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HISTORICAL ESSAYS. to be sacred relicts; hence, a succes
sion of pilgrims, assembling from
every Christian country, were seen No. X.
paying their devotions at the holy THE CRUSADES
sepulchre: and so little was the PREPARATORY to our review of simplicity of the gospel dispensation the religious abuses in the reign of
understood, that a toilsome journey Richard I. it may not prove uninto Jerusalem was more than equiteresting to present our juvenile
valent to a life of regularity and readers with a brief sketch of the usefulness at home, origin and progress of the crusades,
The propensity which, directed in one of which that monarch made by enthusiasm, led to these exs0 conspicuous a figure; as well as
cesses, is far less surprising than the to avoid the frequent repetition of excesses themselves. The curiosity the subject in other reigns: but
we feel to visit the sites of some as preparations for the third cru- great events, or the birth-place of sade, that expedition itself, and the
some illustrious character; events arising out of it, form almost eagerness to handle some ancient the whole history of that prince's relic, or snatch a fragment of some administration, we shall consider it venerable ruin, if not restrained by distinctly in our next paper.
reason, and corrected by piety, It is remarkable, that in almost might very easily húrry us into the every age there have been some
extravagance of enthusiasm, and the fashionable crrors to engage the iniquity of superstition: indeed, attention. It should seem that which of us can say, he should be Satan," the prince of the air, who the subject of no immoderate sensaworketh in the children of disobe- tions, if he could behold the sepuldience,” always contrives some po
chre in which the Saviour lay, or the pular delusion to feed human
cross on which he suffered? bat it depravity, which, from his know- deserves remark, that the great Disledge of our nature, is nicely adapted poser of events has checked this proto the period of its prevalence. Few pensity, by suffering time to destroy objects were perhaps better calcu- the materials, and even the enemies lated to effect this, than these wild of religion to possess the places, enterprises; for they united all the which its professed friends are prone
to idolize. numerous vices of military life with the delusion and hypocrisy of the
The Turks took the city of Jerumost extravagant superstition.
salem from the Saracens in 1065, The crusades, or croisades, from and began to treat the devotional the French word croix, a cross, signi- visitors with far less respect and fied wars carried on against infidels ceremony, and it soon became haunder the banner of the cross : hence zardous to undertake the exemplary the adventurers were decorated with pilgrimage. This was the more ira cross on their right shoulders. ritating, from the opinion which then They commenced in the year 1096, prevailed, that the 1000 years menand originated in a superstitious ve
tioned in the 20th chapter of the neration for those places that were
Revelations were fulfilled, and that distinguished by the principal events Christ was about to make his apof the Redeemer's life; and for those pearance in Palestine to judge the objeots that were pronounced, from world, which considerations intheir connexion with those events, creasing the merit, and even the
necessity of these pilgrimages, ren- to excite, that, as with one voice, dered them much more frequent. they exclaimed, in supposed omi.
Pope Gregory VII. therefore nous language, It is the will of formed the design of uniting the God." This serious sentence, utterpowers of Europe in the attempt ofed by the multitude on so memorwresting the favourite country from able an occasion, was regarded with the grasp of the Mahometans; but more attention than even the orahis encroachments on the privileges cular decisions of the ancients. It of princès, had rendered them too became ever after their motto, as suspicious of his designs, to become well as their signal of assemblage the agents in his plans. But a native and battle on succceding occasions. of Amiens, Peter, commonly called How often, in perusing the pages of the Hermit, having made the pil- history, and even in the observation grimage to Jerusalem, returned so of modern times, have we to lament deeply affected with the dangers to over the mistaken and misguided which the poor travellers were ex- zeal of popular assemblies! How posed, and with the oppression cautiously should they be attended, under which the Eastern Christians especially by the young, lest the molaboured, and entertained the bold, mentary impulse of some unhallowed and apparently wild idea, of leading passion should so terminate, as to sufficiently powerful armies to sub- lay the foundation of lasting redue the infidel nations. He sub- morse! mitted his plan to Pope Martin II. The state of England favoured the who, though aware of the advantage romantic undertaking. Ignorance that must accrue to Rome from its and superstition completely subexecution, was too prudent to ha- jected the public mind to the domizard disappointment without greater nation of clerical power, which proplausibility of success. He there-cured present misery, and awarded fore summoned an immense multi- eternal ruin to the disobedient.tude at Placentia, which he deno- The military spirit, too, was geneminated a Council; consisting of rally diffused; and the practice of the 4,000 ecclesiastics, and 30,000 secu- nobles, in making war with each lars. As no hall could contain other, in redress of their private them, they met in a plain; and so wrongs, greatly contributed to its impressive were the harangues of preservation. A man's safety dethe Pope and Peter in behalf of pended more on his prowess and his the persecuted pilgrims and op-alliances, than on the protection of pressed Christians of the East, that the laws: valour was the great virthe devoted crowd declared for the tue of the day. Such a state of someritorious undertaking.
