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Portaʼs, was applied in a different way and pable of producing an incalculable (it not an to a different purpose. Should Dr. Brewster infinite) number of combinations, by merely then be considered in that light, for having making the discs, or the whole instrumenti made use of the same principle in his instru- to revolve on its axis, while the eye looks ment, which in construction is different from through it. If the previous application of either Porta's or Bradley's ? Porta, by looke any known principle to the construction of ing at objects before him, along the angle instruments, is to be considered and held as formed at the joining of his glasses, saw embracing all future applications of the them multiplied: Bradley, by placing his same principle, there can be no new invenjoined glasses upon his drawings, at right, tions; for to obtain knowledge of a princiangles to them, and looking at them, in the ple, not before known, is a discovery, and not same manner, saw them multiplied; but the an invention : no person can invent a princinumber of reflections could be calculated. ple; but he may apply a principle, when Dr. Brewster, by putting the reflectors in a known, to a new purpose, and this new aptube, and attaching thereto, and at right an- plication with the new means employed, is gles to them, two discs of glass with objects what constitutes a new invention. T. interposed, forms an optical instrument ca
ART. 12. CABINET OF VARIETIES.
From the London Literary Gagetle. of Monmouth relates, on the authority of
Walter Calenius, that this lady, the daughter
of Hengist, knelt down, on the approach of TO the rejoicings on New Year's tide the king, and presenting him with a cup of
succeeded, after a short interval, the wine, exclaimed,“ Lord King Wæs heil," that observance of the Twelfth Day, so called is, literally, “Health be to you.” Vortigern from its being the twelfth day after the being ignorant of the Saxon language, was nativity of our Saviour, and the day on informed by an interpreter, that the purport which the Eastern Magi, guided by the star, of these words was to wish him health, and arrived at Bethlehem, to worship the infant that he should reply by the expression, Jesus.
drinc-heil, or “ drink the health :” accordThis festive day, the most celebrated of ingly, on his so doing, Rowena drank, and the twelve for the peculiar conviviality of its the king receiving the cup from her hand, rites, has been observed in this kingdom kissed and pledged her. ever since the reign of Alfred, “in whose days,” says Collier, “a law was made with Health, my Lord King,' the sweet Rowena said; relation to holidays, by virtue of which, the • Health, cried the chieftain to the Saxon maid; twclre days after the Nativity of our Saviour Then gaily rose, and ’mid the concourse wide, were made Festivals.”
Kiss'd her hale lips, and placed her by his side. In consequence of an idea which seems
At the soft scene, such gentle thoughts abound,
That healths and kisses 'mongst the guests went generally to have prerailed, that the Eastern
round: Magi weíe kings, this day has been fre. From this the social custom took its rise ; quently termed the feast of the three kings; We still retain, and still must keep the prize. and many of the rites with which it is at
Paraphrase of Robert of Gloucester. tended, are founded on this conception; for it was customary to elect, from the company Since this period, observes the historian, assembled on this occasion, a king or queen, the custom bas prevailed in Britain of using who was usually elevated to this rank by the these words whilst drinking; the person fortuitous division of a cake, containing a who drank to another saying was-heil, and be bean, or piece of coin; and he or she to who received the cup answering drinc-heil. whom this symbol of distinction fell, in di- It soon afterwards became a custom in viding the cake, was immediately chosen villages on Christmas-eve, New Year's Eve, king or queen, and then forming their min- and Twelfth Night, for itinerant minstrels to isters or court from the company around, carry to the houses of the gentry and others, maintained their state and character until where they were generally very hospitably midnight.
received, a bowl of spiced wine, which being The Twelfth Cake was almost always presented with the Saxon words just menaccompanied by the Wassail Bowl, a com- tioned, was therefore called a Wassail-bowl, position of spiced wine or ale, or mead, or A bowl or cup of this description was also metheglin, into which was thrown roasted to be found in almost every nobleman's or apples, sugar, &c. The term Wassail, gentleman's house, (and frequently of massy which in our elder poets is connected with silver,) until the middle of the seventeenth much interesting imagery, and many curious century, and which was in perpetual requirites, appears to have been first used in this sition during the revels of Christmas.” island during the well-known interview be- [Hence we have the word Wassel, synonytween Vortigern and Rowena. Geoffrey mous for carousing and jovialty.]
