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nate, yet) such as are above those principles that are essentially implied in, or necessarily resulting from, and inseparably connected with, mere human nature; and being such as immediately depend on man's union and communion with God, or divine communications and influences of God's Spirit : Which, though withdrawn, and man's nature forsaken of these principles, human nature would be human nature still ; man's nature, as such, being entire, without these divine principles, which the scripture sometimes calls spirit, in contradistinction to flesh. These superior principles were given to possess the throne, and maintain an absolute dominion in the heart: The other to be wholly subordinate and subservient. And while things continued thus, all things were in excellent order, peace, and beautiful harmony, and in their proper and perfect state.

These divine principles thus reigning, were the dignity, life, happiness, and glory of man's nature. When man sinned, and broke God's covenant, and fell under his curse, these superior principles left bis heart : For indeed God then left him; that communion with God, on which these principles depended, entirely ceased; the Holy Spirit, that divine inhabitant, forsook the house. Because it would have been utterly improper in itself, and inconsistent with the covenant and constitution God had established, that God should still maintain communion with man, and continue, by his friendly, gracious, vital influences, to dwell with him and in him, after he was become a rebel, and had incurred God's wrath and curse.

order established originally, beginning when man's nature began; but as distinguishing between what belongs to, or flows from, that nature which man has, merely as man, and those things which are above this, by which one is denominated, not only a man, but a truly virtuous, holy, and spiritual man ; which, though they began in Adam, as soon as humanity began, and are nec-' essary to the perfection and well being of the human nature, yet are not essential to the constitution of it, or necessary to its being : Inasmuch as one may have every thing needful to his being man, exclusively of them. If in thus using the words, natural and supernatural, I use them in an uncommon sense, it is not from any affectation of singularity, bus for want of other terms more aptly to express my meaning.

Therefore immediately the superior divine principles wholly ceased; so light ceases in a room when the candle is withdrawn; and thus man was left in a stale of darkness, woeful corruption and ruin; nothing but flesh without spirit. The inferior principles of selflove, and natural appetite, which were given only to serve, being alone, and left to themselves, of course became reigning principles; having no superior principles to regulate or control them, they became absolute masters of the heart. Theimmediate consequence of which was a fatal catastrophe, a turning of all things upside down, and the succession of a state of the most odious ard dreadful confu. sion. Man did immediately set up himself, and the objects of his private affections and appetites, as supreme; and so they took the place of God. These inferior principles are like fire in an house ; which, we say, is a good servant, but a bad master; very useful while kept in its place, but if left to take possession of the whole house, soon brings all to destruction. Man's love to his own honor, separate interest, and private pleasure, which before was wholly subordinate unto love to God, and regard to his authority and glory, now disposes and impels him to pursue those objects, without regard to God's honor or law; because there is no true regard to these divine things left in him. In consequence of which, he seeks those objects as much when against God's honor and law, as when agreeable to them. And God, still continuing strictly to require supreme regard to himself, and forbidding all gratifications of these inferior passions, but only in perfect subordination to the ends, and agreeableness to the rules and limits, which his holiness, honor, and law prescribe, hence immedi. ately arises enmity in the heart, now wholly under the power of selflove ; and nothing but war ensues, in a constant course, against God. As, when a subject has once renounced his lawful sovereign, and set up a pretender in his stead, a state of enmity and war against his rightful king necessarily en. sues. It were easy to shew, how every lust, and depraved disposition of man's heart would naturally arise from this privative original, if here were room for it. Thus it is easy 10 give an account, how total corruption of heart should follow

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on man's eating the forbidden fruit, though that was but one act of sin, without God's putting any evil into his heart, or implanting any bad principle, or infusing any corrupt taint, and so becoming the author of depravity. Only God's withdrawing, as it was highly proper and necessary that he should, from rebel man, being as it were driven away by his abominable wickedness, and men's natural principles being left to themselves, this is sufficient to account for his becoming entirely corrupt, and bent on sianing against God.

And as Adam's nature became corrupt, without God's implanting or infusing any evil thing into his nature ; so does the nature of his posterity. God dealing with Adam as the head of his posterity (as has been shewn) and treating them as one, he deals with his posterity as having all sinned in him. And therefore, as God withdrew spiritual communion, and his vital, gracious influence from the common head, so he withholds the same from all the members, as they come into existence; whereby they come into the world mere flesh, and entirely under the government of natural and inferior principles; and so become wholly corrupt, as Adam did.