ciety, therefore, was highly favourEncouraged by bis success in able to the enthusiastic project; and Italy, and actuated by the deepest such was its popularity, that the policy, Martin thought it necessary Princess Anna Comnena observes, to engage the more warlike nations in her history, “all Europe, torn of Europe, and therefore dispatched from its foundation, seemed ready to Peter to visit the most important precipitate itself in one united body cities, and to endeavour to interest on Asia.” Nobles, artisans, peathe most powerful sovereigns in the sants, and priests, alike engaged in enterprise. The fame of the great the undertaking, as the high road to and glorious design being now heaven; and cowardice or impiety generally diffused, a second Council was affixed to the characters of the was held at Clermont, in Auvergne, reluctant. In the exercise of hope, which was attended by the greatest the nobles, awarding to themselves prelates and nobles of the day. Such the opulent establishments of the a dignified assemblage gave new East, sold their present possessions, zeal to the Pope and the Hermit, that they might be unencumbered, who renewing their pathetic ad- and suitably equipped. The aged dresses, so wrought on the passions and infirm co-operated in the underof the auditory, whose enthusiasm taking by prosents; and even fethe very concourse was calculated males, forgetful of the nature and the duties of their sex, shamelessly | Damascus, through the unfaithfuljoined the army in disguise. Such ness of the Christians of Syria. extraordinary volunteers, while they In 1188, immediately after the represented a motley group, formed taking of Jerusalem by Saladin, the almost a countless multitude, and Soldan of Egypt, the third crusade apprehensions were entertained that was undertaken. Past failures had the magnitude of the armament not taught wisdom, and former miswould prove the cause of its over- fortunes were forgotten. 300,000 throw. The leaders, the ore, in men were soon found again to inorder to render their forces the more vade the sacred land, and among manageable, sent forward the undis- the heroic chiefs, were the Emperor ciplined, to the number of 300,000, Frederick Barbarossa, Philip Auunder the direction of Peter the gustus, King of France, and Richard Hermit,and Walter,(commonly call-. King of England, in the review of ed the Moneyless). These took the whose reign, in our next essay, we road through Hungary and Bulgaria, shall have to examine the events of towards Constantinople, unprovi- this crusade. sioned, trusting to the merit of their The fourth crusade was comcause, and the miraculous interpo- menced in 1195, by the Emperor sition of that Holy Being, whose Henry VI. after Saladin's death. will they had declared their project The invaders gained several battles, to be. A conduct which, bowever and took many towns, but the death ridiculous and preposterous in them, of the Emperor arrested their proaffords a lesson to many a fearful gress, and obliged them to quit the Christian, who has often been de prospects of their success, and reterred from evident duty by the turn to Germany. prospect of difficulty, forgetful of Innocent III. in 1198, succeeded the power, the faithfulness, and in provoking a fifth crusade. But mercy of God. As might have been the adventurers had to contend expected, the disorderly crowd were with a more formidable enemy than soon obliged to resort to plunder even Saladin had proved. The and violence for their daily sup- plague rapidly thinned their ranks, port; nor did the failure of miracles, not only by death, but by inducing and the destructive attacks of the many to return home to avoid the enraged inhabitants of the countries contagion. Through this calamity, through which they passed, cause added to the disagreements of their then to suspect the propriety of leaders, and the consequent division their motto, or diminish their ardour of the forces, the Soldan of Aleppo in the enterprise. The better dis- found no difficulty in defeating the ciplined armies followed after, and remnant of the army. when they were mustered in the The sixth crusade began in 1228, plains of Asia, amounted to 700,000 and was speedily terminated., Damen. In this expedition, the famous mietta was taken, but was soon surGodfrey of Bouillon, Duke of Lor- rendered again ; and the following rain, took the city of Nice. Jeru- year peace was concluded with the salem also yielded to the combined Soldan for ten years. About the army, and Godfrey was gratified by year 1240, Richard, Earl of Cornbeing chosen king. The battle of wall, brother to Henry III. King of Ascalon, gained by the Christians England, proceeded to Palestine over the Soldan of Egypt, followed, with an English army; but finding, and terminated the first crusade.
