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Juvenile Department,

PRIOR.

PHILOSOPHICAL 1 of the latter, by measure ; so light
REFLECTIONS.

is hydrogen.

* The decomposition of water, and

its subsequent reformation,” says Mr. No. XVII.

Parkes, in his interesting Catechism,,

“ may be shown by the following WATER.

easy experiment: Add gradually one " Water restraip'd gives birth

ounce of sulphuric acid to four ounces To grass and plants, and thickens into earth: of water in a large phial, containing, Diffus'd it rises in a higher sphere, Dilates its drops, and sortens into air:

a few iron filings. The temperature Those finer parts of air again aspire,

of the mixture will be so much raised Move into warinth, and brighten into fire: by the union of the water with the That fire once more. by denser air o'ercome, And downward forc'd, in earth's capacious womb, acid, as to enable the iron to decomAlters its particles, is fire no more,

pose a part of the water. If a hole But lies metallic dust, or pond'rous ore."

be neatly made through a cork

which fits the mouth of the phial, Water, till a comparatively late and a piece of tobacco-pipe with a date, was considered as a simple very small orifice be fitted into it, substance, and one of the four great and the whole cemented into the elements. From earth, water, air, phial with a mixture of resin and and fire, all other substances were bees' wax, the hydrogen gas, as it supposed to be compounded, in the is separated from the water, will pass countles varieties that adorn and en- in a continued stream through the rich the universe. This opinion car- pipe, and may be set on fire by the ried with it a seducing simplicity, Name of a candle brought in contact and could only be exploded by ac- with it. The gas will continue to tual demonstration. In the progress burn with a blue lambent flame, as of science, however, it has become long as the decomposition goes on. evident, that water is itself a com- This shows that the gas is really hypound of oxygen and hydrogen, in drogen, and that it arises from thie the proportions, by weight, of 88 of decomposition of the water. That the former and 12 of the latter, in water may be reformed by the comevery 100 parts of the fluid.

bustion of this gas, may be shown Oxygen is not only a constituent by holding a glass bell over the flame part of water, but the basis of vital of the gas: as the hydrogen burns, it air. It is essential to life and heat, unites with the oxygen of the atand greatly contributes to the most mosphere, and the union of the two important changes that perpetually gases produces water, which will take place among minerals, vegeta- soon be seen to deposit itself like bles, and animals.

dew on the inside of the glass. It is Hydrogen is the basis of what was advisable to fold a cloth round the called inflammable air, and in its æri- bottle to prevent any injury from the form state is incomparably light.- fragments of glass, in case of an exIt unites with oxygen only in one plosion.” proportion, and water is the produce. In what an interesting light do the of such union: It may be proper to studies of philosophy place the works add, that though water is composed of of nature! By the improving lessons one part of hydrogen and 7 of oxy of that most useful of the sciences, gen, by weight, as already observed, chemistry, we behold this earth as one it contains ? parts of the former to of the grand laboratories of the great

