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Glasgow, April, 1817. By Ralph | poor are proper objects of relief, al-
ed with sickness, age, or blindness, The well-known name of the au
one would imagine could never have thor is a sufficient ground for the as
been denied. It has, however, been surance, that this excellent essay denied ; and Mr. Wardlaw thus deproceeds from a clear head, and fends it. from a Christian; therefore a benevolent heart. In both respects, we
“ When times of general embarrass. cannot too highly recommend it to of Providence, occur ;-when the staff
ment and affliction, then, do, in the course our readers. Its objects are, to enforce the mercantile speculation and industry are
of bread is broken; when the outlets of Christian virtue of relieving the in- blocked up; when glutted markets, and digent, whether that indigence arise the cessation of demand, produce deprefrom sickness, age, blindness, &c.- ciation in the value of all descriptions of or whether, from want of employ- | manufacture ; when the wages of labour ment, the inadequate price of wages, are proportionally reduced, and many or other unavoidable causes ;-to hands are deprived of profitable employ. inquire into the best mode of admi- ment; when a low price of labour uniies nistering relief;—and to defend this with a high price of provisions; and virtue from the inferences, which when the working classes are necessarily many persons have drawn from the involved in deep and accumulated dis.
tress :-in these circumstances, (and exprinciples in Mr. Malthus's celebrated Essay on Population ; infer- perience, alas! has taught us that they
are not imaginary,) what can industry, ences which Mr. Malthus himself and economy, and independence do? rejects with detestation, and which Suppose the virtues of activity and of the principles themselves by no saving put upon their utmost siretch;means warrant. Mr. Malthus is so if the compensation of labour be so de. far from opposing the relief of the in- pressed, that all the bodily powers must nocently necessitous poor, that he be tasked and strained, and nature must recommends to our beneficence even
be exhausted by rising early and sitting the idle and improvident. “When up late., to earn the miserable pittance of (says he) this first claim on our be
a shilling a-day, on which a young and nevolence was satisfied, we might
numerous family is to be fed, and clothed, then turn our attention to the idle and educated :if corporeal toil is to be
most fatiguing, and mental anxiety most and improvident. But the interests distracting and wearing out, just at the of human happiness most clearly re- very time when there exists an unavoida, quire, that the relief which we af- ble want of that nourishment which is ford them, should be scanty. We requisite to supply the waste of the animay, perhaps, take upon ourselves, mal frame, and to recruit and invigorate with great caution, to mitigate the the enervated mind:-what can the poor punishments which they are suffering man then make of his spirit of manly in from the laws of nature, but on no dependence, and of active and honouraaccount to remove them entirely.
ble industy ? The spirit of independence They are deservedly at the bottom, family; and of what avail is the spirit of
will not satisfy the cravings of a hungry in the scale of society; and if we raise them from this situation, we
industry, unless it has some field of pro
fitable exertion? These principles, it is not only palpably defeat the ends of
true, must always render him respectabenevolence, but commit a most ble; and in such circumstances, respect glaring injustice, to those who are may justly rise even to veneration :--but above them. They should, on no has not the poor man, on this very acaccount, be enabled to command so count, the more imperious claim on our much of the necessaries of life, as compassion and sympathy, that he is recan be obtained by the worst paid luctant to stoop from his independence,
labour. The brownest and anxious to push his way through, and bread, with the coarsest and scanti
to weather the storm ? And shall ibo est apparel, is the utmost which they very grounds on which our pity is duo should have the means of purchas- reliefi - Is there no possibility of our jog." Essay, vol. ii. p. 61. That the innocently necessitous urging this principle of independence to
an extreme-of making it assume, for
example, the form of a stubborn and un- , and, in this direction of our charity, submissive pride?-or of allowing a man, therefore, we need not apprehend any through the excess of its delicate opera- ill consequences. Such objects ought to tion, io do essential injury to the health be relieved, according to our means, li. and well-being of himself and his family, berally and adequately, even though the before he will bring himself to let his ne- worthless were starving.'" (Essay, vol. cessities be known, and appear in the ii. p. 360.) p. 39. mortifying capacity of a receiver of cha
But what is the best mode of rerity ?-I paint no merely imaginary picture, when I set before you a poor
lieving the necessitous ?
