterior, bore more portion of South America, are numerous states which were the semblance of gaols than the habitations of an industrious, once Spanish but are now republican; but anarchy so reigns civilized, and free people.”, Mr. Miers and his companions there, that we know but little of the actual condition of the were lodged and entertained at the house of one of the most towns and honses.

respectable inhabitants; and the mode of taking meals, &c., • The residences of the inhabitants of Chili may be judged may serve to convey some idea of the manners of the of from those of its capital, Santiago. This city is divided inhabitants. Mr: M. was placed at the top of the family into rectangular and equal squares, separated by streets forty table,--the usual seat of guests, according to the custom of feet broad. Each compartment or square measures about the country. Three black female slaves waited at table. four hundred feet each way; and each square is called About twenty dishes, of different sorts, were brought, a quadro. The streets are ill-paved with small round each one after the other was removed, --containing bread and stones brought from the bed of the river, and have a gutter vermicelli soup, different kinds of stews, boiled beef, roast through the middle; but the best streets are paved on one veal, lettuce salad, and various sorts of vegetables. The side with slabs of porphyry, quarried from a neighbouring wish was, that the guests should eat some of every hill. The great central square, or plaza, contains the house dish, -no easy matter among such a number. After dinner, of the director, the palace of justice, the prison, and other one of the slaves said a long unintelligible grace, upon the public oflices, together with the cathedral, the bishop's conclusion of which all the family crossed themselves

upon their foreheads, mouths, and breasts: the cloth was me, for then masters did not venture to command; assuring not removed, but was kept for the dessert, which consisted me that the man would execute what I wanted. He deof a profusion of ripe figs, peaches, nectarines, apples, pears, tained me a long time, but, to compensate for the delay, and oranges. Nothing but water was drunk at or after made his appearance, at last, in full dress, with a cocked dinner. À basin and towel were brought, in which all the hat, shoe and knee-buckles, and other corresponding paracompany washed their hands in the same water.

phernalia. At the door of the house he still loitered, wishRio Janeiro, the capital of Brazil, is not provided with ing to hire some black man to carry his hammer, chisel, and houses of a kind proportionate to the extent and importance another small instrument. I suggested that they were light, of the city. The streets, which are straight and narrow, are and proposed to carry a part or the whole of them myself; paved with granite, but are scarcely provided with any light but this would have been as great a practical solecism as at night. The houses, which are generally of two stories, using his own hands. The gentleman waited patiently and low and narrow in proportion to their depth, are, for until a negro appeared; then made his bargain, and práthe most part, built of blocks of granite: the upper story ceeded in due state, followed by his temporary servant. however, is often of wood. The thresholds, door-posts

, The task was soon finished, by breaking the lock, instead lintels, and window-frames, are of massy quartz or feldspar, of picking it, when the man of importance, making me a brought from Bahia in a state ready for use. The roofs are profound bow, stalked off with his follower.” Since the universally covered with semi-cylindrical tiles. The lower period of Mr. Luccock's visit, however, many changes and story is commonly occupied by a shop or warehouse; the improvements have occurred. second (and third, if there be one) by the family apartments, There is a little spot at the southern extremity of Africa, to which there are long and narrow passages taken from the we mean the Cape of Good Hope, to which we will make ground floor, and communicating with the street. The a brief allusion, before we ring to a conclusion our allotted houses used formerly to have an appendage called a jealousy, task. “ The streets of Cape Town,” says Mr. Burchell, or jalousie, which were gloomy projections from the upper | “though not paved, are kept always in excellent order, windows. These jalousies were raised on a platform of and derive an agreeable freshness from trees of oak and stone, two and half feet broad, and extended to the top of pinaster, planted here and there on either side.” The the window. They were formed of lattice-work of a fan houses are built of brick, and faced with a stucco of lime. ciful pattern, divided into panels or compartments, some They are decorated in front with cornices and many archiof which were fitted up with hinges at the top, so as to tectural ornaments, and frequently with figures both in high form a sort of flap, which, when opened a little way, allowed and low relief. In front of each house is a paved platform persons in the balcony to look down into the street with- (called the stoep, or step) usually eight or ten feet wide, and out being seen themselves. They gave to the fronts of the commonly from two to four feet above the level of the street. houses a dull, heavy, and suspicious appearance, and have It is ascended by steps, and has, generally, a seat at each been superseded by light open balconies.

