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ed incredibir by cold and sickness. But the next spring the Americans were obliged to retreat from Canada.

15. About this time the large and flourishing town of Norfolk, in Virginia, was wantonly burnt by order of lord Dunmore, the royal governor. General Gage went to E gland in September, and was succeeded in command by general Howe. Falmouth, a considerable town in the pro vince or Maine, in Massachusetts, shared the fate of Norfolk; being laid in ashes by order of the British admiral.

16. The Briush king entered into treaties with some of the Gerakan princes for about seventeen thousand men, who were to be sent to America the next year, to assist in subduing the colonies. The British Parliament also passed an act, forbidding all intercourse with America; and while they repealed the Boston port and fishery bills, they declared all American property on the high seas forfeited to the captors.

17. This act induced congress to change the mode of carrying on the war; and measures were taken to annoy the enery ia foston. For this purpose, batteries were opened on several hills, from whence shot and bombs were thrown into the town. But the batteries which were opened on Dor. rhester point had the best efiect, and soon obliged general Howe to abandon the town. In March, 1776, the British troops embarked for Halifax, and general Washington entered the town in triumph.

18. in the ensning summer, a small squadron of ships under the command of sir Feter Parker, and a body of troope under the generals ( linton and Cornwallis, attempted to take Charleston, the capital of South Carolina. The ships made e violent attack upon the fort on Sullivan's island, but were repulsed with great loss, and the expedition was abandoned.

QU'ESTIOXS.

What took place at the Congress of 1774 held in Philadelphia ?
Where, and uuder what cir umstances, was spilt the first biood of the revo
Brionary war?

What led to the burning of Charlestown 3
W hended an empedition into Canada 1
With what success was it made ?
Br whern was Gen. Gage superseded ?
When did the British evacuate Boston ?

SECTION FI.

The so me subject continued 1. Is July, 1776, congress published their Declaration ng Independence, which forever separated America from Grras Hritain. This great event took place two hundred and

eighty-four years after the first discovery of America by Colninbus-one hundred and seventy from the first effects nal settlements in Virginia--and one hundred and fifty-six from the first settlement of Plymouth in Massachusetts, which were the earliest English settlements in America. just after this declaration, General Howe, with a powerful force, arrived near New-York, a id la:ided the troops upon Staten Island. General Washington was in New-York, with about thirteen thousand men, encamped either in the city, os in the neighboring fortifications.

2. 'The operations of the British began by the action on Long Island, in the month of August. The Americans were defeated, and general Sullivan and Lord Sterling, with a large body of men, were made prisoners. The night after the engagement, a retreat was ordered, and executed with such silence, that the Americans left the Island without alarming their enemies, and without loss. In September, the city of New York was abandoned by the Ainerican army, and taken by the British.

3. In November, fort Washington, on York Island, was taken, and more than two thousand men made prisoners, Fort Lee, opposite to fort Washington, on the Jersey shore, was soon after taken, but the garrison escaped. About the same time, General Clinton was sent, with a body of troops, to take possession of Rhode Island, and succeeded. In addition to ali these losses and defeats, the American amny suffered by desertion, and more by sickness, which was epidemie, and very mortal.

4. The northern army, at Ticonderoga, was in a disagreeadie situation, particularly after the battle on Lake Champlain, in which the American force consisting of a few light vessels nder the command of Arnold and General Waterbury, was totally dispersed. But general Carleton, instead of pursuing his victory, landed at Crown Point, reconnoitered our posts at Ticonderoga and Mount Independence, and returned to wintcr quarters in Canada.

5. At the close of this year, the American army was dwindled to a handful of men ; and general Lee was taken prisoner in New-Jersey. Far from being discouraged at These losses, congress took measures to raise and establish an army. In this critical situation, General Washington sur prised and took a large body of Hessians, who were cantonod at Trenton; and soon after, another body of the British troops, at Princeton. The address in planning and executing these enterprises, reflected the highest honor on the commander, and the success revived the desponding hopes of

1

America. The loss of General Mercer, a gallant officer, al Princeton, was the principal circumstance that allayed the joy of vielory.

6. The following year, (1777,) was distinguished by very * memorable events in favor of America. On the opening of

the campaign, governor Tryon was sent, with a body of 'troops, io destroy tlte stores at Danbnry, in Connecticut.is

This plan was executed, and the tonn mostly burnt the eneme suffered in their 'retreat, and the Americans. Iost u

encral Wooster, a brare and experienced officer: General i Prescott was taken from his quarters" on Rhode Island, by t'e address and enterprise of Col. Barton, and conveyed prisoner to the continent.

