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sovereignty and freeness of it, and the absolute dependence of all on him....and then in the four last verses, breaks out into a most pathetic, rapturous exclamation, expressing his great admiration of the depth of divine wisdom in the steps he takes for the attaining his end, and causing all things to be to him ; and finally, he expresses a joyful consent to God's excellent design in all to glorify himself, in saying, “ to him be glory forever ;” as much as to say, as all things are so wonderfully ordered for his glory, so let him have the glory of all, forevermore.
2. The glory of God is spoken of in holy scripture as the last end for which that part of the moral world that are good were made. Thus in Isaiah xliji. 6, 7. “ I will say to the North, give up, and to the South, keep not back....Bring my sons from far, and my daughters from the ends of the earth, even every one that is called by my name ; for I have created him for my glory, I have formed him, yea, I have made him.” Isaiah 1x. 21. “ Thy people also shall be all righteous. They shall inherit the land forever ; the branch of my planting, the work of my hand, that I may be glorified.” Chap. Ixi. 3. “ That they may be called trees of righteousness, the planting of the Lord, that he might be glorified.”
In these places we see that the glory of God is spoken of as the end of God's saints, the end for which he makes them, i. e. either gives them being, or gives them a being as saints, or both. It is said that God has made and formed them to be his sons and daughters, for his own glory; that they are trees of his planting, the work of his hands, as trees of righteousness, that he might be glorified. And if we consider the words, especially as taken with the context in each of the places, it will appear quite unnatural to suppose that God's glory is here spoken of only as an end inferior and subordinate to the happiness of God's people ; or as a prediction that God would create, form and plant them that he might be glorified, that so God's people might be happy. On the contrary, if we take the places with the context, they will appear rather as promises of making God's people happy, that God therein might be glorified. So is that in chapter xliii. as we shall see plainly, if we take the whole that is said from the beginning of the chapter. It is wholly a promise of a future, great, and won. derful work of God's power and grace, delivering his people from all misery, and making them exceeding happy; and then the end of all, or the sum of God's design in all, is de. clared to be God's own glory. “I have redeemed thee, I have called thee by thy name, ihou art mine. I will be with thee. When thou walkest through the fire, thou shalt not be burnt, nor the flame kindle upon thee....thou art precious and honorable in my sight. I will give men for thee, and people for thy life. Fear not, I am with thee. I will bring my sons from far, and my daughters from the ends of the earth ; every one that is called by my name, for I have creared him for my glory."
So it plainly is, chapter 1x. 21. The whole chapter is made up of nothing but promises of future, exceeding happi, ness to God's church. But for brevity's sake, let us take only the two preceding verses. « The sun shall be no more thy light by day, neither for brightness shall the moon give light unto thee ; but the Lord shall be unto thee an ever. Jasting light, and thy God thy glory. Thy sun shall no inore go down, neither shall thy moon withdraw itself; for the Lord shall be thine everlasting light; and the days of thy mourning shall be ended. Thy people also shall be all righteous; they shall inherit the land forever, the branch of my planting, the work of my hands," and then lhe end of all is added, “ that I might be glorified.” All the preceding promises are plainly mentioned as so many parts or constituents of the great and exceeding happiness of God's people ; and God's glory is mentioned rather as God's end, or the sum of his design in this happiness, than this happiness as the end of this glory. Just in like manner is the promise in the third verse of the next chapter. « To appoint to them that mourn in Zion; to give to them beauty for ashes, the oil of joy tor mourning, the garment of praise for the spirit of heaviness, that they might be called trees of
righteousness, the planting of the Lord, that he might be glorified.” The work of God promised to be effected, is plainly an accomplishment of the joy, gladness and happiness of God's people, instead of their mourning and sorrow ; and the end in which the work issues, or that in which God's design in this work is obtained and summed up, is his glory. This proves by the seventh position, that God's glory is the end of the creation.
The same thing may be argued from Jer. xiii. 11. « For as a girdle cleaveth to the loins of a man, so have I caused to cleave unto me the whole house of Israel, and the whole house of Judah, saith the Lord ; that they might be unto me for a people, and for a name, and for a praise, and for a glory, but they would not hear." That is, God sought to make them to be his own holy people ; or, as the apostle expresses it, his peculiar people, zealous of good works; that so they might be a glory to him, as girdles were used in those days for ornament and beauty, and as badges of dignity and honor. * Which is agreeable to the places observed before, that speak of the church as the glory of Christ.
