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want of a supply; for where the labourers are wholly dependent for milk upon the farmers, they are seldom regularly or sufficiently accommodated. And 3rdly. Because I think it highly desirable to have a reserve of labour for those periods of the year when there is the greatest demand for it in a class of persons, who, for a trifling advance, as in harvest, or when they are particularly wanted, are willing to work for others, and at other times can depend upon themselves. In the present state of things, where there is only one class of mere labourers, living from hand to mouth, there must either be at some seasons too few, or at others too many, and consequently the farmers must either suffer inconvenience from a scarcity of hands, or else from a degraded set of supernumeraries, frequently living partly upon the parish, and partly by depredations.*
“ With respect to the method of bringing about the change, in case your Grace should be inclined to make the attempt, either wholly or in part, I think the principal thing is to let your intentions be generally known, and the farmers who desire to have cottages built upon their farms, may signify the same to your steward. In such cases the cottages should go with the farms. The labour of men resident is worth more than that of those at a distance; and a few steady labourers, dispersed over a farm, are a great advantage in preventing trespasses and depredations, and in watching the cattle and sheep, besides the advantages to the labourer in living near his work, which are very considerable especially in bad
* Instead of keeping cows, the land might, in many cases, be applied to other purposes, according to circumstances. Where there has been a long connexion between farmer and labourer, and the latter afterwards becomes, by his prudence, occupant of a little land, still holding himself at the disposal of his former master during periods of extra demand for labour, and in his turn receiving assistance from the farmer's team, &c. how profitable, both morally and pecuniarily, is such a relation, compared with that arising from the system of pauper supernumeraries !
weather. There are, I believe, on the Berry estate many plots of land, at present, from their rough state or inferior quality, of little or no value to the farmers, which would, in the hands of industrious labourers, working for themselves at spare times, soon become fit for cultivation. Cottages, not built for the convenience of particular farms, should be held immediately from your Grace, and, if let to proper persons, the trouble of collecting the rents would be very trifling. I think it would be well to encourage applications from the labourers themselves for cottages, or gardens, or land, as a stimulus to exertion and good conduct; but particular care should be taken to examine into the merits of each case.* If a man applied to have his garden enlarged, I would first see that he made the most of what he had already. If he asked for land for a cow, I would not only make him show that he had money to buy one, but I would ascertain that the cow would be well managed. If he asked for a cottage, I would ascertain that a labourer was wanted, and give him accommodations according to his means already provided. A few applications properly scrutinized, and graciously complied with, I have no doubt would produce a very good effect, and could not be accompanied by any of those inconveniences which frequently attend inconsiderate alterations. Many well meaning people attempt to remove evils of long standing, and arising from complicated causes, by hasty and general processes. The consequence is, they utterly fail in their endeavours, or perhaps even aggravate the mischief, and then
in despair or disgust. Whereas in such cases investigation, discretion and time are indispensable. Poverty produced by improvidence, is not removed, but confirmed by pecuniary bounty; and improvidence itself, as it proceeds from various causes, frequently demands as various remedies for its cure.
From the method I would point out, no disad
* Much might be done at a small expense, in improving and altering the present cottages.
vantages could well arise ; for I would do nothing for those who did not give earnest of their merit by first doing something for themselves. I would assist the deserving in their endeavours, but the usual objects of attention I would leave to the consequences of their own misconduct. It is too much the fashion to bestow every thing on those who deserve nothing, and to let the meritorious struggle on, not only unaided, but frequently under the disadvantage of having the undeserving preferred before them.* Perhaps in the outset a little pecuniary encouragement to one or two of the most provident labourers, of two or three pounds each, to assist them in buying a cow, or for some such purpose, might set the plan forward with advantage; but I am against giving, except in very particular cases, and in aid of exertion, and not to save it. Whatever improvement takes place, I think it ought to make an adequate return in rent.
“I am far from holding out that the adoption of the foregoing suggestions would work miracles, but I think it would produce an improvement in the condition of the labouring classes on your Grace's estate, and, with judicious management, a very considerable one; and at the same time would be the means of increasing the value of the farms, and of the property generally.”
There is a sect, unfortunately well known to most in this land, under the denomination of Grumblers, whose fundamental maxim is-whatever is, is wrong. Wherever they are found, and they are found almost everywhere, they operate as a social poison; and, though they contrive to embitter the enjoyments of every body about them, they perpetually assume that themselves are the only aggrieved persons, and with such art, as to be believed, till thoroughly known. They have often some excellent qualities, and the appearance of many
* I would reverse this process, and, if I may so say, would Macadamize the roads to self-advancement, at the same time making the ways of improvidence as difficult and cheerless as possible. I have learnt to look with a very suspicious eye at what are called the unfortunate, especially when they have plausible tongues.
amiable ones; but rank selfishness is their chief characteristic, accompanied by inordinate pride and vanity. They have a habit of laying the consequences of their own sins, whether of omission or of commission, upon others; and, covered with faults, they flatter themselves they
66 walk blameless.” Where their selfishness, pride, or vanity are interested, they exhibit signs of boundless zeal, attention, and affection, to which those, who are not aware of their motives, are the dupes ; but the very moment their predominant feelings are offended, they change from April to December. They have smiles and tears at command for their holiday humour; but in “ the winter of their discontent," there is no safety from the bitterest blasts. Their grievances are seldom real, or if real, are grossly exaggerated, and are generally attributable to themselves; for, absorbed in their own feelings, they are wonderful losers of opportunities. In conclusion, I think it would be for their advantage, as it certainly would be for that of the rest of the world, if they were made subject to some severe discipline ; and I would suggest for the first, second, and third offence, bread and water and the tread-mill, for one, two, and three months, respectively; for the fourth offence, transportation for seven years to Boothia Felix, or some such climate; and any subsequent delinquency I would make capital, and cause the criminal to be shut up with some offender in equal degree, there to grumble each other to death.
Published also monthly with the Periodicals, stitched in a wrapper.
AND PALMER, PRINTERS, SAVOY STREET, STRAND.
BY THOMAS WALKER, M.A.
TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE.
BARRISTER AT LAW, AND ONE OF THE POLICE MAGISTRATES OF THE METROPOLIS.
PUBLISHED EVERY WEDNESDAY AT 12 O'CLOCK BY H. RENSHAW,
356, STRAND, NEARLY OPPOSITE WELLINGTON STREET.
No. XV.) WEDNESDAY, AUG. 26, 1835. [PRICE 3d.
Art of Travelling.
Economy of Labour.
ART OF TRAVELLING.
In my first number, I promised to make some observations on the art of travelling, which promise I shall now perform, not professing to offer a complete set of rules, but only such as occur to me at a considerable distance from actual experience, and such as I do not recollect to have seen elsewhere. Travelling may be said to be a state of great pleasure, mixed with great annoyance; but by management the former may be much increased, and the latter proportionably diminished. In whatever way you travel, I particularly recommend you to guard against the cravings of hunger, both for your health's sake, and in order the better to preserve placidity of temper, which, with every precaution, is exposed to frequent disturbance. When your mind is ruffled, you can neither see with pleasure nor profit, and the natives are pretty sure to revenge themselves for your ill humour by imposing upon you.