« AnteriorContinuar »
INDEX TO THE EIGHTEENTH VOLUME.
Rural Sports for the Months :-
V. Miy, 197
Salmon, the, 137, 174
from spiders, 99
for its Preveutiou:-
of inocuintiou, 15
progress on the Continent; re.
Soluble glass, 183
| Thames, Banks of the, I., 201-11., 295 | Unkindness, 64
-IL, 233-IV., 241
Use of tea in China, 35
-- in Farivus countries, 110
This earth not our reet, 99
Valley. lily of the, 193
Vegetable kingitum, principle of repro-
duction in the', 160
and human lile, analogy of
- philosophy uot opposed to Revela.
Vice, chains of, 248
Volcanus of Ow yhee, 4
-- power of, 141
Turkey and the Turkish provinces - Waxeu fruit. 227
1. Pachalic of Joanuina, 5
Wire drawing, I., 143-11., 180
III. Ali Pacha and the Suliots, 57 Wits unrestrained and grouods 10.
IV. Mount Ossa, &c., in the province tilled, 196
of Trikhala, 73
Woma u, 116
V. Moldavia ad the Moldavians, Wonders of the world, the seven, 94
Wroxton Abbey, 2
1 Universe, government of the, 7
INDEX TO THE ENGRAVINGS.
Old English mansions. 1, 89, 129
228. 235 236
Pawns, chess, designed by Flaxman,
- coins, 87
Kajah and his vassals. 909
ud medals, 81, 83, 81,
tions of, 40, 76, 116, 117, 156, 197
AFOHAN natioual dance, 213
Hare, the, 116
- iu her form, 117
Henry I, 163
Harold, coin of. 162
Harpies, victory of Hercules over the,
melalliou commemorating the, 81
Henry I., coin of, 163
II, coin ol, 163
Hercules' vietory orer the Harpies, me.
dalliou commemorating the 81,
Hornheam, leaf aud catkins of the,
House-top, Eastern dormitory on the, 49
Hut and canoes, of the natives of Bri-
tish Guyana, 217
"Comfort ye the fatherless and the
willow," group by Flaxman, 169 Ichneumon, the, 109
Illusions, optical, illustrations of, 203,
223, 235, 236
memorating the baptism of, 88
Coustantinople, burut pillar at, 13 Jassy, public promenade at, 153
Jerboa, the, 64
Jewish coins and medals, 83, 87
Dance, national, of the Afghans, 213 King, chess, designed by Flaxman, 183
King William the Fourth's Cataract,
Draught players, from an Egyptian Knights, chess, designed by Flaxman,
Knole, gallery over the hall at, 89
Edward the Confessor, cuin uf, 162 | Lastingham church, crypt in, 9
Leibnitz's house in Hanover, 97
Littlecoates, interior of the hail at, 129
Lubeck, view of, 256
Essequibo river, William IV.'s Ca. --- Hanseatic rath-house, 249
Lynn, St. Nicholas chapel, 25
Ethelbert, coin of, 162
Macedonian coins, 84
of Northumberland, styca of, Machinery for wire-drawing, 180
Magpie, the, 32
Mallard, the, il
Massaroony, view on the, 193
Plaxman, sculptures by, 105, 145, 169, Apamean, 168
- chess. men designed by, 132, Baptism of Constantine the Great,
143, 173, 188, 220, 237
French, issued by Napoleon, 167
Glur, diagram illustrating the manufac. Hercules and the Harpies, 81
ten-shilling piece of the Common. Mercia, coin of Ota, king of, 162
Months, rural sports of the, illustra-
tions of, 40, 26, 116, 117, 156, 197
Mount Ararat, 45
Guyana, British, views in, 177, 183, 193, Mountains of Ataraipu, 185
| Hadrian, medal commemorating lig Napier's rods, or bones, 11
victory over the Jews, 88
Napoleon, medal issued by, 16
Hall at Knole, gallery over the, 89 National dance of the Afghans, 913
at Littlecoates, interior of the, 129 Nero, medal of, 83
Hanover, Leibnitz's house in, 97
Hanseatic rath-house, Lubeck, 249 | Offa, king of Mercia, coin of, 7
St Nicholas chapel, Lyon, 25
lions of, 40, 76, 116, 117, 156, 197
Thames, source of the, 201
Velvet, section exhibiting the structure
medallion commemorating the, 81
William II., coin of, 163
WROXTON ABBEY, OXFORDSHIRE. miles from Oxford, and seventy-three from London, and
contains between five and six thousand inhabitants.
