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them, so that his guilty race may be for ever engaged in the interest of her countryextinct. My friends, pronounce from your inmost souls these terrible oaths, the for. mula of which was bequeathed to you by

The countess had not long resided at your ancestors, and which you have already Lima before her health was affected by so many times repeated!

the climate, and she became the prey of 1 • Yes, yes,' the Indians exclaimed with one voice, we pronounce all these impre- a rapid and wasting fever. Her physications against him who shall betray this cian vainly tried the remedies of his art, secret; we swear to keep it with inviolable and at last intimated, that some mystefidelity, to endure the most dreadful torments, and even death itself, rather than rious cause must have produced this incureveal it.'

rable illness. « Look back,' said the furious Azan,

Beatrice believed lier friend to be dy. on the early days of our subjection; on that terrible period when millions of Indians ing by a slow poison, and believed that were put to the torture, not one would save Zuma only could have administered it; his life by the disclosure of this secret, she checked, but did not abandon her which our countrymen have kept locked within their bosoms for more than two suspicions, and set a vigilant watch over hundred years ! Judge, then, whether we the unfortunate slave. can invent a punishment sufficiently severe for him who may betray it! For my own

'The gentle, grateful Zuma, was agipart, I once more swear, that if there be an

tated by the strongest conflict of feelings. Indian among us capable of such a crime, She was acquainted with an infallible that he shall perish only by my hand ; and remedy—she idolized ber mistress-she shall he have a wife, and children sucking at the mother's breast, I agnin swear to beheld her suffering and dying-she plunge my poignard in their hearts ! would have sacrificed her own life with

out a moment's liesitation, but her oath This ferocious speech of Azan was in- involved that of her husband and child, stigated by a double motive. Ximeo had and that child was placed, as a pledge of a son, a young man of great merit, whose her discretion, in the hands of the implaname was Mirvan. Mirvan had married cable Azan. In this agonizing state, she Zuma, a beautiful Indian woinan, and heard the sentence of certain death prothey were the parents of a lovely child. nounced upon the vice-queen-she saw Azan not only hated the Spaniards, but the anguish of her husband and her he envied the young Mirvan. He had a friends, and the dismay of all her attendvagne apprehension that Mirvan might ants—she saw, two, the piety, the couviolate the oath, and he enforced it, that rage, and the sensibility which the lovely he might accomplish the purpose of a victim exhibited, and the combined effort deadly passion.

of all this, so afflicted this devoted creaThe Indians were forced to pay an ex- ture, that she was herself attacked with ternal homage to the Spaniards, and the disease which threatened the life of among the women who received the vice- her benefactress. The well-known requeen with testimonies of respect, was medy was secretly conveyed by the hands Zuma. Her grace and beauty were too of Mirvan, but in quantities sufficient for conspicuous to pass unnoticed, and she the relief of Zuma only. Zuma rejoiced was soon chosen for the domestic services that she might now preserve her generous of the palace, and was particularly at- benefactress, her husband, and her child. tached to the person of the vice-queen. She resolved to die herself, and to give Beatrice was alarmed at the preference the precious drug to the vice-queen. She which her friend showed this new attend- hoped that her own death might be imant; she was so prepossessed against the puted to the disease, and the restoration fidelity of Indians, that she never re- of the countess, to the skill and the care garded any individual of them with con- which had been employed upon her. fidence, and the companions of Zuma, There is an uncommon elevation of soul, jealous of her advancement, represented in the manner in which Zuma divests ber as ipsinuating and false, and deeply herself of all self-love, and in which she

regards the comparative value of her own Zuma started, threw herself into a chair,
life and that of her exalted friend; nor and fainted.
can it fail to infuse into us a regard for Her supposed crime was soon pro-
that unfortunate part of our species, claimed; she was delivered to justice,
which has been so villified, abused, and and committed to prison. Zuma was
destroyed by civilized, Christian, white unable to deny the fact which Beatrice
men. It reminds us of that eloquent, and the viceroy had witnessed. She was
liberal passage of Mr. Addison,-“I am asked from whom she had obtained the
delighted,” says this fine moralist, “with powder? “ She received it from me,”
reading the accounts of savage nations; exclaimed Mirvan. Zuma denied this.
and of contemplating those virtues that The judges inquired if she meant to ad-
are wild and uncultivated : to see cour- minister a salutary remedy. Her eyes,
age exerting itself in fierceness, resolu- at that moment, encountered the cruel
tion in obstinacy, wisdom in cunning, pa- Azan; she fancied she beheld him stran-
tience in sullenness and despair. When gling her child, --she was silent. Ximeo,
one hears of negroes, who, upon the comprehending her secret, threw himself
death of their masters, or upon changing between Mirvan and Zuma, and intreat-
their service, hang themselves upon the ed to die with them; but he was removed,
next tree, as it sometimes happens in the and the unfortunate pair reconducted to
American colonies, who can forbear ad- prison. The countess' physician was ex•
miring their fidelity, though it expresses amined, and his testimony confirmed the
itself in so dreadful a manner? What, presumptive guilt of Zuma. The judges
might not that savage greatness of soul, condemned her and her husband to perish
which appears in these poor wretches on amidst the flames of a pile that very day,
many occasions, be raised to, were it The hard heart of Azan was melted, and,
rightly cultivated ? And what colour of addressing Mirvan, he said, “ be not con-
excuse can there be for the contempt cerned for the fate of your son, he shall
with which we treat this part of our be as dear to me as if he were my own."
species?”