: During the reigns of Elizabeth and James account of the ceremonies of Twelfth Night, I. the celebration of the Twelfth Night was, as we may suppose them to have been obequally with Christmas Day, a festival served in almost every private family. through the land, and was observed with great ostentation and ceremony in both the
TWELFTH NIGHT, Universities,'at court, at the Temple, and at
OR KING AND QUEEN. Lincoln's and Gray's-inn.
Many oí the masques of Ben Jonson were written for the
Now, now the mirth comes, amusement of the royal family on this night;
With the cake full of plums, and Dugdale in his Origines Judicales, has
Where Beane's the king of the sport here; given us a long and particular account of the
Beside, we must know,
The Pea also revelry at the Temple on each of the twelve days of Christmas, in the year 1562. It ap
Must revell, as Queene, in the court here. pears from this document, that the hospitable
Begin then to chuse, rites of St. Stephen's day, St. John's day,
This night as ye use, and Twelfth day, were ordered to be exactly Who shall for the present delight here, alike; and as many of them are in their
Be the King by the lot, nature, perfectly rural, and where there is
And who shall not every reason to suppose, observed to a cer- Be Twelfe-day Queene for the night here, tain extent in the halls of the country gentry and substantial yeomany, a short record
Which knowne, let us make here, of those that fall under this descrip
Joy-sops with the cake; tion, cannot be deemed inapposite.
And let not a man then be seen here, The breakfast on Twelfth Day is directed
Who unwig'd will not drinke
To the base from the brink to be of brawn, mustard, and malmsey; the
A health to the King and the Queene here. dinner of two courses to be served in the hall, and after the first course « cometh in
Next crowne the bowle full the master of the game, apparelled in green
With gentle lambs-wooll; veluet; and the Ranger of the Forest also, Adde sugar, nutmeg and ginger, in a green suit of satten ; bearing in his hand
With store of ale too; a green bow and divers arrows, with either
And thus we must doe of them a hunting horn about their necks: To make the Wassaile a swinger. blowing together three blasts of venery, they pace around about the fire three times.
Give then to the King Then the master of the game maketh three
And Queene wassailing; curtesies,” kneels down, and petitions to be
And though with all ye be whet here, admitted into the service of the lord of the
Yet part ye from hence,
And free from offence, feast.
As when ye innocent met here This ceremony performed, a huntsman
Herrick's Hesperides. cometh into the hall, with a fox and a purse-net, with a cat, both bound at the end of a staff; and with them nine or ten
ANECDOTE OF THE EMPEROR JOSEPH II. couple of hounds, with the blowing of hunting-horns. And the fox and cat are by the The Emperor Joseph II. heard every hoands set upon, and killed beneath the fire. body who pretended to discover to him any This sport finished, the marshal, an officer thing useful. By this means be often lost so called, who, with many others of different much precious time. appellations, were created for the purpose Baron Calisius once begged an audience of conducting the revels, placeth them in to propose to the Emperor a matter of great their several appointed places.
importance; it was granted him : the conAfter the second course, the ancientest versation was as followsof the masters of the revels singeth a song,
Calisius. The city of Comorn in Hungary with the assistance of others there present;'
has the misfortune to bę visited nearly every and after some repose and revels, supper, five years by earthquakes, which have often consisting of two courses, is then served in occasioned great damage, and still expose it the hall, and being ended, “ the marshal pre- , to the utmost danger, and threaten it with senteth himself with drums afore him mount total destruction. Now I have remarked, ed upon a scaffold, borne by four men; and that in Egypt there never were nor are any goeth three times round about the harthe, earthquakes. But as Egypt differs from crying out aloud, a lord, a lord,' &c. then other countries only in having pyramids, it he descendeth, and goeth to dance.
follows that pyramids must be sure preven“ This done, the lord of Misrule addresseth tatives of earthquakes. himself to the banquet; which endeth with The Emperor. So then it would be good some minstralsye, mirth and dancing, every to build some of these edifices in Hungary? man departeth to rest."