This place is supposed to have been occupied by the
Romans, from the discovery of some Roman coins and
a Roman altar there. About the year 1153, a castle was O'er all the pleasant laud.
built here by Alexander, bishop of Lincoln, which conThe deer across their greensward bound Through shade and sunny gleam,
tinued an episcopal residence till the first year of the And the swan glides past them with the sound
reign of Edward the Sixth; and is said to have contained Of some rejoicing stream.HEMANS.
a dreary dungeon for convicts. During the wars of the
Roses, the neighbourhood of Banbury was the scene of We have, on one or two occasions, presented the reader frequent conflicts, of which the most disastrous was the with copies of some of the admirable engravings con- battle of Banbury, fought in 1469, on a plain called tained in Mr. Nash's Mansions of England in the Danesmore, near Edgecote, a village about three miles Olden Time. The appearance of a second series of distant, between the Earl of Warwick on the one side, that work, and the permission of the publisher to pre- and the Earls of Pembroke and Stafford on the other; sent a view from it in our present Number, offers an which ended in the defeat of the Yorkists. The town opportunity for our again expressing the opinion which was again the seat of contention, during the civil wars of we have formed of it.
the Commonwealth. The inhabitants espoused the The idea of presenting views of the mansions of the cause of the Parliament; but the town was taken by the nobility and gentry in various parts of Ergiand, is by no Royalists after the battle of Edgehill, and defended by means a new one; for many of our artists and engravers Sir William Compton, against Colonel Fiennes, for thirhave, at different times, and to different extent, followed teen weeks, till the garrison was relieved by the Earl of up such a plan. We may particularly allude to Mr. Northampton. It was afterwards besieged for several Neale's elegant work, entitled Views of Seats, which weeks by Colonel Whalley, and surrendered on honourextends to ten or twelve volumes, and contains repre able terms. sentations and descriptions of a very large number of The town of Banbury is pleasantly situated in a fertile mansions. But still something else was wanted; some valley, on the banks of the small river Charwell. The other feature was looked for, which might carry the houses are well built, and the streets are lighted with imagination back to old times, when, from the peculiar gas. The chief manufactures of the town are cheese, of usages and customs of the age, the English gentry were which a large quantity of superior quality is made, and wont to dwell more in the midst of their tenantry and the celebrated“ Banbury cakes;" formerly there was dependents than they are enabled to do at the present an extensive manufacture of plush, shag, and girth webday. This is not the place to discuss why it is that such bing ; but this has greatly declined. The church, dedichanges occur, during the lapse of time; but certain it cated to St. Mary, is a spacious structure, erected under is, that the home of an English country gentleman, in the authority of an act of Parliament, obtained in 1790. the reign of “good Queen Bess," of the Jameses, and The living is a discharged vicarage, in the archdeaconry the Charleses, presented marked and characteristic fea and diocese of Oxford, rated in the king's books at tures: our authors may describe these characteristic fea- 221. 08. 2d., endowed with 2001. private benefaction, tures, and do all that the pen can effect in presenting | 4001. royal bounty, and 6001. parliamentary grant. them to the mind; but the aid of the painter is wanting Among the places for education are a blue-coat school, to produce the full effect.