end; and here the inhabitants frequently walk or sit to Until the recent changes in the political circumstances of enjoy the air, or to converse with passing friends. The Brazil, the houses of Rio Janeiro, as well as the general roofs are flat having no greater inclination than is just sufmanufactures produced, felt the ill-effects of a lazy spirit ficient to throw off the rain water; and they form a very that used to distinguish the white inhabitants: they were commodious terrace. On account of the mildness of the not clever artisans,—they were too lazy to attain skill,- Cape winters, fire-places are nowhere seen excepting in the and they were too proud to carry even their own working kitchens. Within, the houses, to an eye accustomed to the tools through the streets. Mr. Luccock has given an amus- elegant decorations and furniture of an English apartment, ing account of the combined effect of these three blots:—“It have the appearance of a want of comfort, and, not having was necessary to open a lock, of which I had lost the key; a plastered ceiling, the bare joists and floor above give them and the skill necessary to pick it was so rare, that the master the look of an unfinished building. But the loftiness and and waiter of the hotel where I then lodged, were greatly per- size of the rooms render them respectable, and contribute plexed with my inquiries, at what place it was to be found. greatly to their coolness in summer. This description, howAt length they advised me to apply to an English carpenter ever, was more applicable some years ago than it is at prewho had been settled in Rio about two years, and em- sent, for the English residents are sure to introduce English ployed several men, one of whom he requested to ro with habits and customs more or less into the country,

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1.18 loeilaam

The close of this, the Nineteenth Volume of the Saturday Magazinė, affords à favourable : 1 opportunity for considering the state of the popular literature of this country at the period when our

arduous task commenced-of taking a retrospect of our labours in fulfilment of the duties then -17 undertaken by us-Lof stating the niode in which we propose to continue our services--and of making

ia general acknowledgment of the valuable advice and assistancē with which we have been favoured
By by a numerous body of friendly correspondents. 9.
3 9. It must be in the recollection of our readers, that at the time when we commenced our under-

taking the humbler classes of the community were largely supplied with cheap pamphlets, of the ** most dangerous and deplorable tendency ;-writings in which the most holy things were lightly is treated of the most endearing of human ties derided, and our revered institutions held up to open

scorn and contempt. Works" of this character could be superseded only by creating a taste for h..something better, and we have reason to believe that the Saturday Magazine has, under the Divine

blessing, had'à large share in creating and supplying that wholesome taste which is now so general. .

17. We cannot but feel gratitude and satisfaction at the success which has attended our efforts, it at the same time that we experience the pleasing consciousness of having remitted no endeavours on bue our part, to deserve and fully to justify the public approbation. · We may, at least, claim the negative

* merit of having most carefully excluded froin our pages overy expression and sentiment which can o be considered as indicative of party feelings and objectionable principles, or which might be likely to * Coffend good taste and delicacy of feeling

it Bearing in mind the responsibility attaching to the management of a work which finds its sist way into the hands of so many thousands, and the power which it gives of inculcating the most 3 salutary as well as the most fatal opivjons, we have uniformly endeavoured to infuse a Christian ..ehnracter and tendency into every branch of popular knowledge. We have not arrogated to ourselves an the office of instructors on sacred topics, by interfering with the labours of those whose especial departbons ment it is to set forth and to defend the principles of our established faith, nor have we permitted onr 9 pages to become the yehicle for controversy and discussion ;—but we have nevertheless been anxious 471 to give such a general bearing to our various artioles 'as to subserve the purposes of religion, Gerand to show, wherever the subject has naturally led us to do so, the blessings and advantages we ...

derive from the position, in which, as members of a Christian community and of a Scriptural church, we are privileged to stand.

It is sufficiently evident that the object of a popular periodical, snch as the Saturday Magazine, is to administer to the instruction and amusement, not of one class of readers in particular, but of all: so that into whatever hands the work may fall, there may be found among its various subjects some. thing to suit the tastes and inclinations of every reader. The man of literature, in glancing over the contents of such a work, will meet with some notice of eminent men or of their writings, and be able to refresh his memory or even to add to his knowledge from this humble source. The scientific man

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TS

«The dangers to which the Faith is exposed are not confined to the open assaults of the infidel and the blasphemer. It cannot be doubted, that great and extensive mischief may arise to religion, and to the eternal welfare of mankind, should our general literature, and the various institutions of society, acquire a character and tendency: decidedly contrary to the principles and practice of Christianity. That such has been, for some time past, tlie general and growing tendency of much of our popular literature, will bardly be denied; but the extent of the evil is known only to those who have made it the subject of particular investigation. It has pervaded more or less every branch of it, and in some departments has evidently been tlie result of deliberate and sys cmatic operations. This has been the case more especially with cheap periodical literature, and with works of education. Books intended for the instruction of the rising generation have, in some cases, been made instruments for teaching the doctrines of Material sm ander the disguise of scientific principles. In others, where religious instruction was indispensable, it has been of the most inefficient and exceptionable kind. But ihe prevailing and most successful method has been to scparate knowledge from religion, and to keep religion altogether out of sight. This las been the princ ple upon which too many works of instruction have lately been conducted. And thus they have become mischievous in a greater degree in proportion to the popularity which they have acquired.