on his arrival, that it would be more The second crusade in 1144 was advantageous to conclude a peace still less successful, although com- than bazard a war, he shortly remanded by the Emperor Conrad turned. Four years afterwards, the III. and Louis, King of France. Karasmians being driven out of PerThe army of the former either pe- sia by the Tartars, fled to the Holy rished by the hand of the enemy, or Land, and completely defeated the fell a prey to the treachery of Ma- Christians at Gaza. nuel, the Greek Emperor; and that St. Louis headed the seventh cruor the latter, abandoned the siege of sade in 1249, and Damietta was
again taken. His success, however | aged weakness; and, monstrous to was arrested by disease, which so relate, with hands yet reeking withi prevailed among his troops that he the blood of the dead and the dying, attempted a retreat; the infidels, re- marching over the bodies they had senting such frequent visits, pursned slain, presented themselves like dethe fugitives, and massacred the mons at the holy sepulchre, and greatest part of them, returning with sung anthems of praise to the Savi. him and his nobles as their pri- our of mankind. soners, and they were obliged to pur- What a merciful dispensation for chase their liberty by a truce for ten the reader, and the writer, that they years.
are permitted to live in a period of The last crusade was commanded the world so much more enlightenby the same Prince in 1270, who, ed, and that they are not the devo. after taking the port and castle of tees of that false religion, which can Carthage, in Africa, soon died, leav- so completely enslave, and so fatally ing his army in very indifferent cir- mislead the human mind! cumstances to the direction of his
H. S. A. son, Philip the Bold. The King of Sicily, however, soon arrived with a
NARRATIVE fleet, and disembarking his troops, joined Philip; but their united forces were repeatedly checked, and after Ten Years' Residence at Tripoli, obtaining an advantageons peace, they retired to their separate kingdoms. Prince Edward, of England,
Colburn, 1816. arrived with some assistance, about We introduce this article for the the time of this treaty; but being re- purpose of making an extract or called to ascend the throne of Eng- two, for the amusement of our young land, his visit was fruitless. In 1291, readers. the town of Acre was taken and
LOCUSTS.-" These destructive plundered by the Soldan of Egypt, insects have been seldom known to and the Christians driven out of annoy this place, though they are Syria. So many sufferings, losses, almost the yearly scourge of Egypt, and disappointments, had progres- and part of Asia. They fly in comsively abated this wild zeal, and pact bodies through the air, darkensucceeding Popes found it impossi- ing the atmosphere, and ocenpying a ble to induce another crusade.- space of many miles in their pasNicholas IV. in 1292, and Clement sage. They make a noise in the V. in 1311, were particularly anxious act of nipping off the corn and herbto accomplish the object, but hap- age, that cannot be mistaken, and pily failed.