established by subscription in 1705, and endowed with Now this brings us to the nature and object of Mr. property to the amount of 801. per annum: this school Nash's work. He does not merely represent cold exte was, in 1807, incorporated with a national school, to riors of large mansions; he carries the spectator within which a Sunday-school has been sinee attached. Fordoors, and peoples the halls, the saloons, the libraries, merly, there was a free grammar-school here, which was with inmates, habited as they were wont to be in the held in such high estimation, that the statutes of Saint times of which we have spoken. llis plan has been, to Paul's School, London, are said to have been drawn up visit such old mansions as present the most striking ex on the model of those of Banbury School. One of the amples of the “ Elizabethan” style of architecture, and masters, Mr. Stanbridge, was tutor to the celebrated Sir as have suffered the smallest degree of change by repair ; Thomas Pope; and so great was the reputation which to select some portion of each building, of the most pic- this institution had acquired, that the statutes of the free turesque kind; to furnish it (if, as is usual, it be an in- grammar-school at Manchester, dated 1524, ordain that terior) with such decorations, furniture, and implements, the grammar be there taught " after the manner of the as were likely to be found in it in times long gone by; school at Banbury, in Oxfordshire, which is called Stanto give vividness to the scene by introducing imaginary bridge grammar. figures, habited strictly in accordance with the era In proceeding from Banbury to Wroxton Abbey, chosen; and to represent those figures as being employed which is about two miles westward of it, we pass through in such avocations as will illustrate the domestic arrange- the small parish of Drayton, possessed by the noble ments and the domestic sports of “merry England,” two houses of Guilford and Dorset. It once contained a or three centuries ago. Such was the plan proposed; mansion occupied by the Greville family, but this has and the mode of execution is so admirable, that a second been long in an uninhabitable state as a mansion, though series of similar views was speedily called for. This we believe a portion of it has been repaired and fitted second series is now before us; and from it we select a up as a poor-house. The church of Drayton is a simple view of Wroxton Abbey, Oxfordshire, respecting which, unimposing structure, principally remarkable for the we will give a few descriptive and historical details. tombs and relics of the noble personages who once
Wroxton Abbey is situated in the parish of Wroxton, resided in the neighbourhood. near Banbury, in Oxfordshire. We will say a few words The parish of Wroxton, in which the abbey is situated, respecting Banbury, before we visit the Abbey itself. contains only about eight hundred inhabitants. The living
If we look at a map of Oxfordshire, we find that the is a vicarage in the archdeaconry and diocese of Oxford, northern portion is very narrow, not above eight or ten and m tne patronage of the Marquis of Bute. The miles in breadth. At the eastern border of this narrow church is dedicated to All Saints, and contains monudistrict, is the town of Banbury, on the river Charwell; ments to two or three of the Earls of Guilford, to several and proceeding westward from Banbury, we come to other members of that family, to the first Earl of Donne, Wroxton Abbey, at a distance of about two miles. and to other distinguished personages.
Banbury is a considerable market town, twenty-two Wroxton Abbey would seem, from its name, to be
rather an ecclesiastical structure than a private mansion;
HUNGARY WATER. but the truth is that an abbey formerly occupied the spot, and a portion of it has been built into or included in
Doctors or Teachers they of Physick are, the present mansion, which retains the old name. A
(Whether by pen they do it, or in chair
With lively voyce, that teach the way to know priory of canons regular of St. Augustin was founded
Man's nature, health, and sickness, and do show here in the reign of Henry the Third, and valued at
Diseases, cause, and cure: but they who spend 781. 138. 4d. The buildings of this priory were destroyed
Their life in visits, and whose labours end
In taking fees and giving paper scrowls, by fire, and the present mansion was built on its site.
Factors of physick are, and none but owls The estate came into the family of the Norths by the
l'o court such doctors, that no Latin know, marriage of Francis, Lord Keeper Guilford, with Lady
From whence that name did to our language for. Frances Pope, sister of fourth and last Earl of Donne. Thus wrote William Rowland, the coadjutor of CulpeThe greater part of the present structure was erected per in soine of his numerous works on medical subjects: by Sir William Pope, afterwards Earl of Donne, in the
and from the tone of satire in which the lines are written, year 1618. The building is of an ornamental and inte
the reader would naturally suppose that this Rowland resting character, though it was not completed according
| was a genuine "doctor," and not a mere “factor of phyto the original design, as an intended wing on the south
sick." Yet we are tempted to smile when we see what side was never commenced. The Lord Keeper made
were the ideas of such men respecting the effects of some additions, and the late Earl of Guilford erected an
medicines on the human body, and how strangely they elegant library, after a plan by Smirke. The chapel is
mixed up astrology with the medical art. If we select a fine room, beautified by the first Earl of Guilford.
