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radiant caloric taken up by each the body is reduced to a liquid: but body, is greater or less than what it is remarkable, that the increase it yields to others.

of caloric after liquidity commences, The organs of the human frame does not increase the temperature are not adapted to discover the dif- of the body till the whole is dissolvferent degrees of temperature that ed: thus the thermometer is not bodies possess, nor is there any seen to rise after a body of ice beknown method of ascertaining the gins to liquefy, till the whole is quantity of caloric they contain. thawed. Of the same nature is the We touch a body of higher tempe- melting of iron; indeed, it has been rature than our hand, and, in con- observed, that it would be equally sequence of the sensation we feel in correct to speak of the thawing and gaining a portion of its caloric, we congelation of iron as of ice, a merely pronounce it warm or hot; greater quantity of caloric only is and on the contrary, in handling a required. substance of less temperature, we But the effects of this wonderful impart caloric to it, and experienc- fluid stop not here. Caloric contiing the opposite sensation by the nually introduced into a body alloss, we denominate it cool or cold. | ready reduced to complete liquidity, It is therefore the temperature of further overcomes the forces of atour bodies that determines for us traction and external pressure bethe limit of heat and cold, a criterion fore noticed, and actually carries so varying and vague, as to induce away with it the particles of the us to pronounce the same body oc- liquid converting it into an elastic casionally hot and cold : thus caves, fluid. And here are again illustrated vaults, and cellars are said to be the order and precision of nature, cold in the summer and warm in for as in the process of liquefaction, the winter, though their tempera- so in this progress, from the liquid ture varies little, it is that of our to the æriform state, the additional bodies that varies so much.

caloric received after the commenceBut we proceed to its effects, and ment of this further effect, instead first, notice its influence in pro- of heating the water above 212 deducing in bodies a change of state. grees of Farenheit, the temperature The particles of substances which at which this effect is produced, is from their compactness and adher- merelyemployed in converting thereence we are accustomed to consider mainder of the liquid into the elastic in a state of solidity, are held together fluid. And it is worthy of remark, by the force of attraction. The that in the return of the same boelastic force of the caloric, which dies to their previous state, as of wapenetrates between their particles, ter to ice and vapour to water, the tends to disunite them, and will heat absorbed reappears with their vary their volume in a greater or varying characters. The fact of less degree according to the quan- heat thus remaining concealed in a tity of caloric received, but happily body without raising its temperature, there is another force which assists deserves particular notice, and has in preserving their forms, namely, given rise to the term of latent heat, the pressure of the external air; concerning which philosophers have but the effect of this pressure is never been able to satisfy them-, only manifest in the progress of a selves. body to the elastic state.

Though these effects are at preascend a mountain with a vessel sent confined to certain substances, of water, the pressure of the atmo- it is conceived, that most bodies sphere decreasing as we rise, because appear unchangeable only for want the column of air on the water grows of a power of applying a sufficient shorter, we may discern the con- quantity of caloric for the trial. It version of the liquid into vapour. is, doubtless, among our mercies, of

When the quantity of caloric in which, however, few Christians are a body is so increased as to balance aware, that this power is not always the force of attraction, the particles at command. It is particularly so move easily in all directions, and with respect to the atmospheric air,

If we

which the kind providence of our temperature is found to have a maGod will, probably, ever preserve terial effect on the strings of musical in the class of elastic and invisible instruments. It is on this account fluids.

that the notes, at one extremity of We now notice the dilatation and the piano, are found to dilate and contraction of solids. All bodies flatten, while at the other they conthat are dilated, take away caloric tract and become sharper, accordfrom the surrounding bodies; and, ing to the situation of the fire in the on the contrary, all bodies that are room. So also clocks are materially contracted, yield caloric to adjacent affected : an accession or diminuobjects. Every stroke of the ham-tion of caloric lengthening or shortmer on a bar of hot iron, by driving ening the pendulum, necessarily the particles nearer together, strikes causes them to lose or gain time, out 'jets of radiant caloric, which To obviate this yreat inconvenience, can hardly have escaped the admi- | philosophers have ingeniously comration of the observing youth. On bined a copper with an iron rod, the same principle many account and so disposed them, that when for the heat resulting from friction. the iron pendulum rod shortens, the They consider friction as a kind of copper sustaining the same variation hammering which condenses the in a contrary sense, the centre of particles on which it acts, and con- vibration should be preserved of the sequently presses out the caloric. same length. A very simple experiment proves We learn from such inquiries the dilatability of glass. Procure a somewhat more of the infinite wissmall glass tube, terminated with a dom of God: not an object in crehollow globe of the size of an orange; ation, not a principle in nature, but fill the globe with coloured water, is subject to His wise controul, and and place it in a vessel of nearly regulated by the nicest and most boiling water, so that the globe is perfect laws; nor can we but feel covered, it will then be seen that the ignorance of vain man who too the glass dilates, for the water will | frequently fancies himself wise. descend; but on removing it, the