lahourer, himself famished to a walking wise and good men, in disapproving
Mr. Wardlaw concurs with many spectre, gazing, in speechless agony, on the emaciated wife of his bosom, and un
the English system of maintaining his wretched infant, drawing from the the poor by legal assessment. He empty breast, with the piteous cries of does not say that there is any abdisappointed eagerness, the red blood, stract ground, on which it can be at instead of the rich and wholesome nutri once pronounced improper, for a ment of nature; while the imploring humanc government to make the cries of his elder children for bread, concerns of the poor, one of the obwhen there is none to give, wring his jects of its benignant regard; or that heart with intolerable anguish. Is there, should render the relief of the disthen, I repeat; no danger of pushing tressed and the destitute a more obthis principle, confessedly good in itself, to an unwarrantable and unmerciful ex. jectionable purpose of taxation than treme? Is there no danger of winding many others that might be named.up the spring, till it is snapped asunder But he endeavours to prove, and in by a bursting heart?---Whilst we admire our opinion successfully, that the and venerate the principle, that will suf-poor laws are inefficient, unnecesfer, and suffer much and long, before it sary, and oppressive; and that they will complain ; yet surely some caution increase the misery of the poor, inand delicacy should be observed, in sub stead of diminishing it. jecting it to experiment,-in trying how Are the necessitous poor then to far it will go, what degree of pressure be neglected entirely ?-or are they it will bear ;-unless we are willing to
to be left to the es usive care and stand by, and to see fellow-creatures, un. der its overstrained exercise, sink into
attention of private personal benevo
lence? the grave, the victims of starvation and heart-break, rather than utter a com- “I dismiss (says Mr. Wardlaw,) the plaint, or present an application for aid; first supposition, as one from which every
-and to have the pleasing rejection on mind that is informed by the Bible, and qur consciences, of having been art and every heart that is influenced by its mer. part in this description of honourable ciful principles, or that is at all alive to suicide.
the common sensibilities of humanity, : In pleading for the relief of labour must alike revolt :--and request your at ers, who have been reduced to indigence, tention to some of the consequences by circumstances over
, which they could which appear naturally to result from the exercise no preventive control, and who practical adoption of the second ;-that åre, ou this ground, as fairly entitled to is, from leaving the poor to the operatiop sympathy, as the sick, the old, the blind, of personal cbarity alone. , or the casually disabled, I am happy in « In the first place : Ninety-vine in the being supported by the high authority of bundred of those who give, either would Mr. Malthus himself:- In the great not have leisure, or would not course of human events, (says lie,) the examine carefully into the circumstances, best founded expectations will sometimes and characters, and habíts, of those to be disappointed; and industry, prudence, wbom they administered relief. Every and virtue, not only fail of their just re- day's observation of the general exercise ward, but be involved in unmerited ca- of individual charity may suffice to satislamities. Those who are thus suffering fy us of the truth of this. in spite of the best-directed efforts to Secondly: The most truly necessitavoid and from, causes which they ous and deserving would be most in dancould not be expected to foresee, are the ger of neglect and oversight, because less genuine objects of charity. In relieving clamorous and important than others. these, we exercise the appropriate office “Thirdly: It would frequently hapof benevolence, that of mitigating the pen, that tħe same case of distress would partial evils arising from general laws; be relieved by the bounty of twenty, or
take it, to
more individuals; whilst other cases, of the individual, become wrong and equally worthy, or even more so, receive blame-worthy, in the case of the number ed perhaps from one only, or did not re- of individuals? Is it not still, neither ceive at all. There would be nó regula- more nor less, than private benevolence, rity, no proportion.
(pursuing the attainment of its end in a Fourthly: In this way, idleness and discreet and secure way? profligacy would very often obtain the
“ Yet this is A BENEVOLENT SOCIETY. relief that is due to industrious and vir- | And what more, then, are such institu. tuous, but modest and unassuming indi- tions, than simple channels, in which the gence ;-indigence that shrinks, with de
streams of individual bounty may most? licate reserve, from public observation, effectually, (that is, with the largest meaand is · ashamed to beg.'
sure of real blessing, and the smallest For these reasons, Mr. Wardlaw portion of accompanying evil,) arrive at wishes to turn part of the stream of their destination ;-to cheer and to fertiprivate benevolence into a different lize the barren and parched wastes of channel.