almost any simple herb,---Josemary for instance,-we Among the pictures deposited in this mansion are many shall find that they attribute to it virtues which would ancient portraits of the families of North and Pope.
very much gladden the hearts of invalids, could we only Among the latter is an original of Sir Thomas Pope,
believe them to be true. Rosemary, Culpeper tells us, founder of Trinity College, Oxford, and uncle of the
will cure, or at least "help" cold diseases, rheum, first Earl of Donue. Of the Norths there is a complete
swimming of the head, drowsiness, stupidity, dumb series of portraits, from Edward, the first lord, created
palsy, lethargy, falling sickness, tooth-ache, bad breath, in the reign of Philip and Mary, to the present Earl of
weak memory, dim sight, yellow jaundice, pestilence, Guilford. “The whole of Wroxton Priory,” says Mr.
cough, ptisick, consumption, benumbed joints, and a Brewer, “is creditable to the taste of the noble owner.
host of other personal evils, both internal and external. Every improvement introduced (and many have been
| He also informs us that “the sun claims privilege to it, effected) is rendered subservient to the ancient baronial character of the edifice.
and it is under the celestial Ram." The gardens and pleasure
These whimsicalities would be calculated merely to grounds will be viewed with particular interest, as no
amuse, were it not that uneducated persons are often innovating hand has robbed them of their monastic fea
disposed, by the perusal of the works, or the popular tures."
dissemination of the opinions, of such men as Culpeper The only remains of the original abbey (or priory, as it would seem to be more correctly called) are an arch,
and Rowland, to form a very erroneous estimate of the
comparative state of medical knowledge in past and which was probably a door of entrance, and a small por
present times. The reputed properties of any particular tion of the passages, communicating with offices in the
herb or medicament, however astounding they may be, lower division of the building.
are laid down by our old herbalists in such positive and Mr. Nash has, in one picture, represented the porch
| undoubted terms, that many readers fear it would be a of Wroxton Abbey, which is an elegant specimen of the
kind of presumption to doubt the truth of what is Italian decorated entrances, so frequently attached to
asserted. This is an evil, since it is difficult, and often buildings of this date. Another plate is devoted to the hall. This hall is handsome, though plain, and is re
impossible, to bring the mind into a fit state for the re
ception of truths recently discovered, if it is pre-occupied markable for the screen, which is richly carved and sup
by doctrines which partake of the marvellous, and ported on columns, leaving the space beneath the music
which are, principally on that account, eagerly caught up gallery open. The pendant in the centre of the ceiling
by the multitude. is likewise a curious feature, and has a light and elegant
We could easily collect numerous examples of medieffect. The stags' heads introduced into the wall are also
cinal herbs, which are now used for the most simple purpeculiar and striking ornaments.
poses only, but which were once lauded for curative
properties almost innumerable. Some preparations, JEOPARD not the loss of many things for the gain of one
formerly much vaunted, are now utterly unknown, while thing; neither adventure the loss of one thing certain for others, although still admitted into the healing art, many things doubtful.-Sir Thomas SMITH.
| occupy a far humbler station than that which they once
filled. There is a curious history respecting the subject
of HUNGARY WATER, a preparation from Rosemary, The heart may be sad, without the eye being wet.-LOVER.
which will illustrate some of the remarks offered above,
and will show that persons moving even in the highest ADVERSITY is like the period of the former and of the latter circles were once not exempt from the belief in medicines rain, cold, comfortless, unfriendly to man and to animal ; , and remedies of a marvellous character. yet from that season have their birth, the flower, and the Hungary water is spirit of wine distilled upon rosefruit, the date, the rose, and the pomegranate.-SIR WALTER
mary, and therefore imbued with its oily and strongly Scott.