Creator, in which he is constantly I again displayed in the slow process carrying on his vast operations ! of its congelation, the sad effects How desirable it is that the youth of too hasty transitions are avoided, who is captivated with the charms and the escaping caloric happily mi. of rural objects, should not merely tigates the severity, and retards the gaze at the useful plant and beau- progress of frost. Nor should it be teous flower, unconscious of the ope- overlooked, that while other subrations to which they silently con- stances become more dense in produce. It could be wished that, as portion as they part with their calohe plants the fragrant shrub, or ric, the law is reversed in the case plucks the blooming flower, he of water, owing to the air-bubbles should know, that he aids or inter- produced in the act of freezing: rupts effects the most salutary and Hence ice, instead of sinking, swims wonderful, for all vegetables decom-on the surface of water; had it been pose water by a secret and peculiar otherwise, one mass of ice after ano. process, when assisted by the rays ther, would have sunk in our lakes of the sun. The hydrogen of such and rivers, till, in a severe winter, decomposition is absorbed by the no liquidity had remained; nor could plants themselves, in forming their the heat of the hottest summer have oils and resin, and that portion of thawed such channels of ice, from oxygen which is not retained to form wbich must have resulted effeats the sugar and acid of these vegeta- more direful than even imagination bles, unites with part of the caloric can conceive; but the great Architect of the solar rays, and flies off in the saw all things from the beginning. state of oxygen gas; thus recruiting Water in its ordinary state of lithe stock of oxygen of which the at- quidity is 825 times heavier than atmosphere is continually deprived, mospheric air, A pint is found to by respiration. Bearing in mind the weigh rather more than a pound, a countless myriads of leaves that cubic foot about 62{lbs. avoirdupois. cover the innumerable trees that Its chief physical properties are in: adorn our gļobe: how important sipidity, transparency, want of smell and how extensive this process: colour. Rain water approaches “Şurely," says the interesting writer nearest to a state of purity, and genalready named, “nothing short of tle rain is found more pare than that consummate wisdom could have which falls in storms. The water conceived any thing half so beautiful that washes the surface of the earth, in design, or extensively and super- or flows within it, is more or less en. ļatively useful in effect !"

cumbered with othermatter, as that Not only vegetables, but also fish, of the ocean and mineral waters. and cold blooded amphibious ani- In the state of vapour, it is commals, are supposed to possess the bined with an increased portion of same power, and the violent rains caloric, becomes of a gaseous form, that frequently accompany thunder and acquires an expansive force even storms, have been attributed to the beyond that of gunpowder, as ap. sudden combustion of oxygen and pears from those volcanic eruptions, bydrogen gases, with the latter of in which, there is reason to believe, which the atmosphere is supplied the sea has communicated with the from every kind of animal and vege- subterraneous fires. In this state it table decay, as well as from mines, also receives a capabilityof supporting volcanoes, &c. Who, but a God, immense weights, abundantly mani: infinitely wise and merciful, would fested by the application of the steam have so admirably disposed of the engine. I bisexpansive force accounts very refuse of nature !

for the peculiar appearance of water Wạter is found in fonr states: in in the act of boiling. The vapour

be. those of ice, liquidity, steam, and in ing first formed at the bottom of the composition with other bodies.

vessel, rises, and, in escaping, causes of these, içe is the most simple, the ebullition, which being so com: having then parted with a large por-mon, seldom excites our curiosity țion of its caloric to the surrounding Beyond this degree, water cannot be atmosphere. Divine goodness is heated in an open vessel, every at:

ARMSTRONG.

tempt to augmont the heat serves but a prophet, and another to pay the to accelerate the vaporization. tribute money, that should show his

In combination with other bodies, obedience to the powers that be. as in mortar and cement, water be- From the survey of such wisdom, comes more solid than ice, parting power, and mercy, let us learn to with still more of its caloric than in exercise unbounded confidence in the frozen state: the heat given outin | his promise, and eagerly peruse the the making of mortar is the escape direct revelation of his will that we of caloric from the water. Quick may learn what those promises are. lime has so remarkable an affinity to

N. N. water, that it absorbs one-fourth of its own weight of the liquid, without being moistened by the addition.-- REFORMATION ANECDOTES. It also requires solidity in combination with various salts, many of which lose their transparency and Richard II. a council was held in St.

In the year 1377, in the reign of crystalline form when deprived of it. Paul's Church, London, for the pur

How numerous, then, how incalculable, are the advantages we derive pose of condemning the doctrines of

Wicklitf. Upon the day appointed, from this fluid,

Wickliff went thither, accompanied " Phat chiefingredient in Heaven's various works, by the Duke of Lancaster, and Lord Whose flexile genius sparkles in the gem, Percy, Earl Marshall of England. Grows firm in oak, and fugitive in wine.”