N. N, caloric will escape and the glass will contract, which will accordingly cause the water in the globe

EXTRACT FROM to rise. The substance out of which our earthen vessels are made for

Letters after a Tour through some domestic uses is a bad conductor Parts of France, Italy, fc. in 1816." of heat; they should, therefore, be carefully treated in their first ex- Under the account of MILAN, posure to heat. The motion of ca- the author says,loric being slow, it accumulates at " Circumstances did not allow those places that offer it the easiest me to visit Rome, or other Italian access, and endeavours to disperse cities than those I ha mentioned ; the constituent particles; bence but that which is observed in these, those vessels are often broken by especially in this capital of northern heat, and even when due precau- Italy, and in its cathedral, (second tions are used, at their first ex- only to St. Peter's,) I conceive may posure to the fire, we observe innu- be taken at least for a fair, perhaps merable little flaws are made, ac- a favourable specimen of the whole companied with a crackling noise, system, as offered to the people. It which, from the little breaks in the may be deemed unjust hy Roman varnish with which the vessels are Catholics to include abuses which glazed, have the appearance of a are only connived at; and, if so, I kind of net-work.

ought to pass by instances of superWe might further notice the influ- stitious quackery close to the front ence of caloric on the dimensions of this cathedral, where I twice of bodies, but many examples of joined a crowd listening gravely to this kind cannot but be familiar to tales of miracles, detailed with apthe juvenile reader. A variation of propriate comments by venders of

sacred pictures, amulets, and books. I to procure his help in attaining a As an advocate for liberty of con- particular object, a conference takes science, and the free promulgation place in un verde prato ;* he solicits of opinions, I certainly would re- her to divest herself of this protect. commend no interference with them, ing and terrific charm; but while she but only fair and open lists for truth vainly endeavours to take it off, the and error; and where this principle Virgin appears, and rebukes the is acted upon, neither church nor audacious dæmon, state is answerable for su extra

• Empio, disse, che pensi tu di fare ! vagances, supposing they should

Sai che chi porta quest' abito in petlo, then survive: but the church of Come divoto mio dei rispettare, Rome can use no such plea. She Cosi comanda il mio figliuol' diletto.'+ gives no freedom to those who He is thus driven off the field; the would combat the delusions that she lady receives penitently a serious may yet perhaps disavow. And not admonition from her patroness; reonly have these grown out of her own sorts to a father confessor; and doctrines or traditions, but her very finally places her gold, her silver, toleration or connivance always im- and herself in a convent. It is then plies protection and encouragement; strongly inferred and inculcated, as for a vender and poffer of heretical or

a moral from her instructive history, schismatical articles would undoubt that whoever wears quest' abito santo, edly be silenced and punished. (this holy dress or picture,) cannot These men, therefore, retail their

perish, (non potrà perire.) Will you wares and their fables at least under consider this detail as trifling? I the tacit sanction of the priesthood. think not, when you reflect on my During half an hour's harangue from previous remarks, and the influence one of them, I watched the countenances of the attentive groupe, orals of the populace from having

to be expected upon the faith and but could observe scarcely a smile such absurd fictions connected with or look that indicated doubt or dis- religion, and offered as a sort of trust. He shewed a set of large pic-shield or safeguard for vice. I was tures, illustrating the miracle of

expecting that at least great part of which he spoke, and offered small the audience, which was of both figures of the Virgin on pasteboard, sexes, and of different orders of aitached to a cord of worsted, to be people, would treat it as a mere burworn round the neck. These, with

lesque; they gave, however, on the much warmth and volubility, and

contrary, very serious attention till many reiterations, he assured us it the close, and the orator had then a was the bounden duty of all good number of customers for his little Christians to purchase, as highly pictures, unquestionably on account conducive to their welfare and even

of the miraculous virtue ascribed to salvation. I could not neglect what them, since they were so utterly was proved to be so valuable, and

mcan and paltry, that they would therefore bought for a soldo one of

scarcely attract the notice of an the small figures described, with an

infant. Yet, not ten yards from this explanatory poem at the same mo

spot, just within the north-west door dest price. This tale, entitled of the cathedral, I observed other Miracolo bellissimo fatto dalla ssma.