scented essence. It used to be brought principally frm
France, particularly from Beaucaire, Montpellier, a nd AFFLICTION appears to be the guide to reflection; the teacher
| other places in Languedoc, where rosemary grew in of humility; the parent of repentance; the nurse of faith; the strengthener of patience, and the promoter of charity: I great abundance. The name by which it is known ,-while of those upon whom affliction is thus sanctified to the 1' Eau de la reine d'Hongrie;—seems to imply that it was purifying of the soul, and its improvement in Christian first known or used in Hungary, and such appears on graces; of those, who study to convert it with the blessing of investigation to have been the case. Several books are their merciful Father, to their spiritual and eternal welfare, 1 been written on the subject, in which it is stated that that they “may become partakers of his holiness;" of those
the receipt for making this medicine was given to : who welcome it as the means whereby they may “learn the statutes" of the Lord: of such persons it may be truly
queen of Hungary by a hermit, (some say by an an el, affirmed, as the royal Psalmist acknowledged of himself, that who appeared to her in a garden, all entrance to which “ it is good for them to be afflicted.”_Bishop MANT. | was shut. One writer says that this queen was Queen
St. Isabela, but anotner states it to nave been Elizabeth, The time has now gone by when Hungary water was wife of Charles Robert, king of Hungary, daughter of deemed a specific against severe diseases; and it has Uladislaus II., king of Poland, and he goes on to say, taken its rank among the simpler preparations from vegethat by often washing with this spirit of rosemary, she table bodies. In preparing this liquid, the leaves and was cured of gout and lameness, at the age of seventy tops of the rosemary yield their fragrance, in a great years; that she lived to the age of eighty, and became degree, to the ardent spirit, leaving behind the greatest again so renovated in youth and beauty, through the share both of their flavour and pungency. The mode effects of this wonderful preparation, that she was ad- of preparing it usually adopted is, by distilling one galmired by the king of Poland at that time, who was then lon of proof spirit of wie, in which a pound and a half a widower, and who wished to make her his second wife of fresh rosemary-tops have been placed. In order to
Many indistinct allusions were made by different make it in perfection, the spirit must be very pure, and writers to a book, or breviary, containing a receipt, the leaves at their full growth, gathered without bruising. written by the queen of Hungary, in letters of gold, for If the flowers are suspended in the retort, and a gentle the preparation of this famous medicine. But the first heat applied, just sufficient to raise the spirit in the form clear account of it was given by John Prevot, in a medi- of vapour, this vapour, by lightly percolating through cal work published about two centuries ago. The sub-them, is said thereby to increase the fragrance. The stance of his information on this point was as follows: custom used to be, in order to produce Hungary water In the year 1606, Prevot happened to see, among the of the finest kind, to distil the spirit several times with books of Francis Podacather,-a man of noble family the rosemary; but the commoner sorts were often nothing with whom he was intimate,--a very old breviary, which more than cheap brandy, with a little of the essence or Podacather held in high veneration. This breviary had the oil of rosemary added to it. been given by Elizabeth, queen of Hungary, to one of Hungary water is now regarded as nothing more than the ancestors of Podacather, as a testimony of the friend an agreeable perfume, possessing nearly the same qualiship that existed between them; and at the beginning | ties as the simple herb from which it is produced. The of it is the following entry, in the queen's own hand :- wondrous properties attributed to this liquid by the
I, Elizabeth, queen of Hungary, being very infirm, and queen of Hungary, as well as the equally marvellous much troubled with the gout, in the seventy-second year of virtues attributed to rosemary itself by the herbalists, my age, used for a year this receipt, given to me by an ancient are now known to have had their chief foundation in the hermit, whom I never saw before nor since, and was not only operation of the human mind. The gradual developecured, but recovered my strength, and appeared to all ment of truth makes sad havoc in glowing and highlyso remarkably beautiful, that the king of Poland asked coloured descriptions, whether of medicinal cures or of however, refused him for the love of my Lord Jesus Christ, any other subject in which the public is deeply interested. from one of whose angels I believe I received the remedy. The receipt is as follows:
An article has appeared in some of the daily journals, in which the volTake of aqua vitæ, four times distilled, three parts, and of
cano of Kirauch, (there called Kireca,) in the island of Hawaii, or the tops and lowers of rosemary two parts: put these toge.
