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called the first born from the dead ; and in Rev. i. 5, The first degotten of the dead. The saints, in their conversion or spirit. ual resurrection, are risen with Christ, aud are begotten and born with him. I Pet. i. 3. “ Which hath begotten us again to a lively hope, by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, to an inheritance incorruptible." This inheritance is the same thing with that kingdom of heaven, which men obtain by being born again, according to Christ's words to Nicodemus; and that same inheritance of them that are sanctified, spoken of as what is obtained in true conversion. Acts xxvi. 18. “ To turn them (or convert them) from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God, that they may receive forgive ness of sins, and inheritance among them that are sanctified, through faith that is in me." Dr. Taylor's own words, in his note on Rom. i. 4, speaking of that place in the 2d Psalm, just now mentioned, are very worthy to be here recited. He observes how this is applied to Christ's resurrection and exalta. tion, in the New Testament, and then has this remark, " Note, Begering is conferring a new and happy state : A son is a person put into it. Agreeably to this, good men are said to be the sons of God, as they are the sons of the resurrection to eternal life, which is represented as a muggentoia, a being ber golten, or born again, regenerated."
So that I think it is abundantly plain, that the spirilual resurrection spoken of in scripture, by which the saints are brought to a new divine life, is the same with that being born again, which Christ says is necessary for every one, in order to his seeing the kingdom of God.
IV. This change, which men are the subjects of, when they are born again, and circumcised in heart; when they re; hent, and are converted, and spiritually raised from the dead, is the same change which is meant when the scripture speaks of making the heart and spirit new, or giving a new heart and efiirit.
It is needless here to stand to observe, how evidently this is spoken of as necessary to salvation, and as the change in which are attained the habits of true virtue and holiness, and the character of a true saint; as has been observed of regeri
eration, conversion, &c. and how apparent it is from thenco, that the change is the same. For it is as it were selfevident : It is apparent by the phrases themselves, that they are different expressions of the same thing. Thus repentance (petavos) or the change of the mind, is the same as being changed to a new mind, or a new heart and spirit. Conversion is the turn. ing of the heart ; which is the same thing as changing it so, that there shall be another heart, or a new heart, or a new spirit. To be born again, is to be born anew; which implies a becoming new, and is represented as becoming new born babes : But none supposes it is the body, that is immediately and properly new, but the mind, heart, or spirit. And so a spiritual resurrection is the resurrection of the spirit, or rising to begin a new existence and life, as to the mind, heart, or spirit. So that all these phrases imply an having a new heart, and being renewed in the spirit, according to their plain signification.
When Nicodemus expressed his wonder at Christ's declaring it necessary, that a man should be born again in order to see the kingdom of God, or enjoy the privileges of the kingdom of the Messiah, Christ says to him, “ Art thou a master of Israel, and knowest not these things ?" i. e. " Art thou one set to teach others the things written in the law and the prophets, and knowest not a doctrine so plainly caught in your scriptures, that such a change as I speak of, is necessary to a partaking of the blessings of the kingdom of the Messiah ?”.... But what can Christ have respect to in this, unless such prophecies as that in Ezek. xxxvi. 25, 26, 27 ? Where God, by the prophet, speaking of the days of the Messiah's kingdom, says, “ Then will I sprinkle clean water opon you, and ye shall be clean....A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you... and I will put my spirit within you.” Here God speaks of having a new heart and spirit, by being washed with water, and receiving the Spirit of God, as the qualification of God's people, that shall enjoy the privileges of the kingdom of the Messiah. How much is this like the doctrine of Christ to Nicodemus, of being born again
of water, and of the spirit ? We have another like prophecy in Ezek. xi. 19.
Add to these things, that regeneration, or a being born again, and the renewing (or making new) by the Holy Ghost, are spoken of as the same thing. Titus iii. 5, “ By the wash. ing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost."
V. It is abundantly manifest, that being born again, a spir. itually rising from the dead to newness of life, receiving a new heart, and being renewed in the spirit of the mind, these are the same thing with that which is called putting off the old mar, and putting on the new man.