A vast concourse of people had as

sembled, so that it was with difWhile it affords one of the most use- ficulty and not without some tumult ful supports of animal life, it emi- that he and his noble protectors pently improves our health, being the could press through the crowd.great means of cleanliness and com- “When the Bishop of London (says fort. It is one of the principal agents Fullcr,) saw, contrary to his expecin vegetation, and is continually em- tations, Dr. Wickliff enter the court, ployed as a solvent for numerous supported by persons of so elevated solids. It greatly conduces to the rank, and such great authority, his salubrity of our atmosphere, and, malevolent passions were highly exserving as a vehicle for vessels, opens cited, and hurried away by the ima communication between the most petuosity of angry passion, ho addistant regions, and thus affords a dressed Lord Percy in terms so means of endearing mankind to each haughty and insulting, that the lofty other, the greater partofwhom, other- spirit of Lancaster was provoked to wise, though the children of one answer the Bishop with a tart reply. common parent, must be inaccessible A fine dispute ensued. to each other, and as they are beyond Bishop Courtenay. Lord Percy, if the reach of the senses, and conse- I had known what maisteries you quently ignorantof each others’exist- would have kept in the church, I ence, could not assist in the supply of would have stopt you out from comtheir reciprocal wants, nor exercise ing hither. those exquisite sympathies which will Duke of Lancaster. He shall keep be increasingly manifested asgenuine sucha maisteries here, though you say Christianity prevails. Nor must we nay. forget, that in the ocean it forms, as Lord Percy. Wickliff, sit down, it were, a world within itself, teem- for you have many things to answer ing with a countless population, the to, and you need to repose yourself contemplation of which is calculated upon a soft seat. to fill the mind with admiration, at Bishop Courtenay. It is unreathe omnipotence of Him, who, when sonable, that one cited before his oron earth, perfecting his merciful in- dinary should sit down during his tentions, could walk on its impetuous answer. He must, and shall stand. billows, and bid its waves be still, Duke of Lancaster. The Lord or summon its finny tribes to the Percy his motives for Wickliff is but nets of his disciples, or cause one of reasonable.

And as for you, my its inhabitants to preserve the life of Lord Bishop, you are grown so prond and arrogant, I will bring | cording to the situation of the specs down the pride not of you alone, tator, and that, consequently, this but of all the prelacy in England. eclipse will not be found exactly to

Bishop Courtenay. Do your worst, correspond with the above account: Sir..

excepting within a short distance Duke of Lancaster. Thou bearest of London. Nevertheless, the difso brag upon thy parents fhis father ference in the phase of al solar eclipset was Earl of Devonshire, which shall is not generally very perceptible in not be able to help thee, they shall places comprised within the limits have enough to do to help them- of this island, unless the eclipse isi selves.

| either very small or very great, when Bishop Courtenay. My confidence the distance of a few miles may in is not in my parents, nor in any man the one case make the moon disapelse, but only in God, in whom I pear from the sun's disk, and this trust, by whose assistance I will be render the eclipse invisible; and in bold to speak the truth.

the instance of a great eclipse, it Duke of Lancaster. Rather than may render such eclipse essentially I will take these words at his hands, different in its character. I would pluck the bishop by the The present eclipse, it may be hair out of the church.

obscrved, is the third return of the The latter words, spoken in a great eclipse of 1764, according to low tone, were overheard by the the period of eighteen years and bye-standers, and a violent commo- | about eleven days--a period which tion ensued; the Londoners took was first discovered by the Chalthe part of Courtenay, declaring deans, and which was probably the aloud, that they would oppose even first resource for the computation with their lives any insult offered to of eclipses, as it was found to be a their bishop. The tumultuous pro- period that produced a certain order ceedings obliged the delegates to of eclipses, which order seems also break up the court without pro- to be produced in every succeeding ceeding to the examination of period of the same description. But Wickliff."--Fuller's Church History, the return of the solar eclipses must book iv. cent. xiv.

have been found very much to vary on account of the moon's parallax ;

and even the lunar eclipses would, ECLIPSE

after a long succession of years, OF THE SUN.