7. (irneral Burgoyłyc, wlio commanded the northern Critisali army, tock possession of Ticonderoga, which had been abandoned by the Americans. He pushed his successes, crossed lake George, and encanped upon the banks of the Hudson, near Saratoga. His progress was however checked by the dermat of colonel Baum, ncar Bennington, in which

he undisciplined militia of Vermont, under genera] Stark, 'Displayed 102?xampled bravery and captured almost the shoir dotarliament. . 8. The militia assembled from all parts of New England, to stop the progress of General Burgoyne. These, with the rogular iroops, formed a respectable ariny, commanded by Cenerai Gales. After two severe actions, in which the #trals Lincoln' and Arnold beliaved with upcommon gallantry, and were wounded, gencral Burgoyne found liimself enclosed with brave troops, and was forced to surrender bis whole army, amounting to seven thonsand men, into the hands of the Aniericans. This happened in October. This poent diffused a universal joy over America, and laid a foundation for the treaty with France

9. But before these transactions, the main body of the British forces had embarked at Neur-York, sailed up the Chessprake, and landed at the liead of Elk River. The army soon began their march for Philadelphia. General Washington had determined to oppose them, and for this purpose made a stand upon the heights near Brandywine Creek. Here the armies engaged, and the Americans were overpowered, and Puffered great loss.

10. The enemy soon pursued their march, and took poe BCSsion of Philadelphia toward the close of September. Not long after, the two armiins vere again engaged at German. tow!, and is the b uilding of the action the Americans han the advantage; but by some unlucky accident, tlie fortune of

the day was turned in favor of the British. Both sides suffered considerable loss; on the side of the Americans was General Nash.

11. In an attack upon the forts at Mud Island and Red Bank, the Hessians were unsuccessful, and their commander, Colonel Donop, killed. The British also lost the Augusta, á ship of the line. But the forts were afterwards taken, and the navigation of the Delaware opened. General Washing.' ton was reinforced with part of the troops which had composed the northern army, under General Gates; and both armies retired to winter quarters.

12. In October, the same month in which General Burgoyne was taken at Saratoga, General Vaughan, with a small fleet, sailed up Hudson's River, and wantonly burnt Kingston, a beautiful Dutch settlement, on the west side of the river.

13. The beginning of the next year (1778) was distinguished by a treaty of alliance between France and America ; by which we obtained a powerful ally. When the English ministry were informed that this treaty was on foot, they dispatched conimissioners to America to attempt a reconciliation. But America would not now accept their offers. Early in the spring, Count de Estaing, with a fleet of fifteen sail of the line, was sent by the court of France, to assist America.

14. General Howe left the Army, and returned to England; the command then devolved upon Sir Henry Clinton. In June, the British army left Philadelphia, and marched for New-York. On their march they were much annoyed by the Americans; and at Monmouth a very regular action took place between part of the armies; the enemy were repulsed with great loss; and had General Lee obeyed his orders, a signal victory must have been obtained. General Lee, for his ill conduct that day, was suspended, and was never afterwards permitted to join the army.

15. In August, General Sullivan, with a large body of · troops, attempted to take possession of Rhode Island, but did

not succeed. "Soon after the stores and shipping at Bedford, in Massachusetts, were burnt by a party of British troops. The same year, Savannah, the capital of Georgia, was taken by the British, under the command of Colonel Campbell. In the following year, (1779,) General Lincoln was appointed to the command of the southern army. Governor Tyron and Sir George Collier made an incursion into Connecticut, and burnt, with wanton barbarity, the towns of Fairfield and Norwalk.

16. But the American arms were crowned with success in a bold attack upon Stony point, which was surprised and

taken by Generai Wayne, in the night of the 15th of July. Five hundred men were made prisoners, with a small loss on either side. A party of British forces attempted, this sum• mer, to build a fort on Penobscot River, for the purpose of cutting timber in the neighboring forests. A plan was laid, by Massachusetts, to dislodge them, and a considerable fleet collected for the purpose. But the plan failed of success, and the whole marine force feil into the hands of the British, except some vessels which were burnt by the Americans themselves.

17. In October, General Lincoln and Count de Estaing made an assault upon Savannah ; but they were repulset with considerable loss. In this action, the celebrated Polish Count Polaski, who had acquired the reputation of a brave soldier, was mortally wounded. In this summer, General Sullivan marched with a body of troops into the Indian country, and burnt and destroyed all their provisions and settlenients that fell in his way.

18. On the opening of the campaign, the next year, (1780,) the British troops left Rhode Island. An expedition under General Clinton and Lord Cornwallis, was undertaken against Charleston, South Carolina, where General Lincoln commanded. This town, after a close siege of about six weeks, was surrendered to the British commander; and General Lincoln, and the whole American garrison, were made prisoners.

19. General Gates was appointed to the command in the southern department, and another army collected. In August Lord Cornwallis attacked the American troops at Camden, in South Carolina, and routed them with considerable loss. He afterwards marched through the southern stati's, and supposed them entirely subdued. The same summer, the British troops made frequent incursions from New York into the Jerseys, ravaging and plundering the country. In somo of these descerts, the Rev. Mr. Caldwell, a respectable cier. gyman and warm patriot, and his lady, were inhumanly murdered by the savage soldiery.

20. In July, a French flert, under Monsieur de Ternay, with a body of land forces, commanded by Count de Rochambean, arrived at Rhode Island, to the great joy of the Ame ricans,

21. This year was also distinguished by the infamous treason of Arnold. General Washington having some business to transact at Wethersfield, in Connecticut, left Arnold in command the important post of West Point, which guarda 7,5. Hudson's River, about sixty miles from New York.

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