which is distinctly heard at a great It has been computed that, at distance. While these invaders least, two millions of poor deluded pass along, as if by enchantment; creatures perished in these various the green disappears, and the parchexpeditions; and it does not seem ed naked ground presents itself. possible to find, in history, parallels The locusts are salted down in great to the extravagance and wicked- quantities at Cairo and Alexandria, ness of these adventures. The fa- and carried to different parts of natics proposed to themselves what Africa. Many are brought to this they deemed a pious object, and set place, and eaten by the inhabitants." about accomplishing it by the most | Page 108. See Exod. x. 12. Joel, anti-christian means: and not only ii. 1-11. Matt. iii. 4. did they employ methods, contrary Camels.--" The Moors to the spirit of the gospel, but they obliged to secure a camel, that, with committed the most wanton and much difficulty, was prevented from horrid excesses at the taking of attacking our horses while they Jerusalem, murdering alike the stood in the yard, though the camel garrison, and the inhabitants with is in general, with very few excepa out distinction, unmoved by youthful tions, perfectly mild: this having a innocence, female tenderness, and young one unable to feed itself, its
ferocity is thereby accounted for. (Tunis to purchase slaves in Guinea. The milk is drank by consumptive The whole of them often perish from people: it is salt and ill-flavoured, the danger and fatigues of the jourricher than cow's, and of a red co- ney, or, buried under mountains of lour. The camel, when a few sand, are heard of no more. The weeks old, is very handsome. Its Sicilian has often described to us cries then exactly resemble those of the gloomy and impenetrable forest a young child. When grown up, they passed, where the repeated their voice is loud and rough; and howlings of wild beasts, excited by when angry, they rattle in the throat, the scent of the cattle accompanywhich is a warning of their inten- ing the caravan, were increased and tion to bite. They are in general so heightened as it drew nearer their inoffensive and tractable, that they horrible dens. Sometimes the caracommonly go without bridle or hal- van was constrained to remain for ter; and a single straw is frequently several days near these woods, to used to drive them along with a bur- avoid the approaching hurricane in den of nine hundred weight. This the desert they were about to pass useful patient animal will sustain through; for by the aspect of the many days' thirst when traversing, heavens, those who frequent the deheavily laden, the burning sands. serts can often foresee these dreadBut in town, where it is cooler, and ful winds many hours before they during the winter, he can remain happen. No sooner were the tents some weeks without drinking, living pitched and the caravan became on the water he has within him, pre- stationary, than a peculiar noise in served in a reservoir, from whence the forest announced the wild beasts he conveys it into the stomach. at verging to the borders of it, there to pleasure. The last time the Bey wait a favourable opportunity to was encamped, a camel was opened rush out and seize their prey. The for the water it contained, where se- dreadful roar of the lion was not veral gallons were found in a per- heard during the day; but when fect state. The camp was at that the darkness came on, continued time in want of water. The people murmurs announced him, and his were dying daily, when the Bey voice getting louder broke like peals made use of this costly expedient." of thunder on the stillness of the Page 45. See Gen. xxiv. 10. Job, night. The panther and the tiger i. 3.
were seen early in the evening makDROMEDARIES. “ The drome-ing circuits nearer and nearer round dary seems used, in this country, the caravan. In the centre of it only for the courier or post.” Page were placed the tents with thie wo45. See 1 Kings, iv. 28. Est. viii. 10. men, children, and flocks; the cattle The dromedary is a species of camel. were ranged next; and the camels,
Wild Beasts.-“ A part of the horses, and dogs last. One chain great western road from Tunis to of uninterrupted fires encircling the Tripoli cannot be passed without whole, was kept blazing during grcat danger, on account of wild every night. On the least failure beasts, which not unfrequently at- of these fires, the lion was heard tack passengers in spite of the pre- coming closer to the caravan. cautions taken to prevent their ap- his roar, the sheep and lambs shook; proach. The Bashaw's physician, the horses, motionless, were covered à Sicilian, performed this tremen- with a profuse perspiration; the dous journey by land, with his wife cattle cried out; and the dogs, asand two children, not long since, sembling together in one spot, enHe joined an immense caravan, deavoured by their united bowlings (that being the only method by to frighten away the savagc dewhich he could traverse the de- vourer, from whom nothing could serts,) and proceeded in safety to save them but a fresh blaze of fire. this place. One of these caravans, Twice the lion carried off his prey, containing from 400 to 500 persons, a sheep, to the terror of the spectawho are soon increased to as many | tors, who in vain with fire-arms enthousands, sets out every year from deavoured to prevent him. Sheep