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shepherds should drive their flocks to the north side; that they may feed up to the south; because feeding against the north gives them lameness, blear-eyes and the scouring. He adds, that the north wind debilitates them for generation; so that if they were to copulate with this wind blowing in their faces, they would generally produce ewe-lambs: but in this, Pliny, acting only as a transcriber, is not very consistent.

There are three principal times when winds prove hurtful to growing corn; viz. 1. in the opening of the bud; 2. the going off the bloom; and, 3. near the time of ripening. In the latter case they empty the ear, or blow out the grain; and in the former two, either strike off the flower, or blast it in the stem.

With the south wind the breath of men smells stronger*, animals lose of their appetite, pestilential distempers are more frequent, colds common, and the bodies of men more indisposed and heavy: but with the north wind men are more brisk, healthy, and better in appetite.


* A strong north, or north-easterly wind, has been found to have nearly the same effects on some tender bodies, as mercury; so as to occasion a fetid breath, loosen the teeth, cause a spitting, &c. And this has been more particularly observed some days or weeks after the taking of mercurial physic.

north wind, however, provės prejudicial to such as are troubled with the phthisick, coughs, the gout, or any sharp humour.

The east wind is drying, predatory, and destructive; but the west wind moist, moderate, and cherishing.

The east wind, blowing, when the spring is advanced, proves destructive to fruits; by bringing in caterpillars and other worms: so as scarce to spare the leaves; nor is it friendly to corn: the west wind, on the contrary, is very favourable and friendly to herbs, flowers, and all the vegetable tribe. The east wind, likewise, is somewhat favourable about the autumnal equi


The west winds are more boisterous, and ruffle and bend the trees more than those from the east.

A rainy season beginning with an east wind, continues longer than that which begins with a west wind; and generally lasts a whole day.

The east and north winds, after once they begin to blow, are more constant and fixed; but the south and west winds, more variable.

With a strong east wind all visible objects appear larger; but with a strong west wind, sounds are more audible, and reach to a greater distance.

The east-north-east wind, viz. six points to


the north, collects clouds; insomuch that this wind became proverbial among the Greeks, for a cloud-gatherer; whence they compared usurers to it, who, by letting out money fetch back more.* It is a violent but wide-spreading wind; so that it cannot drive away the clouds quick enough to prevent their resisting, and forcing back upon it; which is the cause also in large conflagrations, that make head and prevail. against the winds.

The cardinal winds, as also the semi-cardinal, are not so strong as the median.

The median winds from north to north-east, are more serene; but from north-east to east more stormy. So likewise, from east to southeast, they are more serene; but from south-east to south, more stormy. So again, from south to south-west, more serene; and from south-wes to west, more stormy. And so, lastly, from west to north-west more serene, but from northwest to west more stormy. So that, proceeding according to the order of the heavens, the median winds of the former semi-cardinal, are always more disposed to be calm; and those of the latter to be tempestuoust.


*Cæsiam nubes ad se trahere.

+ See the table of the divisions of the winds, sect. ii. whence this will appear more distinctly than it can well be expressed.

Thunder, lightning, and storms happen when cold winds blow; and such as participate of the north; viz. the west-north-west, north and by west, north-north-west, north-east and by north, and the east-north-east. And hence thunder is often accompanied with hail.

Snowy winds also come from the north; but these are such median winds as are not stormy: for example, the north-north-west; and the north-east and by east.

Winds obtain their nature and properties five several ways; viz. 1. from the absence or presence of the sun; 2. an agreement or disagreement with the natural motion of the air; 3. the difference of the matters whereof they are formed; as whether that of the sea, snow, lakes, &c. 4. the impregnation of the countries through which they pass; and 5. their local origins; whether on high; under the earth; or in the middle region; all which will be better explained in the following sections.

All the winds have a greater power of drying, even than the sun itself; because the sun raises vapours, but does not dissipate them, unless it beats very hot: whereas the wind both raises them, and carries them off. But of all the winds, the south has least of this effect; for stones and woodwork are observed to sweat more with a gentle south wind, than in a calm.

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March winds are much more drying than summer winds; insomuch that the makers of musical instruments wait the return of March winds, for drying the matter of their instruments; and rendering it porous and sonorous.

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All kinds of winds purge the air, it from corruption; insomuch that the most windy years are the most wholesome..

The sun has the fate of princes, whose gover nors of remote provinces, frequently have more submissive and obsequious subjects than the prince himself. Certainly the winds, which have their power and origin from the sun, govern and influence the temperatures of countries, and the disposition of the air, as much or more than the şun itself. Whence Peru is nearly as temperate, and its air as mild, as in Europe; because, by lying near the sea, and having very large rivers, and exceeding great and high mountains covered with snow, it receives a great supply of winds and breezes.

It is no wonder that the winds should have that force we observe of them, since violent winds are like inundations, torrents, and huge waves of the air; and yet, if carefully attended to, their power does not seem very extraordinary. Their violent effectsare, such as the blowing down of trees, which, being over-loaded with their own tops, afford a kind of sails for their own Subversion.

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