Owhy hee, is spoken of as a newly formed crater. It was, however, ther in a close vessel: let them stand in a gentle heat fifty
visited many years since by Mr. Ellis; and the following account hours, and then distil them. Take one dram of this in the
given by Mr. Douglas, corresponds so closely with its present state, morning, either in your food or drink, and let your face and
as recently laid before the Geographical Society, that it may not be the diseased limb be washed with it every morning.
uninteresting to our readers. It renovates the strength, brightens the spirits, purifies the marrow and nerves, restores and preserves the sight, and prolongs life.
The late Mr. Douglas, who visited Kiraueh in 1833, has
described the scene presented by the interior of its crater as If we were to judge of this strange document, taking singularly awful and magnificent. He descended to a the tone of modern opinion as a standard, we should be ledge at the depth of 1062 feet in this fearful pit; where a inclined to doubt its authenticity; but when we consider space about five miles in diameter, was covered with lava, the character of the times (about the year 1380), and the whole of which had apparently been recently in a state the allusions made to it by so many writers, we may
of fusion, though some portion was at that period hardened. admit its truth, by supposing the queen to have been This igneous mass appeared, in the process of cooling, to
have been rent into pieces of every form and size, from a woman of a vain and rather weak mind. An account of the mode of preparing Hungary water gigantic rolls, like enormous cables, to the finest threads.
Over this part of the pit were dispersed numerous small was published by Zapata, in 1586, in his Mirabilia, seu
cones, or chimneys, which continually emitted smoke; and Secreta Medico-chirurgica *. The writer commences besides these little cones there were three remarkable pyraby alluding to the wonderful cures performed on one midal masses, measuring about 900 feet at the base, and Anaxagoras by the use of this Hungary water, and then being from 20 to 25 feet in height. These cones had lateral describes the mode in which it was prepared by Arnold openings, like the doors of a baker's oven, to which they of Villa Nova:—“Take some good must, such as yields altogether bore a close resemblance. By kneeling down on a ley of his own accord, before the grapes are bruised. the ledge it was possible to peep into these openings, and to
witness “a terrific vacuity, a red-hot atmosphere,” varied Put it into a vessel, and add the sprouts and leaves of only by the occasional ejection of volcanic matter through rosemary, of each ten parts; and when it has steeped a lateral opening. The remaining portion of this pit conin spirit, let it be shut up in a perforated vessel, in order sisted of two lakes of liquid lava : one about 900 feet in that it may effervesce, and extract the virtues of the diameter, and the other above 3000 feet in length, and rosemary When the process has been thus far con nearly 2000 feet in width. Both these lakes of fire flowed ducted, let some more must and rosemary be put into a
in a continued stream towards the south end of the pit, at glass cucurbit, and distilled five times: when it boils let which point was exhibited one of the most appalling and the result of the fifth distillation be drawn out; and after magnificent spectacles in nature, a vast cauldron of lava,
in furious ebullition, rolling and tumbling in fiery waves, it shall have been distilled in the other vessel of must sometimes spouting up to the height of 60 or 70 feet, and and rosemary, (in which fermentation has been going on,) rapidly hurrying along, until it precipitated itself through both are to be added together. Then add a small quan an arch about 400 feet in width, and 40 feet in height, into tity of the fifth distillation, or quintessence, so that the a yawning chasm of unknown depth. From this tremust may be developed from it more frequently and effi- mendous, but unseen, laboratory of nature, immense masses caciously. ....” It must be confessed that a modern
were thrown back with great violence, and literally spun practitioner would be somewhat perplexed to have to pro- wind in all directions. The sound issuing from this arch
into minute glass-like filaments, which were carried by the duce Hungary water by such a description as this.
way baffles all description: “that of the whole steam-engines * This was a book which treated of “the wonders or secrets of the
in the world,” says Mr. Douglas, “would be a whisper to medical and surgical profession,".
it.”-Miss Zornin's Recreations in Physical Geography,
THE VOLCANO OF OWHYHEE.