Calisius. This is my humble proposal, and Harrick, who was the contemporary of I here present your majesty a plan how they Shakespeare for the first twenty-five years may be erected. of his life, that is, from 1591 to 1616, has The Emperor. But have you calculated the given us the following curious and pleasing expence ?
AN ANCIENT CROWN DISCOVERED IN SCLA
ANECDOTE OF A RUSSIAN PRINCESS.
Calisius. No: but I believe for three or up to the old peasant with the long beard, four hundred thousand florins two handsome and said, “ Permit me, venerable father, to pyramids might be built ; a little smaller in- salute you after the fashion of my country.”. deed than those in Egypt.
Saying this, she embraced him, and gave The Emperor. Ilas the city of Comorn so him a kiss. She then presented bim the gold much money?
which was on the plate, with these words, Calisius. No, but I hope your Majesty 6 Take this as a remembrance of me, and as will contribute, and the rest might perhaps a sign that the Russian girls think it their be raised by a subscription.
duty to honour old age." The Emperor. Well, I have nothing against it. If a suitable place can be found, which is fit for nothing else, and you will undertake the work on subscription, begin to build as soon as you please; but I can. not fix the amount of my subscription before road at Mallier, a little village in Sclavonia,
On the 23d of last March, in making å I see at least one pyramid quite finished.
as the wife of a soldier named Gasparowich, was turning up a clod with her pickaxe, she found, about two inches deep under ground,
a piece of metal rolled up, which she took Many of our readers are doubtless ac.
for iron, and threw it into the road. At a quainted with the name of the Swiss doc
second stroke she discovered the baskettor Michael Schuppach, of Lengnau, in the formed vessel ; which, in the opinion of all Emmenthal, who was highly celebrated, who have considered it with attention, is and inuch in vogue in the last century: He supposed to be a crown. It consists of two is mentioned by Archdeacon Cose, in his parallel circles of strong gold wire twisted Travels in Switzerland, who himself consulted him. There was a time when peo- der, and connected by a spiral ornament in
together, which are about four inches asunple of distinction and fortune came to him, this form H. The inside of the crown, particularly from France and Germany, and shaped like a hat, consists of a braid of the even from more distant countries; and in
same kind of gold, which surrounds a net numerable are the cures which he performed button in the middle, in rose-shaped braids. upon patients given up by the regular phy. The whole weighs a little more than 24 sicians, There were once assembled in
ounces. The diameter is equal to that of a Michael Schuppach's laboratory,, a great small bat. many distinguished persons from all parts of
As the workmen's atte tion was attracted the world; partly to consult him, and partly to this valuable relic, it was soon discovered out of curiosity; and among them many that the whole mass was gold. By chance French ladies and gentlemen,
and a Russian
a corporal came up, who gave notice of it prince, with his daughter, whose singular
to the captain. Immediately on the followbeauty attracted general attention. A young ing morning, the ground in that place was French marquis attempted, for the amusement of the ladies, to display his wit on the dug up five or six fathoms, and carefully es: miraculous Doctor; but the latter, though not
amined; but nothing farther was discover
ed. Since the 25th of October, the crown much acquainted with the French language, has been at Vienna, and it is not doubted answered so pertinently, that the marquis but that this curiosity will be delivered to had not the laugh on his side. During this the Imperial Treasury or Museum. conversation, an old peasant entered, meanly dressed, with a snow white beard, a neighbour of Schuppach's. Schuppach directly turned away from his great company, to his old neighbour, and hearing that his wife was Who has not heard of the celebrated piece ill, set about preparing the necessary medi- called The Forest of Bondy, and of the apcinc for her, without paying much attention plause which the dog of D’Aubry has obtain. to his more exalted guests, whose business ed in Paris, London, Vienna, Munich, Dres. he did not think so pressing. The marquis den, Berlin, Leipsig, Cassel, &c. ? There is was now deprived of one subject of his wit, nothing new under the sun: see what Pluand therefore chose for his butt the