The pile was prepared. The viceTo return to Zuma. The spies who queen was dying. The viceroy could were ordered to observe her conduct did entertain no thoughts of mercy to Zuma, not fail to report, that she was seen ex. but be offered a free pardon to Mirvan if amining every avenue to the vice-queen's he would confess his crime. The wretched apartment—that her husband had been husband refused to comply, and all was to visit her, and that they had parted in prepared for the execution. The countess mutual agitation.

was informed of what had happened ; she Beatrice communicated all her suspie resolved in spite of her weakness to go to cions, thus confirmed in her mind, to the the scene of death ; and, placed upon a viceroy, and they both agreed to conceal litter, and covered by a long white veil, themselves in a convenient place, to ob- she departed. Mirvan and Zuma quitted serve the proceedings of Zuma.. At their prison, embraced their child, and night they observed her entering her mis- were conveyed to the burning pile. tress' chamber with an air of mystery Unconquerable terror seized the unhappy and fear, saw her approach the table, Zuma, which the exhortations of her draw a paper from her bosom and shake courageous husband could not mitigate. it into the draught already prepared for At the last moment, “ á noise was heard the countess.

at some distance,-a horseman at full The viceroy, seized with horror, rushed gallop appeared within view, exclaiming, from his concealment, exclaiming,– Hold! Hold, by order of the vice-queen ; “ Wretched woman! What have you she is approaching.' At these words all put into the medicine ?” At this unex were struck motionless ; Zuma folded her pected sight, and at this terrible question, hands and sent forth supplications to

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heaven, but her soul, weighed down by In this, as well as in all other historical terror, was not yet penetrated by the subjects which she has chosen, Madame faintest gleam of hope!” When the De Genlis has made the virtues to be rice-queen approached, she raised her found among the unworthy, and not their Feil, and discovering her pale and ema- vices, the subject of instruction. Her ciated face bearning with mercy, com- philanthropic purpose must always be admanded the chains to be taken off the vic- mired, but it may be feared that the true tims, and the flames to be extinguished. history of a Spanish viceroy has never

The air resounded with the acclama- exhibited justice or generosity towards tions of the Indians, “ Long live the vice- the people of South-America. Of all the queen!” Ximeo, rushing forward, ex- people of modern Europe, there exists claimed, “ She shall live!" Zuma, fall- not a nation whose general character ing on her knees, “ Almighty God!” and history is so revolting to the better said she, “ finish the work thou hast be- feelings, as that of the Spaniards. From gun!” The countess returned to the the time that they beca e the masters of palace, followed by the blessings of the South-America, until they were themmultitude, and accompanied by the ob- selves the prey of an usurping despot, jects of her exalted goodness. She be- and even to this moment, their policy lieved in their guilt, howeverinexplicable, and conduct, their intolerant faith, and but she forgave them, and uttered their their benighted ignorance, so far behind pardon with perfect sincerity, Zuma the common march of the human mind, was almost distracted to explain the truth, have furnished a partial argument against but her husband commanded her forbear, the general progress of intelligence; but ance, believing that Providence would we hope, notwithstanding, that their allies manifest their innocence.