“Let me now suppose, penury and wretchedness?" (says he,) a benevolent individual, Mr. Wardlaw defends these sociewhose feeling heart melts over the ties from objections which have been sufferings of the poor, and whose brought against them. But we must hand and purse are as open as his draw to a close. Neither have wa heart, but who is sensible of the great room for inserting a beautiful quota-2 importance of administering his cha- tion, upon the same subject, from a rity with proper discrimination.”- sermon by Dr. Chalmers. Under the strength of this impres- We conclude, with exhorting the sion, he says to a friend, in whose pious poor, though their condition sagacity and prudence, as well as should be as mean as that of Lazafidelity and kindly dispositions, he rus, to rejoice in that they are exhas found reason to place confidence: alted ; inasmuch as they have God “I find, my friend, that I am quite for their father, the Lord Jesus unable to command the leisure, ne- Christ for their brother, angels for cessary for making that inquiry into their ministering spirits, and a kingthe circumstances of the poor, which dom in reversion; and the rich in is indispensable to their judicions that they are made low; because as supply. I feel myself, in multitudes the flower of the grass they shall pass of cases, in danger of being imposed away :--and with reminding the latupon, and, consequently, of doing ter, that pure religion and undefiled more harm than good. You have before God and the Father is this, time and opportunity, humanity, To visit the fatherless and widows prudence, and zeal. Take this small in their affliction, and to keep themsum ;-be my almoner ;-and let me selves unspotted from the world. know when it is exhausted." Would this be wrong? Would it not be only personal benevolence, adopting a
LITERARY INTELLIGENCE prudent and effectual method of at once effecting the good which it wishes to do, and shunning the evil
In the Press. which it justly apprehends? So far.
Scripture Parables, in Verse, with Exfrom being reprehensible, would not such procedure be rather laudable - the most Part, from the admired
planations and Reflections; drawn, for and deserving of imitation?
tion of Dr. Doddridge, by the Rev. J. “Let me; then, extend the same sup- | Cobbin, M. A. To which are added, position a little further. Suppose not amusing and instructive Notes, in Prose; une only, but a number of generous chiefly designed for the Use of young givers, influenced by the very same con- Persons. sideration, should intrust their hounty The Book of Common Prayer, and Ad. not to me only, but to a number of faith ministration of the Sacraments, and other ful distribútors, who are disposed to spare Rites and Ceremonies of the Church, acthe necessary time, and to bestow the cording to the Use of the United Church necessary labour. Does this at all alter of England and Ireland ; with Transla. the nature of the thing? Does that which tions into the Greek, Latin, Italian, Spawas right and praise-worthy, in the case nish, French, and German Languages.
Missionary Retrospect and foreign Jntelligence,
Account of Moneys received by the Treasurer of the Baptist Missionary Society, for the
£ s. d.
266 9 Leicester, Collection and Subscriptions, by the Rev. R. Hall... 65 3 Paisley Missionary Society, by Mr. James Thompson, Secretary 15 0 York and Lancaster Assistant Society, by W. Hope, Esq. Treasurer 103 12 Norwich, Auxiliary Society at, by the Rev. Joseph Kinghorn
20 1 Stoke, near Norwich, ditto
7 Devonshire Square Auxiliary Society, by Mr. E. Smith
14 11 St. Neot's Auxiliary Missionary Society, by the Rev. T. Morell.. Ilford Missionary Association, Three quarters of a year's Subscription, by the Rev. Mr. Smith
32 Bristol, Juvenile Branch Society, 2 Payments, by the Rev. Dr. Ryland 17 4 65 Counterslip Auxiliary Society
6 9 Morgan, Rev. Benjamin, late of Bridgewater, a Bequest.
10 Hitchin, Collection, by the Rev. John Geard
23 0 Folkstone Auxiliary Society, by Mr. W. Stace
21 12 Stirling Missionary Society..
10 Clipstone, Collection, by the Rev. W. Mack 5 12 Juvenile Society.....
190 6 a Friend at, Donation by ditto 10 10 Oakham, Collection, by the Rev. W. Miller
3 4 0 R. J. by the Rev. W. Button
0 15 Shutwood, Collection & Subscriptions, by the Rev. W. Winterbotham 65 3 3 Gloucester, ditto
3 0 Cirencester, ...ditto
6 10 0 Minchinhampton, ditto
2 6 0 Eastcombes, ditto
8 15 9 Wootton under Edge, ...... ditto
3 11 Hilsley and Upton, ditto
2 10 6 Biggar (Scotland) Association, for the diffusion of Christianity, by the Rev. C. Anderson
5 0 0 Dumfries, Mrs. B, and Friends, for a native Preacher, ditto
27 0 0 Missionary Society, by the Rev A. Fyfe, ditto
10 0 0 Edinburgh Auxiliary Missionary Society, by W. Murray, Esq. two Donations,
85 0 0 Morningside, Auxiliary Missionary Society, by the Rev. D. Dickson, Jun.