Tbe same course has been pursued with regard to cheap periodicals, which have lately become so considerable a branch of literature. The disreputable part of them have been made vehicles for the diffusion of infidel opinions, which have been conveyed in every shape that was likely to render them agreeable to the class of persons to whom they were addressed. Everything has been done in order to enlist the passions on their side ; they lave been mingicd with entertaining literature of every kind, that the poison might be rendered more palatable to general readers. And, until lately, except in a few instances, the whole force of this new power was directed against the principles and institutions of religion. Nor has the magnitude and extent of this power been as yet completely developed, or its effects fully known. It has, however, been ascertained that the circulation of such papers in and from London alone amounted, in May last, to the number of 300,000 weekly: and of these not one was professedly engaged in the defence or support of religion and its institutions. The greater part of them were openly and avowedly hostile to everything which is sacred and dear to our religious feelings, and the remainder wholly dedicated to other objects."'-Report of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, for the year 1832.

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may also expect to find an abstract, however brief, of the inventions and discoveries, which render the present age remarkable above all that have preceded it. The lover of Nature will not be disappointed of information respecting his favourite study, but will find the animals, the plants, the minerals in which he is interested, brought under his notice from time to time, either in the lighter sketches of natural scenery, or the more scientific arrangements of accurate description. The agriculturist, the manufacturer, the mechanic, and even the intelligent operative, will also find easy details respecting the various branches of industry in which they are engaged, and the productions with which the civilized world is enriched by means of their various pursuits.

With this general view of the objects of a cheap periodical work, we have supplied to the readers of the Saturday Magazine information on a large variety of topics, suitable to the capacities of a corresponding variety of readers. Eager curiosity and desire for knowledge, though in theinselves good, inasmuch as they mark a vigorous intellect, and may be productive of highly-beneficial results, are yet so often found to operate without subordination to any higher principle, that ve cannot be too cautious in selecting food wherewith to appease them. We may injudiciously stimulate the appetite till it can only be satisfied with false and unnatural excitements, or we may with equal ill effect endeavour to allay its cravings with harsh and ungrateful aliment, from which it will turn with disgust. There are subjects which seem at first sight to have little bearing on happiness or virtue, and which will therefore be necessarily excluded from publications of a professedly religious character, yet inasmuch as these subjects are capable of meeting the desire for knowledge in a way that, to say the least, cannot be prejudicial to the moral interest of the reader, and as they may at the same time have a certain effect in refining the taste, enlarging the field of knowledge, or suggesting innocent employment of time, it appears highly injudicious to reject them in a work whosc object it is to combine amusement with instruction.

We may here allude to the mode of illustrating the Saturday Magazine. Wherever a piece of mechanism, a manufacturing process, a description of a building or country, seemed to require the aid of the pencil to elucidate and illustrate the letter-press description, such illustrations have been given, of sufficient distinctness for the purpose in view, but without any pretension to high artistic excellence. Every one accustomed to the usages of commercial life must be aware that to ensure continuance to a periodical publication, and to fulfil the intentions for which it was established, a remune. rating profit must be obtained; without this, the honour may be great, but must be short lived. The cost incidental to the production of highly-finished illustrations is in general incompatible with the permanent success of a work sold at so low a price as ours. The engravings in our Magazine are therefore intended for illustration rather than for decoration. We are contented to take our stand on the general merits of the work, the literature of which has gradually elevated it to a higher place than it was originally intended to occupy among the periodical publications of the day, and gained it an introduction to every class of society:

In looking back on our past course, we are conscious of having presented to our numerous readers a safe and useful miscellany, calculated to lead them onward from simpler to more abstruse knowledge, and to give a wholesome direction to their tastes and feelings. The testimony of correspondents has given us frequent and pleasing confirmation of this belief; and wc may here remark, that the information we bave received from this source has always been most acceptable; the sur. gestions conveyed have met with serious attention, and have not been adopted or declined on insufficient grounds. From our limited space, as well as from a desire to avoid controversy and personal feeling or part.y views, we are not able specially to notice the different communications we are favoured with, yet they are cver regarded as welcome indications of the wishes and opinions of our readers, and, as such, we are glad to have the present opportunity of acknowledging their value.

During the coming year we hope to enter on several new and interesting subjects of inquiry, and where we may hitherto have appeared to slight the communications of any of our readers, it will be seen that they have only been deferred with a view to entering the more fully into them on a futare occasion. The treasures of knowledge are inexhaustible; and the chief difficulty consists in making a judicious selection for the benefit of a variety of readers. In this task we shall continue to avail ourselves of the assistance of conipetent and experienced writers whose time and attention are devoted almost exclusively to the work.

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