Now, for God so far to have the disposal of this affair, as to withhold those influences, without which nature will be corrupt, is not to be the author of sin. But, concerning this, I must refer the reader to what I have said of it in my discourse on the freedom of the will.* Though, besides what I have there said, I may here observe, That if for God so far to order and dispose the being of sin, as to permit it, by withholding the gracious influences necessary to prevent it, is for him to be the author of sin, then some things which Dr. Taylor himself lays down, will equally be attended with this very consequence. For, from time to time, he speaks of God's giving men up to the vilest lusts and affections, by permitting, or leaving them.t Now, if the continuance of sin, and its increase and prevalence, may be in consequence of God's disposal, by his withholding that grace, that is needful, under

* Part iv. $ 9, P. 354, &c. + Key, $ 388, Note; and Paraph, on Rowing i. 24, 26.

such circumstances, to prevent it, without God's being the author of that continuance and prevalence of sin; then, by parity of reason, may the being of sin, in the race of Adam, be in consequence of God's disposal, by his withholding that grace, that is needful to prevent it, without his being the author of that being of sin.

If here it should be said, that God is not the author of sin, in giving men up to sin, who have already made themselves sinful, because when men have once made themselves sinful, their continuing so, and sin's prevailing in them, and becoming more and more habitual, will follow in a course of nature: I answer, Let that be remembered, which this writer so greatly urges, in opposition to them that suppose original corruption comes in a course of nature, viz. That the course of nafure is nothing without God. He utterly rejects the notion of the “ Course of nature's being a proper active cause, which will work, and go on by itself, without God, if he lets or per. mits it.” But affirms,* « That the course of nature, separate from the agency of God, is no cause, or nothing ; and that the course of nature should continue itself, or go on to operate by itself, any more than at first produce itself, is absolutely impossible." These strong expressions are his. Therefore, to ex. plain the continuance of the habits of sin in the same persona when once introduced, yea, to explain the very being of any such habits, in consequence of repeated acts, our author must have recourse to those same principles, which he rejects as absurd to the utmost degree, when alleged to explain the cor. ruption of nature in the posterity of Adam. Por, that habits, either good or bad, should continue, after being once established, or that habits should be settled and have existence in consequence of repeated acts, can be owing only to a course of nature, and those laws of nature which God has established.

That the posterity of Adam should be born without holiness, and so with a depraved nature, comes to pass as much by the established course of nature, as the continuance of a corrupt dispoeition in a particular person, after he once has it;

* Page :34, S. See also with what vehemence this is urged in p, 137, S.

or as much as Adam's continuing unholy and corrupt, after he had once lost his holiness. For Adam's posterity are from him, and as it were in him, and belonging to him, ac-. cording to an established course of nature, as much as the branches of a tree are, according to a course of nature, from the tree, in the tree, and belonging to the tree; or (to make use of the comparison which Dr. Taylor himself chooses and makes use of from time to time, as proper to illustrate the matter*) just as the acorn is derived from the oak. And I think, the acorn is as much derived from the oak, according to the course of nature, as the buds and branches. It is true, that God, by his own almighty power, creates the soul of the infant; and it is also true, as Dr. Taylor often insists, that God, by his immediate power, forms and fashions the body of the infant in the womb; yet he does both according to that course of nature, which he has been pleased to establish. The course of nature is demonstrated, by late improvements in philosophy, to be indeed what our author himself says it is, viz. Nothing but the established order of the agency and operation of the author of nature. And though there be the ima mediate agency of God in bringing the soul into existence in generation, yet it is done according to the method and order established by the author of nature, as much as his producing the bud, or the acorn of the oak; and as much as his continuing a particular person in being, after he once has existence. God's immediate agency in bringing the soul of a child into being, is as much according to an established order, as bis immediate agency


of the works of nature whatsoever. It is agreeable to the established order of nature, that the good qualities wanting in the tree, should also be wanting in the branches and fruit. It is agreeable to the order of nature, that when a particular person is without good moral qualities in his heart, he should continue without them, till some new cause or efficiency produces them; and it is as much agreea, ble to an established course and order of nature, that since Adam, the head of the race of mankind, the root of that grem

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