old tarch relates de solertia animalium ! man, who was waiting while his neighbour I must not pass over an example of canine Michael was preparing something for his ingenuity of which I was witness at Rome. old Mary. After many silly jokes on his A mime, who performed a complicated long white beard, he offered a wager of piece, in which there were many characters, twelve louis'dors, that none of the ladies had a dog with him, which made all kinds would kiss the old dirty looking fellow. of gesticulations necessary for the represenThe Russian princess hearing these words, tation. He afforded a striking proof of his made a sign to her attendant, who brought talents, after taking poison, which was to her a plate. The princess put twelve louis. produce sleep and then death. He took the d'ors on it, and had it carried to the marquis, bread in which the poison was given him, who of course could not decline adding and, after he had eaten it, be pretended to twelve others. Then the fair Russian went tremble, to stagger, and to become giddy;
THE DOG DIIME.
and then he stretched himself out as if dead, applied to king Christian IV. and said that and let himself be pulled and dragged along neither she nor her husband had signed the as the progress of the piece required. When, pretended bond. His majesty promised to from the dialogue and action, he saw that take her affair into consideration. He sent the moment was come, he began to move for Rosenkranz, questioned him closely, himself by degrees, as if he awoke out of a begged, exhorted, but all to no purpose. profound sleep, raised his head, and looked The creditor appealed to his written bond. about him; he then approached the person The king asked for the bond, sent Rosenrequired by his part, and evinced his joy by kranz away, and promised that he would his caresses, to the great astonishment of all very soon return it to him. The king rethe spectators, and even of the old Emperor mained alone, to examine this important Vespasian, who was at the time in the paper, and discovered, after much trouble, 'Theatre Marcellus.
that the paper-manufacturer, whose mark was on the bond, had began his manufactory
many years after its date. The inquiries ANTIQUE RING,
made confirmed this fact. The proof against The Roman Gazette relates, on the au- Rosenkranz was irrefragable.
The king Mority of letters from Greece, that a coun. said nothing about it: sent for Rosenkranz tryman, in the neighbourhood of Corinth, some days after, and exhorted him in the lately struck with his ploughshare against a most affecting manner, to have pity on the metal vessel, which contained several an- poor widow, because otherwise the justice cient coins, and a ring, with an agate of the of Heaven would certainly punish him for size of half a saldo. On this agate the naked such wickedness. He unblushingly insisted eye could discover nothing but some very on his demand, and even presumed to affect small strokes. A learned traveller purchas- to be offended. The king's mildness went ed the ring, and by the aid of a microscope so far, that he still gave him several days discovered a most admirable work of art. for consideration. But all to no purpose. On the upper side of the stone he found a He was arrested, and punished with all the group of gods, distinguisliable by their attri- rigour of the laws. butes; and on the lower side, Achilles dragging the dead body of Hector behind his chariot. This discovery affords a fresh proof of the great superiority of the ancients As the well known Dr. Barth preached to the moderns in works of this kind. for the first time in his native city of Leipzig,
he disdained the usual precaution of having
his sermon placed in the Bible before him, ANECDOTE OF CHRISTIAN IV. KING OF DEN,
to refer to in case of need. A violent thua
der-storm arising just as he was in the midChristopher Rosenkranz, in Copenhagen, dle of his discourse, and a tremendous clap demanded from the widow of Christian Tuul caused him to lose the thread of his argua debt of 5000 dollars. She was certain ment, with great composure and dignity he that she owed him nothing. But he pro- shut the Bible, saying with emphasis, “ When duced a bond signed by herself and her de- God speaks, man must hold his peace :" he ceased husband; she declared the bond to then came down from the pulpit, and the be forged. The affair was brought before a whole congregation looked on him with adcourt of justice. The widow was condemn- miration and wonder, as a mighty pillar of 'ed to pay the demand. In her distress she the church.
