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of the condemnation, and of the capital suffering condemned to, for ten verses successively, that is, in every verse in the whole paragraph, without missing one.
The words, justification and righteousnes8, are explained by Dr. Taylor, in a no less unreasonable manner. He understands justification, in ver. 18, and righteousness, in ver. 19, in such a sense, as to suppose them to belong to all, and actually to be applied to all mankind, good and bad, believers and unbelievers; to the worst enemies of God, remaining such, as well as his peculiar favorites, and many that never had any sin imputed to them ; meaning thereby no more than what is fulfilled in an universal resurrection from the dead, at the last day.* Now this is a most arbitrary forced sense. Though these terms are used every where, all over the New Testament, yet nothing like such an use of them is to be found in any one instance, through all the writings of the apostles and evangelists. The words justify, justification, and righteousness, as from God to men, are never used but to signify a privilege belonging only to some, and that which is peculiar to distinguished favorites. This apostle in particular, above all the other writers of the New Testament, abounds in the use of these terms ; so that we have all imaginable opportunity to understand his language, and know the sense in which he uses these words : But he never elsewhere uses them in the sense supposed here, nor is there any pretence that he does. Above all, does this apostle abound in the use of these terms in this epistle. Justification is the subject he had been upon through all the preceding part of the epistle. It was the grand subject of all the foregoing chapters, and the preceding part of this chapter, where these terms are contin. ually repeated. And the word, justification, is constantly used to signify something peculiar to believers, who had been sinners; implying some reconciliation and forgiveness of sin, and special privilege in nearness to God, above the rest of the world. Yea, the word is constantly used ibus, according to Dr. Taylor's own explanations, in his paraphrase and votes
* So, page 47, 49, 60, 61, 62, and other places. Vol. VI.
on this epistle. And there is not the least reason to suppese but that he is still speaking of the same justification and rightcousness, which he had dwelt upon from the beginning to this place. He speaks of justification and righteousness here, just in the same manner as he had done in the preceding part of the epistle. He had all along spoken of justification as standing in relation to sin, disobedience to God, and offence against God, and so he does here : He had before been speaking of justification through free grace, and so he does here : before had been speaking of justification through righteousness, as in Christ Jesus, and so he does here. ,
And if we look into the former part of this very chapter, there we shall find justification spoken of just in the same sense as in the rest of the epistle ; which is also supposed by our author in his exposition : It is still justification by faith, justification of them that had been sinners, justification attend. ed with reconciliation, justification peculiar to them that had the love of God shed abroad in their hearts. The apostle's foregoing discourse on justification by grace through faith, and what he had so greatly insisted on as the evidence of the truth of this doctrine, even the universal sinfulness of man. kind in their original state, is plainly what introduces this discourse in the latter part of this 5th chapter; where he shews how all mankind came to be sinful and miserable, and so 10 need this grace of God, and righteousness of Christ. And therefore we cannot, without the most absurd violence, suppose any other than that he is still speaking of the same justification.
And as to the universal expression used in the 18th verse, “ By the righteousness of one, the free gift came upon all men to justification of life;" it is needless here to go into the controversy between the remonstrants and anti remonstrants, concerning universal redemption, and their different interpretations of this place. If we take the words even as the Arminians do ; yet, in their sense of them, the free gift comes on all men to justification only conditionally ; i.e.provided they believe, repent, &c. But in our author's sense, it actually comes on all, whether they believe and repent, or not ; which
certainly cannot be inferred from the universal expression, as here used. Dr. Taylor himself supposes, the main design of the apostle in this universal phrase, all men, is to signify that the benefits of Christ shall come on Gentiles as well as Jews.* And he supposes that the many, and the all, here signify the same : But it is quite certain, that all the benefits here spoken of, which the apostle says are to the many, does not actually come upon all mankind; as particularly the abounding of grace, spoken of ver. 15. The grace of God, and the gift by grace, hath abounded unto the many, as tus modus.
This abounding of grace our author explains thus : “ A rich overplus of grace, in erecting a new dispensation, furnished with a glorious fund of light, means and motives," p. 44. But will any prelend, that all mankind have actually been partakers of this new fund of light, &c. How were the many millions of Indians, on the American side of the globe, partakers of it, before the Europeans came hither? Yea, Dr. Taylor himself supposes, all that is meant is, that it is free for all that are willing to accept of it.t The agreement between Adam, as the type or figure of him that was to come, and Christ as the antitype, appears as full and clear, if we suppose all which are in Christ (to use the common scripture phrase) have the benefit of bis obedience, as all that are in Adam have the sorrowful fruit of his disobedience. The scripture speaks of believers as the seed or posterity of Christ. (Gal. iii. 29.) They are in Christ by grace, as Adam's pos. terity are in him by nature : The one are in the first Adam naturally, as the other are in the second Adam spiritually: Exactly agreeable to the representation this apostle makes of the matter, 1 Cor. xv. 45...49. The spiritual seed are those wbich this apostle often represents as Christ's body: And the of color here spoken of as made righteous by Christ's obedience are doubtless the same with the oi words which he speaks of in chap. xii. 5. We, being many, are ore body ; or, we, the many, οι πολλοι εν σωμα εσμεν.