ecclesiastical articles on sale, which Vergine del Carmine ad una corti- I thought, if recommended with any relates the inestimable

thing like the same eloquence, effects of the abito,' or consecrated would have ruined the panegyrist of picture, (so called, I apprehend, be- Nostra Signora del Carmine ; for the cause supposed to have touched the

promise attached to these came prohabit or dress of the Virgin, as worn round the neck of its dissolute he

*" In a green meadow.”. roine. Having made herself over t“ Impious one! she said, what dost without reserve to the devil, in order thou think of doing? Thou knowest

that whoever wears this abito' in the "A very fine miracle performed by bosom, must be respected by thee as de. the most holy Virgin del Carmine, for a voted to myself; so my beloved sou courtezan."

commands,"

giana,' *

fessedly from the Vatican itself. Ac- 1 gence thus offered are, I apprehend, cordingly, as such benefits are not popularly understood to mean here within our reach, I did not fail hundred years remission of punishto secure one for cinque centesimi, ment after death in purgatory; for without any rhetoric from the seller. the indulgences sold in the 16th It is a portrait of our Saviour, having century often extended to its total beneath it a form of devotion or self- remission; * perhaps, however, it consecration to him, comprised in would be now explained by intellithree lines, which in itself is unob- gent and moderate Catholics, to sigjectionable, but has a manifesto pre- nify only the remission of a hundred fixed to it as follows: · La Santità years of ecclesiastical penance.t di Pio VII. concede in perpetuo Even if so interpreted, I can conuna volta il mese indulg. plenaria a ceive it to hold out no other docchi reciterà ogni giorno la seguente trine than this, that a mere arbitrary offerta.'* I am not sufficiently skilled and local ceremony, superadded to in the valaation of indulgences to penitence, confession, and prayer, calculate the amount of advantage which might all take place without here promised, but you will observe it, is so important as to be fitly acthe bargain is not clogged with any cepted in lieu of the severest penithe least requirement of mental de- tential discipline of the church; votion and sincerity in the reciters and, moreover, that the act thus imof the form; and this, whether it portant to the transgressor, may be were conformable to the papal or performed by deputy or proxy. We dinances or not, you will remember have here, therefore, a standing and was sold within the walls of the me- authorised document, of the fullest tropolitan church. But let us ad- publicity, which, as far as I can atvance near the altar, and we shall tach any meaning to it, tends directly find the same doctrine more fully to pervert the consciences and unand authoritatively illustrated. Be- derstandings of the people." neath each of the two pulpits in front of the choir, is the following,

POPISH CREDULITY. in large painted letters: “'Tutti i fedeli veramente pentiti e confes- the Virgin and Child; of which it is re

"In a church at Lucca is the image of sati ogni volta che visiterano il ssmo: lated, that an infidel threw a stone at the sacramento riposto nel tabernacolo infant, but the Virgin to save him from della inetropolitana, recitando divo- the blow, shifted him from one arm to tamente un paternoster, &c. ed Ave the other, while the reprobate was swal. Maria, &c. conseguirano 100 anni lowed up, and the hole is shown just be. d'indulgenza e 100 quaranteni. I fore the altar of the image, enclosed by vecchi, gl'infermi e le persone leci- a grate: the Virgin received the blow on timamente impedite non potendo her shoulder, whence the blood issued, personalte. visitarlo facendolo visi- which is preserved in a bottle, and shown tare da altri conseguirano la stesa with the greatest ceremony by the priest indulgenza in perpetuo; come da in his vestments, with tapers lighted,

while all embrace the sacred relic on lette. della Santità di NS. Pio P.P.

their knees." IV. de' 24 Maggio 1561 e 12 Febo.