Now wlien God speaks of himself, as seeking a peculiar and holy people for himself, to be for his glory and honor, as a man that seeks an ornament and badge of honor for his glory, it is not natural to understand it merely of a subordiDate enil, as though God had no respect to himself in it, but only the good of others. If so, the comparison would not be natural; for men are commonly wont to seek their own glory and honor in adurning themselves, and dignifying themselves with badges of honor, out of respect to themselves.
The same doctrine seems to be taught, Eph. xliv. 23. Ech “ Having predestinated us to the adoption of children, by Je- 1.55 su- Christ, unto himself, according to the good pleasure of his wili, to the praise of the glory of his muce.”
The same may be argued from Isaiah xliv. 23. “For the Lord hath redeemed Jacob, he hath gorified himself in Is. rael." And chapter xlix. 3. « Thou art my servant Jacob,
* See verse 9, and also Isaiah ii. 24, xxii, 21, and xxiii. 10, 2 Sam. xviji. 11. Exod, xxyiii, $.
in whom I will be glorified.” John xvii. 10. « And all mine are thine, and thine are mine, and I am glorified in them.' 2 Thess. i. 10. “ When he shall come to be glorified in his saints.” Verse xi. 12. “ Wherefore also we pray always for you, that our God would count you worthy of his calling, and fulfil all the good pleasure of his goodness, and the work of fai:h with power; that the name of our Lord Jesus may be glorified in you, and ye in him, according to the grace of God and our Lord Jesus Christ.”
3. The scripture speaks from time to time, of God's glory, as though it were his ultimate end of the goodness of the moral part of the creation ; and that end, in a respect and relation to which chiefly it is, that the value or worth of their virtue consists. As in Phil. i. 10, 11, “ That ye may approve. things that are excellent, that ye may be sincere, and without offence till the day of Christ : Being filled with the fruits of righteousness, which are by Jesus Christ, unto the glory and praise of God." Here the apostle shews how the fruits of righteousness in them are valuable and how they answer their end, viz. in being “ by Jesus Christ to the praise and glory of God." John xv. 8. “ Herein is my Father glorified, that ye bear much fruit.” Signifying that by this means it is, that the great end of religion is to be answered. And in 1 Peter iv 11, the apostle directs the Christians to regulate all their religious performances, with reference to that one end. “If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God. If any man minister, let him do it as of the ability which God give eth, that God in all things may be glorified ; to whom be praise and dominion forever and ever. Amen.” And from time to time, embracing and practising true religion, and repenting of sin, and turning to holiness, is expressed by glorifying God, as though that were the sum and end of the whole matter. Rev. xi. 13. “ And in the earthquake were şlain of men seven thousand; and the remnant were affrighted, and gave glory to the God of heaven.” So, Rev. xiv. 6, 7. “ And I saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting gospel to preach to them that dwell on the earth ;....saying, with a loud voice, fear God, and give
giory to him." As though this were the sum and end of that virtue and religion, which was the grand design of preaching the gospel every where through the world. Rev. xvi. 9.
"And repented not, to give him glory.” Which is as much as to say, they did not forsake their sins and turn to true religion, that God might receive that which is the great end he seeks, in the religion he requires of men. See to the same purpose, Psalm xxii. 21....23, Isa. Ixvi. 19, xxiv. 15, xxv. 3, Jer. xiii. 15, 16, Dan. v. 23, Rom. xv. 5, 6.
And as the exercise of true religion and virtue in Christians is summarily expressed by their glorifying God; so when the good influence of this on others, as bringing them by the example to turn to the ways and practice of true goodness, is spoken of, it is expressed in the same manner. Matth. v. 16. « Let your light so shine before men, that others seeing your good works, may glorify your Father which is in heaven." 1 Pet. ii. 12. “ Having your conversation honest among the Gentiles, that whereas they speak evil against you as evil doers, they may by your good works which they behold, glorify God in the day of visitation."
That the ultimate end of moral goodness, or righteous. ness is answered in God's glory being attained, is supposed in the objection which the apostle makes, or supposes some will make, in Rom. iii. 7. “ For if the truth of God hath more abounded through my lie unto his glory, why am I judged as a sinner ?" i. e. Seeing the great end of righteousness is answered by my sin, in God's being glorified, why is my sin condemned and punished ; and why is not my vice equivalent to virtue ?
And the glory of God is spoken of as that wherein consists the value and end of particular graces ; as of faith, Rom. iv. 20. “ He staggered not at the promise of God through unbelief, but was strong in faith, giving glory to God.” Phil. ü. 11. « That every tongue should confess that Jesus is the Lord, to the glory of God the Father.” Of repentance, Josh. vi. 19. - Give, I pray thee, glory to the Lord God of Israel, and make confession unto him." Of charity, 2 Cor. viii. 19, * With this grace, which is administered by us, to the glory Vol. VI.