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Wherein it is considered what is meant by the Glory of God,
and the name of God in Scripture, when spoken of as God's end in his works.
HAVING thus considered what things are spoken of in the holy scriptures, as the ends of God's works; and in such a manner as justly to lead us to suppose, they were the ends , which God had ultimately in view, in the creation of the world : I now proceed particularly to inquire concerning some of these things, what they are, and how the terms are to be understood.
I begin first, with the GLORY OF GOD.
And here I might observe, that the phrase, the glory of God, is sometimes manifestly used to signify the second person in thc Trinity. But it is not necessary at this time to consider that matter, or stand to prove it from particular passages of scripture. Omitting this, therefore, I proceed to observe concerning the Hebrew word Cabhodh, which is the word most commonly used in the Old Testament where we have the word glory in the English Bible. The root which it comes from is either the verb Cabhadh, which signifies to be heavy, or make heavy, or from the adjective Cabhedh, which signifies heavy or weighty. These, as seems pretty manifest, are the primary significations of these words, though they have also other meanings, which seem to be derivative. The noun Cobhedh signifies gravity, heaviness, greatness, and abundance. Of very many places it will be sufficient to name a few. Prov. xxvii. 3. 2 Sam. xiv, 26. 1 Kings xii. 11. Psalm xxxviii. 4. Isaiah xxx. 27. And as the weight of bodies arises from two things, viz. solidity or density, or specific gravity, as it is called, and their magnitude ; so we find the word Cabhedh used to signify dense, as in Exod. xix. 16. Gnanatz Cobhedh, a dense cloud. And it is very often used
for great. Isaiah xxxii. 2. Gen. y. 9. 1 Kings X. 2. 2 Kings vi. 14, and xviii. 17. Isaiah xxxvi. 2, and other places.
The word Cabhodh, which is commonly translated glory, is used in such a manner as might be expected from this signification of the words from whence it comes. Sometimes it is used to signify what is internal, what is within the being or person, inherent in the subject, or what is in the possession of the person ; and sometimes for emanation, exhibition or communication of this internal glory; and sometimes for the knowledge or sense, or effect of these, in those who behold it, to whom the exhibition or communication is made ; or an expression of this knowledge, or sense, or effect. And here I would note, that agreeable to the use of the word Cabhodh, in the Old Testament, is that of the word Doxa in the new. For, as the word Cabhodh is generally translated by Doxa in the Septuagint; so it is apparent, that this word is designed to be used to signify the same thing in the New Testament, with Cabhodh in the Olc.. This might be abundantly proved by comparing particular places of the Old Testament ; but probably it will not be denied.
I therefore proceed particularly to consider these words, with regard to their use in scripture, in each of the foremen
1. As to internal glory. When the word is used to signify what is within, inherent, or in the possession of the subject, it very commonly signifies excellency, or great valuableness, dignity, or worthiness, or regard. This, according to the Hebrew idiom, is, as it were, the weight of a thing, as that by which it is heavy ; as to be light, is to be worthless, without value, contemptible. Numb. xxi. 5. “ This light bread." I Sam. xviii, 23. “ Seemeth it a light thing.” Judges ix. 4. “ Light persons,"i. e. worthless, vain, vile persons. So Zeph. iii. 4. To set light is to despise, 2 Sam. xix. 43. Belshazzar's vileness in the sight of God, is represented by his being Tekel, weighed in the balances and found light, Dan. v. 27. And as the weight of a thing arises from these two things, its magnitude, and its specific gravity conjunctly, so the word
glory is very commonly used to signify the excellency of person or thing, as consisting either in greatness, or in beauty, or as it were, preciousness, or in both conjunctly; as will abundantly appear by Exod. xvi. 7, and xxviii. 2, 40, and iii. 8, and many other places.
Sometimes that internal, great, and excellent good, which is called glory, is rather in possession than inherent. Any one may be called heavy, that possesses an abundance ; and he that is empty and destitute, may be called light. Thus we find riches is sometimes called glory. Gen. xxxi 1. « And of that which was our fathers, bath he got'en all this glory."
“ Haman told them of the glory of his riches." Psal. xlix. 16, 17, “ Be not afraid, when one is made rich, when the glory of his house is increased. For when he dieth, he shall carry nothing away, his glory shall not descend after him." Nah. ij. 9. “ Take ye the spoil of silver, take the spoil of gold; for there is none end of the store and glory out of the pleasant furniture.
And it is often put for a great height of happiness and prosperity and fulness of good in general. Gen. xlv. 13. “ You shall tell my father of all my glory in Egypt.” Job xix. 9. “ He hath stript me of my glory." Isaiah x. S. “ Where will you leave your glory.” Verse 10.