Vide Wright's Travels at Lucca. 1562.'* The hundred years of indul

sited by others, shall obtain the same * « His Holiness, Pius VII. grants in indulgence in perpetuity; as by the perpetuity once a month, plenary indul- letters of his Holiness, our Lord Pope gence to whoever shall recite every day Pius IV. of the 24th May 1561 and 12th the following offering."

February 1562." + “ All the faithful truly repenting See the form used by Tetzel the Doand confessing every time that they shall minican monk, in Seckendorf's Comment. risit the most holy sacrament deposited lib. 1. p. 14, as quoted in Robertson's in the tabernacle of the metropolitan Charles V. hook ii. vol. ii. p. 117.” church, recitiug devoutly a paternoster, +-- For an account of the imposition of &c. and Ave Maria, &c. shall obtain these penances, and first rise of the sale 100 years of indulgence, and 100 lents. of indulgences, see Gibbon's Decline The aged, the infirm, and persons who and Fall, rol. vi. p. 12. 4to. edit. and are lawfully hindered, not being able to Mosh. Eccl. Hist. vol. iii. p. 83. Mach. visit it personally, causing it to be vic transl."

Obituary.

MRS. PRUDENCE BELL. tered themselves with hopes of her

recovery, but these did not long

continue ; for a very short time had Died, January 6, 1818, in the elapsed ere they saw they were all thirty-sixth year of her age, Mrs. vain, and every prospect of relief Prudence Bell, of Kirton Fen, near was gone. It was wonderful tô Boston, in the county of Lincoln. witness the divine consolation and She was born January 16, 1782, and support with which she was favourwas married to Mr. Thomas Bell, of ed, during her almost unparalleled Algarkirk Fen, in May, 1800 ; with sufferings. Her patience and resig. whom she shared the most consumi- pation induced several of her visitmate sweets of domestic harmony ants to think her afflictions less than and concord to the day of her death. they really were, and she has someThey were both united to the Parti- times joined the family in singing a cular Baptist Church at Boston, in hymn, when she was so weak that the year 1806; then under the pas- her death was expected daily. Her toral care of the Rev. John Stevens, heavenly Father had other views now of York-street chapel, West- respecting her-he thought proper minster. About four years since for her to remain on earth some time she received some injury in the longer; making it evident, that spine, by an over-lift, which laid the wbile, by a continued course of bofoundation for an abscess, and ulti- dily affliction, her outward frame mately terminated in her death. was reduced to a shadow, her better She was the subject of serious inn- part was ripening fast for glory. pressions at an early age, and enjoy- She remained much in the same ed the advantages of a religious edu- state till Friday morning, January 2, cation. Her pockets were fre- | 1818, when she was taken worse : quently furnished with hymn and and before the next day, had nearly other books, as suited her inclina- lost the faculties of speech, memory, tion, which she used to read till and understanding. On the 4th, overwhelmed in tears: this was a she had them again restored ; her general practice with her when speech returned, and she gave a walking in the pastures, or retired pleasing testimony of the composed in the chamber. But a greater tranquillity, and peaceful state of her anxiety and concern for the salva- mind. About this time her father tion of her soul was manifested was called up; as soon as she saw under the ministry of the Rev. Mr. him, she gazed with a smile of Trotman, then of Boston, in the exultation, and exclaimed, « Oh

Being naturally of a father, my dear father, I am going lively and cheerful disposition, she home! I am going home !" He reattained, by a continued attendance plied, The Lord bless and support on the means of grace, a good de- you, my dear. “ Oh,” said she, “hę gree of confidence in the promises does support me, he does bless me. of God; building her hope and de- Glory to his dear name; what have pendance on the blood and righte- I to adoro and thank him for! he ousness of a crucified Redeemer: does all things right, he does all this hope became the anchor of hier things right, he has done all things soul, when storms of affliction arose well!” Observing the attention and beat in upon her.

whieh was paid ber, she remarked, In February, 1817, her complaint “ This poor worthless frame is unhad gained ground so much, that deserving all this attendance : but, she was obliged to be confined to (as if suddenly recollecting herself,) her bed ; there were intervals, how I should not say so, for our bodies ever, in which those around her flat- are the temples of the Holy Ghost." VOL. X.

P

year 1799.

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