PRESENCE OF MIND.
ART. 15. REPORT OF DISEASES.
CITRONIC AND LOCAL DISEASES.
Report of Diseases treated at the Public Dis- enteria, (Dysenterys) 3 ; Rubeola, (Measles,)
pensary, New York, during the month of 1; Erysipelas, (St. Anthony's Fire,) 2; VacJune, 1818.
cinia, (Kine Pock,) 31; Convulsio, (Con
vulsions,) 1. FEBRIS Intermittens, (Intermittent Fever,)
5; Febris Remittens, (Remittent Fever,) * Asthenia, (Debility,) 8; Vertigo, 3; Ce7; Febris Continua, (Continued Feyer,) 29; phalalgia, (Head-Ach,) 5; Dyspepsia, (IndiFebris Infantum Remittens, (Infantile Rcmit- gestion,) 6; Obstipatio, 13; Colica, 2; Patent Fever,) 7; Phlegmone, 2; Ophthalmia, ralysis, 1; Hysteria, 1; Menorrhagia, 1; (Inflammation of the Eyes,) 4; Cynanche Hæmorrhois, 2; Diarrhea, 6; Leucorrhæa, Tonsillaris, 2; Pneumonia (Inflammation of 2; Amenorrhea, 4; Ischuria, (Suppression the Chest,) 15; Pneumonia Typhodes, (Tys of Urine,) 2; Ophthalmia Chronica, 3; Bronphoid Pneumony,) 4; Pertussis, (Hooping chitis Chronica, 3; Phthisis Pulmonalis, Cough,) 8; Hepatitis, (Inflammation of the (Pulmonary Consumption,) 7; Rheumatismus Liver,) 2; Rheumatismus Acutus, 1; Icte- Chronicus, 5; Pleurodynia, 2; Lumbago, ruş: (Jaundice,) 1; Cholera Morbus, 2; Dys. 2; Nephralgia, 1; Plethora, 3; Anasarca, (Dropsy,) 1; Hydrothorax, (Dropsy of the dials, tonics, or drugs thrown into the alChesi,) 1 ; Scrophula, (King's Evil,) 1; Tu- ready oppressed or polluted stomach, will mor, 1; Hernia, 1: Exostosis, 1; Vermes, either be ejected, or will have the effect of (Worms,) 4; Syphilis, 4; Urethritis Virulenta, increasing the general irritation, and aggra3; Paraphymosis, 1; Contusio, (Bruise,) 6; vating the very symptoms they were inStremma, (Sprain,) 2; Fractura, 1 ; Vulnus, tended to relieve. 6; Abscessus, 2; Ulcus, 8; Strophulus, 2; During the few hot days at the conclusion Psoriasis, 1 ; Erythema, 2; Herpes, 2; Sca- of this month, several persons among the bies et Prurigo, 14; Porrigo, 3 ; Eruptiones labouring poor, and particularly strangers Variæ, 4.