And again, 1 Cor. x. 17, owa
Page 60, 61, See also contents of this paragraph, in bis notes on the epistle. + Notes on the epistie, p. 284.
os corros come. And the same which the apostle had spoken of in the preceding chapter, Rom. iv. 18, compared with Gen. xv. 5.
Dr. Taylor much insists on that place, I Cor. xv. 21, 22. * For since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead : For as in Adam all die, so in Christ sball all be made alive ;" to confirm his suppositions, that the apostle here in the 5th of Romans, speaking of the death and condemnation which come by Adam, has respect only to the death we all die, when this life ends : And that by the justification and life which come by Christ, he has respect only to the general resurrection at the last day. But it is observable, that his argument is wholly built on these two suppositions, viz. First, That the resurrection meant by the apostle, in that place in the 1 Cor. xv. is the resurrection of all mankind, both just and unjust. Secondly, That the opposite consequences of Adam's sin, and Christ's obedience, spoken of here in Rom. v. are the very same, neither more nor less, than are spoken of there. But there are no grounds for supposing either of these things to be true.
1. There is no evidence, that the resurrection there spoken of, is the resurrection both of the just and unjust ; but abundant evidence of the contrary. The resurrection of the wicked is seldom mentioned in the New Testament, and rarely included in the meaning of the word; it being esteemed not worthy to be called a rising to life, being only for a great increase of the misery and darkness of eternal death: And therefore by the resurrection is most commonly meant a rising to lise and happiness; as may be observed in Matth. xxii. 30 .... Luke xx. 35, 36....John vi. 39, 40, 54.... Philip. iii. 11, and other places. The saints are called the children of the resurrection, as Dr. Taylor observes in his noic on Rom. viji. 11, And it is exceeding evident, that it is the resurrection to life and happiness, the apostle is speaking of in ibis I Cor. xv. 21, 22. Ii appears by each of the three foregoing verses, ver. 18. 5. Then they which are falleni asleep in Christ (i. e. the saints) are perished.” Ver. 19. “If in this life only we (Christians or apostles) have hope in Christ (and have no resurrection
and eternal life to hope for) we are of all men most miscrable.” Ver. 20. “But now is Christ risen from the dead, and is become the first fruits of them that slept." He is the forerunner and first fruits only with respect to them that are his; who are to follow him, and partake with him in the glory and happiness of his resurrection : But he is not the first fruits of them that shall come forth to the resurrection of damnation. It also appears by the verse immediately following, ver. 23. « But every man in his own order ; Christ the first fruits, and afterward they that are Christ's, at his coming." The same is plain by what is said in verse 29, 30, 31 and 32, and by all that is said from the 35th verse to the end of the chapter, før twentythree verses together : It there expressly appears, that the apostle is speaking only of a rising to glory, with a glorious body, as the little grain that is sown, being quickened, rises a beautiful Aourishing plant. He there speaks of the different degrees of glory among them that shall rise, and compares it to the different degrees of glory among the celestial luminaries. The resurrection which he treats of, is expressly a being raised in incorruption, in glory, in power, with a spiritual body, having the image of the second man, the spiritual and heavenly Adam ; a resurrection wherein this corruptible shall put on incorruption, and this mortal put on immortality, and death be swallowed up in victory, and the saints shall gloriously triumph over that last enemy. Dr. Taylor himself says, that which is in effect owning the resurrection here spoken of is only of the righteous ; for it is expressly a resurrection, ev anavasia, and aqatagore, ver. 53 and 42. But Dr. Taylor says, “These are never attributed to the wicked in scripture.* So that when the apostle says here, “ As in
Adam all die, so in Christ, shall all be made alive ;" it is as much as if he had said, As in Adam we all die, and our bodies are sown in corruption, in dishonor, and in weakness; so in Christ we all (we Christians, whom I have all along been speaking of) shall be raised in power, glory, and incorruption, spiritual and heavenly, conformed to the second Adam. “ For
* Note on Rom, viii. 27.