show that the forementioned period could not afford a suitable standard

for correct computation. On Tuesday morning, the 5th of The quantity of the eclipse of the present month, there is a visible 1764 was eleven digits and five mieclipse of the sun; which, in the nutes at London, and it became neighbourhood of the metropolis, | annular in those parts of the king commences at fifty-eight minutes dom where the quantity was more after five, and ends at forty-seven | than eleven digits, eleven minutes, minutes after seven, according to and a half. The first returu of this apparent or solar time. The first eclipse was on the 12th of April, appearance of the eclipse will be 1782, on which day the sunset distinguished by a small notch about about five digits eclipsed. The seone third from the lower extremity | cond return was at the commence: of the sun in ascending on the right ment of the 24th of April, 1800, hand towards the top, or on that when the eclipse was invisible, the side which is next to the meridian. sun being below the horizon. The The greatest obscuration happens third return is on the 5th of the about nine minutes before seven, present month, as above stated, when the quantity of the eclipse is the new moon, or ecliptic conjunc, four digits and a half. It is, how- tion, happening at 25 minutes and ever, well known, that a solar 24 secouds after seven in the morneclipse is susceptible of some varia- ling. tion in duration and quantity, ac- It may perhaps be interesting

to state, that the next solar eclipse 305, it appears that the greatest obvisible at Greenwich will, with re- scuration at Greenwich will happen spect to degree, make a noarer ap- on Thursday, September the 7th, proach to the eclipse of 1764 than 1820, at fifty-three minutes and any one that has occurred since four seconds after one in the afterthat period. By a computation noon, when the quantity of the from Delambre's Solar Tables and eclipse will be ten digits and twenty Burckhardt's Lunar Tables, and by severi minutes : and the eclipse will assuming the polar axis of the earth be still greater on the eastern coasts at 304, and the equatorial axis at of this island.

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Obituary

OF THE

he would take possession of the eterSOME ACCOUNT

nal inheritance, where his holy soul

is now engaged in contemplating LAST DAYS OF MR. J. TUCK, the mysteries of that redemption,

which had been his favourite and Late Deacon of the Baptist Church,

constant theme on earth for half a BADCOX LANE, FROME. century. He seemed to breathe the

air of heaven long before he joined MR. John Tuck was born at its society, and as he approached Wells, November 30, 1751, where the verge of mortality, he became he constantly attended the episco- more and more indifferent to all pal church ; hut, on the removal of earthly concerns: if obliged to attend bis friends to Frome, he left the a little time to business, he was out Establishment, and united with the of his clement; his pious soul seemed Dissenters, as their sentiments and impatient to break from the earth, mode of worship were most agree that it might ascend again to those able to his own views of divine divine contemplations, which entruth. He was the subject of seri- grossed and fixed all the energies of ous impressions at a very early pe- his soul. riod of his life, which were deepened For some months before his death, and matured under the ministry of owing to the extreme thirst with the late Rev. John Kingdon, by which he had been long afflicted, he whom he was baptized, October 5, was accustomed to take a very carly 1770, and afterwards received into breakfast with his family. This seathe church. After occupying the son was exceedingly interesting to station of a private member nearly them all: they were often surprised twenty-two years, he was called by and delighted with his conversation; the'unanimous voice of the church itwas wisdom,and kindness, and love, to the office of deacon; and never and piety, all blended together; he was a man more anxious to fill that was often highly animated with his office in a becoming manner, more subject, and his wife and children solicitous for the peace and prosper- wished almost to stop the wheels of ity of the church, or more tenacious time in their course, unwilling to of its respectability and its honour. close a season so truly interesting.

For many months previous to the Coming down stairs one morning, death of this eminent saint, a rapid about two months previous to his religions improvement was evident decease, he asked one of his to all his intimate friends, which, to- daughters, she thought that begether with an increasing debility of lievers before their death were ever body, induced many of them to sup- favoured with extraordinary mạni. pose, that it would not be lovg before festations of divine goodness and

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