lately arrived from the northern parts of The weather of this month has been ge- Europe, and who as yet were unaccustomed nerally fair, and the temperature more ele- to the occasional intense heats of our clivated than usual :-winds chiefly between mate, suffered from the imprudent use of southeast and southwest. The quantity of cold water. Some perished; but the greater rain has been small, not exceeding 2 1-2 part were recovered by the internal use of inches on a level; what did fall was princi- laudanum and brandy, by spiritous fomenpally in refreshing showers, sometimes at- tations to the region of the stomach and lended with lightning, seldom with thunder. bowels; and in cases where there was any On the 28th the mercury in Fahrenheit's excitement or determination to the head, thermometer stood at 90° in the shade, on by the use of the lancet. the 29th at 92°, and on the 30th it attained Some cases of bilious vomiting, of choto the height of 93 1-2 degrees. On ten lera, and of diarrhoea have been observed. other days it was between 81 and 86'. The These, to a limited extent, are doubtless thermometrical range of this interval has salutary, being an effort of nature to free been from 55 to 92 1-2 degrees. Average the stomach and bowels from a quantity of temperature for the whole month 73o. colluvies or offensive materials. Greatest variation in twenty-four hours 21o. Lowest temperature at 7 o'clock in any one The New York Bills of Mortality for Jane morning 55°, highest 76o; lowest tempera- report 219 deaths; from ture in any afternoon 65°, highest 93 1-2° ; Abscess, 2; Apoplexy, 2; Asthma, 1; lowest temperature at sunset of any day Cancer, 1; Caries, 1; Casualty, 1; Child620, highest 890 - Barometrical range from bed, 1; Cholera Morbus, 2; Consumption, 29.58 to 30.08 inches. The season, which 42; Contusion, 1; Convulsions, 8; Cramp at the commencement of this month was in the Stomach, 1; Diarrhæa, 2; Drinking deemed backward, is now sufficiently ad- Cold Water, 5; Dropsy, 3; Dropsy in tbe vanced, and vegetation in general presents Chest, 4; Dropsy in the Head, 10; Drown. a highly luxuriant aspect.
ed, 9; Dysentery, 1; Dyspepsia, 1; EryDuring this interval, the city has been on sipelas, 1; Fever, 1; Fever, Intermittent, the whole healthy. The effects of disease 2; Fever, Remittent, 2; Fever, Typhous, on the human constitution have offered 41; Fistula in perineo, 1; Fracture, 1; Gralittle that is remarkable. Since the com- vel, 1; Hæmorrhage, 1; Hives, 1 ; Hoopmencement of summer, inflammatory affec- ing Cough, 9; Hysteria, 1; Infanticide, 2; tions of the organs concerned in respiration Inflammation of the Chest, 8; Inflammahave much declined; but pertussis still con- tion of the Bowels, 5; Inflammation of the tinues to prevail among children, and fevers, Liver, 2; Insanity, 3; Intemperance, 1; particularly of the remittent and typhoid Lockod Jaw, 1; Mortification, 2; Nervous kind, have been more common than in the Disease, 1; Old Age, 2; Palsy, 1; Pneupreceding month. The cases of typhus, monia Typhodes, 1; Scalded, 1; Scrophula, which occurred during the vernal period, or King's Evil, 1; Small Pox, 1 ; Still-born, were mostly of the mild sort, denominated 13; Sudden Death, 1; Suicide, 2; Tabes typhus mitior; but in this month the com- Mesenterica, 3; Teething, 2; Ulcer, 2; Unplaint has shown symptoms of degeneracy, known, 3; Worms, 3.—Total 219. in some cases wearing from its commence- of this number there died 47 of and uninent the physiognomy of danger.
der the age of 1 year; 10 between 1 and 2 Attention to the stomach and bowels con- years; 11 between 2 and 5; 3 between 5 stitutes an important step in the manage- and 10; 14 between 10 and 20; 26 between ment of typhous fever. On the invasion of 20 and 30; 38 between 30 and 40; 40 bethe complaint, an emetic, followed by a tween 40 and 50; 19 between 50 and 60; warm sudorific, and in a few hours by a 6 between 60 and 70; and 6 between 70 proper aperient, commonly has the effect of and 80. disarming the fever of its severity; and, in
JACOB DYCKMAN, M.D some instances, totally extinguishes the dis- New-York, June 30th, 1818.
Without this preliminary step, cor