and their enemies togetber, have left At this moment the viceroy, who had some examples and principles among retreated to the country to avoid the exe- ther, that may prove the germs of future cution, entered the apartment, bearing improvement of political wisdom and the child of Zuma in bis arms, and fol- general knowledge of liberal sentiment lowed by Ximeo. “ You may now and active industry; and that Spaip may speak,” said the father, addressing him. serve to confirm, and not to damp those self to Mirvan, “ with the consent of all elevating expectations which it is so pleasthe Indians—the secret is revealed.” A ing to cherish for all the human race. tender scene followed. The whole truth It is a singular fact, that, with a naFras related to the vice-queen, and the tional history so odious, the fictions foundmost ardent expressions of mutual admi- ed upon the manners of Spain are so ration and gratitude, were interchanged agreeable. The inimitable romance of by the Spaniards and Indians. The lat- Cervantes, the lively narrative of Gil ter, touched by the generosity of the Blas, the first of modern epics, Roderick, viceroy and the countess, presented the a multitude of dramas and tales upon bark; Zuma drank of it first, and then Spanish subjects, furnish to the imagination presented the cup to the vice-queen. a banquet of exquisite variety and relish. The viceroy did not fail to acknowledge “ Zeneida, or Ideal Perfection," rethe virtues of the Indians, to thank them minds us of Vanessa, in Swift's poem; for the gift of the salutary drug, and to and we learn from both, that these superpromise them the rights and the protec. human ladies, endowed by goddesses and tion which belonged to them as men and fairies, are not quite so happy as those subjects. Zuma was celebrated by a who feel and excite the sympathies of public monument on the spot of her in- ordinary weakness. tended execution, and the precious pow The other tales are about love, and der was long known by the name of the may interest and instruct the young and Countess' Bark.

susceptible.

R. E.

ART. 4. Sketch of the Internal Improvements already made by Pennsylvania ; with

Observations upon her Physical and Fiscal means for their Extension ; particularly as they have Reference to the future Growth and Prosperity of Philadelphia. Illustrated by Maps of the Head-Wulers of the principal Rivers of the State. By SAMUEL BRECK, one of the Members of the Senate of Pennsylvania, for the District composed of the City and County of Philadelphia. 8vo. pp. 43. Philadelphia. M. Thomas. 1818.

TH

HE prefatory part of this pamphlet SERVATIONS," &c. would afford some proof

is contained in the following expres- that the esprit du corps was not confined sions :

to Boston, New York, or Baltimore. “ The object of this pamphlet is two-fold:

Mr. Breck is entitled to credit for his « First-To endeavour to vindicate the statistical matter; and his tables would aspersed reputation of Pennsylvania from serve to redeem Penosylvania from either the general accusation of indifference with regard to her internal improvements; and, pity or contempt, if a state, containing

« Secondly-To show the superior situa- upwards of a million of industrious iphation of Philadelphia, geographically consi. bitants, and such a city as Philadelphia, dered, for the attraction of the great and increasing trade of the countries bordering

could need such redemption. on the Susquehanna, the Lakes, and the This part of the Observations really Western rivers."

deserve attentive perusal in every secThat an illiberal spirit of state rivalry tion of the United States : and it is much has been in many instances indulged in to be regretted that men, so capable of our country, by other writers than edi- collecting valuable documents, should fors of newspapers, cannot be denied; suffer their minds to be led away by their and how far the author of the “ Observa- fondness for a preconceived theory. We tions on the Internal Improvements of believe the following expressions correct, Pennsylvania, and future growth of Phi- and give our mite of applause to the state ladelphia,” has avoided just censure upon where such institutions, for the preven. this subject, his readers can best judge tion and alleviation of human misery, are from a perusal of his work. The author fostered : ought to have pointed out, in what publi

" For the protection of morals, promocation, the citizens of Pennsylvania were

tion of virtue, and the advancement of the considered entitled to either pity or con- well-being of each and all of its inhabitants, tempt ; because if any such expressions Pennsylvania has enacted laws both nuexist in any work published by a citizen of vice, without unnecessary cruelty, or an

merous and efficient. For the punishment of the United States, we have not been indecent exhibition of the culprit, her code made acquainted with its contents. If is ample and salutary. She is now engaged Mr. Breck drew his allusions from the nishment, which she originated, and which

in perfecting a system of penitentiary pucommon sewer of European trash, which she has had the satisfaction to see adopted is annually pouring filth upon the heads in both hemispheres. By a law of the last of the people of the United States, he for the construction of a prison at Pittsburg,

session, sixty Thousand dollars were voted ought to have remembered that the poor entirely upon the plan of solitary confinePennsylvanians only come in for their ment. Each prisoner will have a cell eight common share of this delectable dis- dow, &c. and in front a small yard of the

feet by eleven, with a fireplace, door, wincharge. The people of New England, same dimensions. The building is to be in New-York, and Maryland, are blamed the form of a circular castellated fortress, for penning their own praises; if these middle, from which will diverge eight walls,

with a penopticon or look-out tower in the good folks have published their own pa- so as to divide the grand centre into eight negyric, the circumstance would evince compartments, which are again subdivided considerable vain glory; but a few more

into twenty-five cells, and so constructed

as to prevent, in case of rebellion, more authors, similar to the writer of the “OB- than twenty-five convicts combining or