The expressions are equivalent ; and the representations are plainly of the same thing. When Christ speaks of being born again, two births are supposed ; a first and a second; ap old birth, and a new one: And the thing born is called man. So what is born in the first birth, is the old man; and what is brought forth in the second birth, is the new man. That which is born in the first birth (says Christ) is flesh: It is the carnal min, wherein we have borne the image of the earthly Adam, whom the apostle calls the first man. That which is born in the new birth, is spirit, or the spiritual and heavenly man : Wherein we proceed from Christ the second man, the new man, who is made a quickening spirit, and is the Lord from heaven, and the head of the new creation. In the new birth, men are represented as becoming new born babes (as was ob
served before) which is the same thing as becoming new men. · And how apparently is what the scripture says of the spiritual resurrection of the Christian converi, equivalent and of the very same import with putting off the old man, and putting on the new man? So in Rom. vi. the convert is spoken of as dying, and being buried with Christ; which is explained in the 6th verse, by this, that “the old man is crucified, that the body of sin might be destroyed.” And in the 4th verse, converts in this change are spoken of as rising to newness of life. Are not these things plain enough? The apostle does in effect tell us, that when he speaks of that spiritual death and resurrection which is in conversion, he means the same thing as crucifying and burying the old man, and rising a new man.
And it is most apparent, that spiritual circumcision, and spiritual baptism, and the spiritual resurrection, are all the same with putting off the old nan, and putting on the new man. This appears by Col. ii. 11, 12. “ In whom also ye are circumcised with the circumcision made without hands, in putting off the body of the sins of the flesh, by the circumcision of Christ, buried with him in baptism ; wherein also ye are risen with him." Here it is manifest, that the spiritual circumcis. ion, baptism, and resurrection, all signify that change wherein men put off the body of the sins of the flesh; But that is the same thing, in this apostle's language, as putting off the old man; as appears by Rom. vi. 6. “ Our old man is crucified, that the body of sin may be destroyed.” And that putting off the old man is the same with putting off the body of sins, appears further by Ephes. iv. 22, 23, 24....and Col. iii. 8, 9, 10.
As Dr. Taylor confesses, that a being born again is “that wherein are obtained the habits of virtue, religion, and true holiness ;" so how evidently is the same thing predicated of that change, which is called putting off the old man, and putting on the new man? Eph. iv. 22, 23, 24. “ That ye put off the old man, which is corrupt, &c. and put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness."
And it is most plain, that this putting off the old man, &c. is the very same thing with making the heart and spirit new. It is apparent in itself: The spirit is called the man, in the language of the apostle ; it is called the inward man, and the hidden man, Rom. vii. 22....2 Cor. iv, 16....Pet. iii. 4. And therefore putting off the old man, is the same thing with the removal of the old heart ; and the putting on the new man, is the receiving a new heart and a new spirit. Yea, putting on the new man is expressly spoken of as the same thing with re. ceiving a new spirit, or being renewed in spirit. Eph. iv, 22, 23, 24. “ That ye put off the old man, and be renewed in the spirit of your mind, and that ye put on the new man.”
From these things it appears, how unreasonable, and contrary to the utmost degree of scriptural evidence, is Dr. TayVol. VI.
lor's way of explaining the old man, and the new man,* as though thereby was meant nothing personal; but that by the old man was meant the heathen state, and by the new man the Christian dispensation, or state of professing Christians, or the whole collective body of professors of Christianity, made up of Jews and Gentiles; when all the color he has for it is, that the apostle once calls the Christian church a new man, Eph. ii. 5. It is very true, in the scriptures often, both in the Old Testament and Nev, collective bodies, nations, peoples, cities, are figuratirely represented by persons ; particularly the church of Christ is represented as one holy person, and has the same appellatives as a particular saint or believer; and so is called a child and a son of God, Exod. iv. 22....Gal. iv, 1, 2; and a servant of God, Isai. xli. 8, 9, and xliv. I. The daughter of God, and spouse of Christ, Psal. xlv. 10, 13, 14.... Rev. xix. 7. Nevertheless, would it be reasonable to argue from hence, that such appellations, as a ser vant of God, a child of God, &c. are always or commonly to be taken as signifying only the church of God in general, or great collective bodies ; and not to be understood in a personal sense ? But certainly this would not be more unreasonable, than to urge, that by tho old and the new man, as the phrases are mostly used in scripture, is to be understood nothing but the great collective bodies of Pagans and of Christians, or the Heathen and the Christian world, as to their outward profession, and the dispensation they are under. It might have been proper, in this case, to have considered the unreasonableness of that practice which our author charges on others, and finds so much fault with in them,t « That they content themselves with a few scraps of scripture, which, though wrong understood, they make the test of truth, and the ground of their principles, in contradiction to the whole tenor of revelation."
VI. I observe once more, it is very apparent, that a being born again, and spiritually raised from death to a state of new existence and life, having a new heart created in us, being renewed in the spirit of our mind, and being the subjects of that
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