5 0 Elgin Missionary Society
5 5 Kirkaldy, Friend at, by Mr. Arthur
ditto Perth, Friends at,..
13 5 os Juvenile Missionary Society, for a native
do. 23 5
8 18 Grangemouth, Female Missionary Association, by Mr. Waddell, ditto Kingsbridge, Friends at, the Rev.John Nicholson
1 0 For the Translations and Schools. Suffolk Association of Independent Congregations for the purpose of promoting Translations, &c. by Mr. Burls...00
£ s. d. J. B. Wilson, Esq. Clapham, a Donation
50 0 0 Thomas Key, Esq. Water Fulford, near York, Native Schools 1001.
Translations Paisley Female Auxiliary Society, by Mr. W. Ferguson
25 0 Stirling Female Bible Society, by the Rev. Dr. Ryland
23 0 0 Dairsie Female Association, by the Rev. C. Anderson
2 2 0 Shrewsbury, Society at Doglane, by Mr. T. Crompton.
38 19 6 Wylie, Mr. James, Broadway, by the Rev. T. Coles
10 Wylie, Miss Elizabeth, ditto
10 00 Calton and Bridgton Association for Religious Purposes, by Mr. W. Collins
40 York and Lancaster Assistant Society, by W. Hope, Esq. Treasurer 5 5 0 Mite for the Translations, by the Rev. Dr. Ryland
0 0 Painswick, Friends at, by the Rev. W. Winterbotham Norwich, Friends at, for Native Schools, by the Rev. Joseph Kinghorn 106 5 0
Domestic Beligious Jntelligence.
His Royal Highness having stated in a few words the object of the Meeting,
the Report was read by the Secretary. RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS. It stated, that their Royal Highnesses
the Dukes of Kent, Gloucester, and
Prince Leopold, had condescended to SOCIETY FOR PROPAGATING
become Patrons to the Society; and that CHRISTIANITY AMONG THE JEWS.
His Grace the Archbishop of York, the
Lord Bishops of Winchester, Salisbury, On Friday, May 8, the Tenth Anni- Rochester, Norwich, &c. had accepted versary of this Society was held, .as the office of Vice Presidents. The usual," in the Free Masons' Hall. Sir Duke of Kent, and Her Royal Highness Thomas Baring in the Chair.
the Dutchess of Gloucester, had also The Rev.Mr.Hawtrey read the Report. condescended to patronize, in the warmThe funds last year
much est manner, the Auxiliary Society at increased, amounting in the whole to Glasgow. The receipts of the last year 9,284l. 17s. 6d. and the Society was were about 1,5101 ; of which, it would free from all debt.
be gratifying for the Meeting to learn, When the Meeting broke up, a very that a considerable sum had been reliberal collection was received at the mitted from the army in France, who door of the hall. The hall was crowded appeared very zealous in the cause. to excess, and many were obliged to From Glasgow 422l. had been received, retire from want of room to stand even and 1001. from the Edinburgh Bible at the door.
Society. They would be equally gratified to learn, that the first battalion of
the Royal Scottish Regiment had volunNAVAL AND MILITARY tarily given one day's pay to the SoBIBLE SOCIETY,
ciety, which sum had (amounting to above 541.) been duly transmitted by
the commanding officer of that regiment. On Tuesday, May 12, the Anniver. With regard to the Navy, forty ships of sary of this Institution was held in the war had been furnished with Bibles; King's Concert Room, Haymarket. At and particular attention had been paid twelve o'clock the Chair was taken by to those vessels which were about to go His Royal Highness the Duke of York, on the Arctic Expedition. Supplies bad attended by the Archbishops of Canter- also been granted to a considerable bury and York, the Bishops of London number of regiments and garrisons; and and Gloucester, the Earl of Harrowby, it was most satisfactory to state, that in the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and a many instances the Bible had not been number of other characters of the first read in vain. Above 11,000 Bibles and respectability
Testaments had been circulated during VOL. X.