Uniting at one time for the purpose of escap- and unwearied labours so justly entitle him ing. It is to the ingenuity of Mr. Strickland, to. Founder of the Blockley and Merion the arehitect, that we are indebted for tbe Society, of which he has been thirty years draught of this building; which was exe president, and at the head of the Philadelcuted under the inspection, and by direc- phia Agricultural Society; this very exceltion of Thomas Bradford, jun. Esq. whose lent rural economist has, by his zeal, inteldisinterested zeal and useful labours on this ligence, and address, spread throughout occasion do him great honour. That gen- America every new discovery in the art of tleman, as well as all those who have ob- tillage. The four volumes of the Philadelserved the effects of solitude on the mind pbia Society, compiled and composed aland on the behaviour of the convict, is in inost wholly by himself; his agricultural timately convinced of its never failing alınanac, communications in the daily paeffect in subduing, after a short seclusion pers, and extensive correspondence with from the society of man, the most impetuthe British Societies, have awakened a cuous temper. What then may we expect riosity, and created an avidity for books after an absence of two or three years from upon this interesting subject, which have that society! It is supposed that the worst led to the formation of libraries in the indispositions will be tamed, and the basest terior, that cannot fail to dissipate prejudice, habits corrected. The experiment is worth correct bad habits, and introduce new and trying. At present, eighteen or twenty approved systems, to the incalculable admiscreants are crowded together, in one vantage of the immediate neighbourhood bed-room, where, by a constant recurrence in which th are established, and of the to the events of their past lives, the vilest nation at large. Indeed, those benefits have are confirmed in their wickedness, and the been already extensively felt. The cultivaless hardened become incorrigible. A se tion of artifcial grasses, scarcely known in paration is essential to the bealth of their Pennsylvania thirty years ago, aided by bodies and their minds; for solitude, with that powerful stimulus, gypsum, which proper superintendence, will give corporeal Judge Peters first brought into notice here, eleanliness; solitade, with time, will frighten has trebled the value of our farms, aud the criminal from sin! This law provides added greatly to the general stock of wealth. likewise for the sale of the Philadelphia If he who made two spears of grass grow, Penitentiary, and gives authority to build where only one grew before, is deserving another upon the foregoing principle.” of praise, how much do we owe to the man

who has taught 128 to cover our fields with A practical lesson may be drawy from luxuriant clover, instead of the pestilential Mr. Breck's observations upon Agricul- weeds which occupied them in our former tural Societies, which may benefit every this, both by precept and by practice."

fallows? The Hon. Judge Peters has done part of the United States. We have always considered aggregate strength,

The old fable of the quarrel between wealth, and intelligence as necessary in the head and hands, has been often agricultural as in any other human pur- brought to recollection both in Pennsylsuit. The greatest difference that exists vania and New-York. That a separation between the savage and civilized states of interest should exist between any state of man is, that, in the former he is iso- and its commercial capital, could only be lated, in the latter condition united in the believed possible from actual exhibition. prosecution of his designs of whatever We recommend the following reflections nature. There is the same discordance of our author to whom they may concern : between monopoly and associated opera " Some of my constituents suppose, with tion, as between slavery and freedom; great injustice, I think, that there is a dismonopoly is the labour of many for the inclination in the western section of the

state to serve the eastern. During the four emolument of a few; well regulated so- months which I sat in the senate, I saw no ciety is the combination of force for the signs of such a disposition-no bad temper protection and bappiness of the compo- tile to Philadelphia. On the contrary, one

upon the subject--nothing in the least hosnent parts individually.

transmontane gentleman, alike distinguishMr. Breck observes, that

ed for his influence and intelligence, and

wbo resides at the extreme west of the * Unincorporated agricultural societies state, gave with much patience, his time are becoming numerous in this and other and his talents in aid and support of the states, very much to the profit of the com- Lebigh bill, which is, to all intent and purmunity; and while I am upon this subject, poses, an eastern bill; and by the success I cannot deny myself the pleasure of pay. or defeat of which he could not have been ing to the Hon. Richard Peters, that tribute affected in the most remote manner, since of praise which bis example, his writings, its object is to enable Messrs. White & Co

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