« There. fore shall the Lord of Hosts send among his fai ones leannessy and under his glory shall be kindle a burning, like the burning of a fire." Isaiah xvii. 3, 4. “The kingdom shall cease from Damascus, and the remnant of Syria ; they shall be as the glory of the children of Israel. And in that day it shall come to pass, that the glory of Jacob shall be made thin, and the fatness of his flesh shall be made lean." Isaiah xxi. 16. " And all the glory of Kedar shall fail." Isaiah Ixi. 6.
" Ye shall eat the riches of the Gentiles, and in their glory shall ye boast yourselves.” Chap. Ixvi. 11, 12. “That ye may milk out and be delighted with the abundance of her glory.
I will extend peace to her like a river, and the glory of the Gentiles like a flowing stream.” Hos. ix. 11. Ephraim, their glory shall fly away as a bird.” Matth. iv 8.
Sheweth him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory
“ As for of them." Luke xxiv. 26. “ Ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter into his glory?" John xvii. 27. “ And the glory which thou gavest me, have I given them." Rom. y. 2. “ And rejoice in hope of the glory of God." Chap. viii. 18. “ The sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us." See also chap. ii. 7, 10, and iii. 23, and ix. 23. 1 Cor. ii. 7. “ The hidden wisdom which God ordained before the world, unto our glory.” 2 Cor. iv. 17.
Worketh out for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory.” Eph. i. 18. “And what the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints." 1 Pet. iv. 13. « But rejoice inasmuch as ye are made partakers of Christ's sufferings; that when his glory shall be revealedl, ye may be glad also with exceeding joy." Chap. i. 8. “ Ye rejoice with joy unspeakable and full of glory." See also Colos. i. 27, and iii. 4, and many other places.
2. The word glory is used in scripture often to express the exhibition, emanation, or communication of the internal glory. Hence it often signifies a visible exhibition of glory ; as in an effulgence or shining brightness, by an emanation of beams of light. Thus the brightness of the sun, and moon, and stars is called their glory in 1 Cor. xv. 41. But in particular, the word is very often thus used, when applied to God and Christ. As in Ezek. i. 28. “ As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud in the day of rain, so was the appearance of the brightness round about. This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the Lord."
And chap. x. 4. " Then the glory of the Lord went up from the cherub, and stood over the threshold of the house, and the house was filled with the cloud, and the court was full of the brightness of the Lord's glory.” Isaiah vi. 1, 2, 3. “I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and listed up, and his train filled the temple. Above it stood the seraphim. And one cried to another and said, Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of Hosts, the whole earth is full of his glory." Compared with John xii. 4. “ These things said Esaias, when he saw bis glory and spake of him." Ezek. xliii. 2. “ And behold the glory
of the God of Israel came from the way of the cast
and the earth shined with his glory." Isaiah xxiv. 23. « Then the moon shall be confounded, and the sun ashameds when the Lord of Hosts shall reign in Mount Zion, and in Jerusalem, and before his ancients gloriously.” Isaiah Ix. 1, 9. “ Arise, shine, for thy light is come, and the glory of the Lord is risen upon thee. For behold, the darkness shall cov, er the earth, and gross darkness the people ; but the Lord shall arise upon thee, and his glory shall be seen upon thee." Together with verse 19. « The sun shall be no more thy light by day, neither for brightness shall the moon give light unto thee ; but the Lord shall be unto thee an everlasting light, and thy God thy glory.” Luke ii. 9. “The glory of the Lord shone round about them.” Acts xxii. 11. “And when I could not see, for the glory of that light.” In 2 Cor. iii. 7, the shining of Moses's face is called the glory of his counte: nance, And to this Christ's glory is compared, verse 18. « But we all with open face, beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image, from glory to glory.” And so chap. iv. 4. « Lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them." Verse 6. “ For God, who comme ded the light to shine out of darkness, bath shined in our hearts, to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Je. sus Christ.” Heb. i. 3. “ Who is the brightness of his glory." The Apostle Peter, speaking of that emanation of exceeding brightness, from the bright cloud that overshadowed the disciples in the mount of transfiguration, and of the shining of Christ's face at that time, says, 2 Pet. i. 17. « For he received from God the Father, honor and glory, when there came such a voice to him from the excellent glory, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased." Rev. xviii. 1. “ Another angel came down from heaven, having great power, and the earth was lightened with his glory." Rev. xxi. 11. “ Having the glory of God, and her light was like unto a stone most precious, like a jasper stone, clear as crystal." Verse 23. “ And the city had no need of the sun, nor of the moon to shine in it; for the glory of God did lighten it,''