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way of Madame's finding consolation for conditions, almost all dressed in a uniform the death of one husband, in the arms of manner; in the middle were some young another.” The widow then hastily depart: grenadiers; and in the front, a numerous ed, promising to return speedily--which she military orchestra made the sacred roof redid, and, with a gay yet modest air, pre- echo with the most melodious sounds. sented the Marquis de Spinola a letter from Every thing inspired meditation and devothe lieutenant-colonel; on reading which, tion. My guide said to me, “ Tbose whom that nobleman courteously praised the taste you see silent and devout at the foot of the shown by the writer in his choice of so altar-those who are in military uniform, amiable a lady, and at the same time com- and who pay homage with their arms to the plimented her on her dexterity in making an God of armies—those who make the temple event which threatened to degrade her, the resound with their harmonious concert, are means of her elevation; with which com- so many victims to that dreadful malady pliment the fair petitioner appeared highly which deprives man of the use of his reagratified. It was, indeed, a master-stroke son: even he whom you see penetrated on her part, in the success of which she had with respect and fear, assisting the priest in great reason to triumph. Nor did she at- the expiatory sacrifice, is himself one of those tempt to conceal the pride and pleasure unfortunate beings.” It is not easy to exwith which she glowed, but with much ani. press the surprise I felt, and the emotion mation thanked all present for the good for. excited in my mind by this terrible and detune they had joined in procuring her, and licious contrast of the wretchedness and departed with a countenance from whence the grandeur of the human mind. Divine all traces of grief had vanished.

service was over, but the agitation of my When the widow bad retired, the whole mind still continued. My guide perceived party indulged in a hearty laugh, and some it, took me by the hand, and conducted me free animadversions on her sudden transi. into a passage which leads from the church tions from sorrow to joy. The Duchess to the interior of the house. It is here, said compared her to the Ephesian matron; but he, that the inhabitants of the place repair the gentlemen were more indulgent, and to their usual occupations. the Marquis de Spinola, in particular, endea- At a certain signal they all assembled at a voured to soften the indecorum of her con- place destined for the muster of the mornduct, by relating many instances of the cor- ing. My surprise was increased on beholdrectness and amiableness with which she ing, that as they arrived in the middle of a had performed all the duties of a wife. spacious court, they all ranged themselves

The Duchess could not resist relating this in a line in the peristile which run round it. adventure to the Queen of Spain, which A profound silence prevailed when the dicreated in her majesty a curiosity to see the rector of the establishment appeared. On principal actress in it, and the widow was seeing him, I observed the most melanaccordingly introduced. On this occasion, choly rejoice, and yield to the sweetest the Queen took a malicious pleasure in emotions of the heart. I fancied myself in questioning her respecting her deceased the bosom of a numerous family, assembled husband, and witnessing her theatrical dis. in the morning round a tender father who play of extravagant grief.

loves his children. The Director, passing through the ranks which they formed, listened to the recital of their sufferings, the

wants, the grievances, the dreams, the fol. Singular description of the Hospital for the lies of each, and replied to all by words of

Insane at Aversa, in the kingdon of Naples; peace and consolation. His words were like extracted from the unpublished Journal of a talisman, which calmed their agitation, a Tour made in the year 1817, in the King- dispelled melancholy chagrin, and spread dom of the Two Sicilies.

serenity and smiles on the most thoughtful

and perturbed countenances. This kind of I had heard this establishment spoken of review being terminated, most of them with praise ; but being accustomed to meet went into the garden contiguous to the with exaggeration in the good as well as in court. There several games were arranged, the evil, which travellers relate of the coun- judiciously contrived to afford them a gentries they have visited, I resolved to see the tle and agreeable Gymnastic exercise, and place myself. At eight o'clock in the morn. to dissipate the gloomy thoughts in which ing I went to Aversa. After having tra- they were habitually plunged. versed a short path, we discovered this mo- While contemplating this kind of contest, dest edifice in the midst of the most smiling I perceived that the presence of the spectacountry. The bell called the people of the tors, and the natural desire of receiving the neighbourhood to mass, which is daily, at prize given to the victor, excited in their tended by the unbappy patients in the hos- hearts a noble emulation. While many of pital. The holy ceremonies were just be- the patients thus indulged in the pleasure of ginning as we entered. A part of the this wholesome recreation, others walked church was filled with people from the town about in silence and avoided company; and neighbourhood. In the choir and the others declaimed aloud : here several of side seats there were men of all ages and them were cultivating lowers; there, others stood immoveable, and so plunged in series of Galvanic experiments, applied to deep reflection, that it seemed as if the fall certain species of madness very frequent in of the edifice would not have roused the hospitals for the insane. After having cho. from it.

sen the patients, M. Ronchi, one of thein, 1 had spent an hour in this manner, and explained in an eloquent and concise manwas absorbed in the ideas which the sight ner the reasons which convinced him that inspired, when my guide invited my com- the remedy scemed efficacious, and the panion and myself to go to a high story. hopes which might be conceived of it. Be. We ascended a magnificent staircase ; at ing witnesses to these experiments, we had the top of which, an elegant vase, filled with an opportunity, says the author, of observing fine perfume, diffused an agreeable odour the effect which the Galvanic electricity through the whole building. On the right, produced on several individuals, a statement two of our grenadiers stood sentinel before of which will ihrow the greatest light on an arsenal of simulated arms. From .cu. the obscure art of treating the infinite variosity, I put several questions to them, but riety of mental aberrations.) could not obtain any answer, because they It struck twelve, and the experiments would have imagined they committed a ceased, it being the hour of dinner.. As we great breach of discipline if they had bro- proceeded to the Refrectory, the Chevalier ken silence.

Linguiti, the other physician, pointed out We were then led into a large saloon the dark chamber, the floor and walls of neatly decorated, where we found several which are covered with mattrasses to conof the insane, who, like people in full pos- fine the maniacs when the fit of phrenzy is session of their reason, were passing their on them; and the beds, on which the patime agreeably in conversation, or in play- tients are placed in such a manner, that (the ing on the harpsichord and other instru- circulation not being impeded) it is impossiments, singing pleasing songs, and hymns of ble for them to injure themselves or others. gratitude in honour of the king, whose bust He likewise showed us the strait waistcoats, is set up between the statues of Piety and which permit the insane to walk about at Wisdom, who place on his brow a crown their ease, without being able to commit offered him by the love of bis subjects. In any excess; the apartment destined for the the adjoining apartment, some young men surprise bath; the theatre, where these unof distinguished birth, quietly amused them fortunate persons recreate themselves in selves in playing billiards.

representing musical pieces ; and lastly, that Astonished at the urbanity, the decorum, of the puppets, where their minds are frethe tranquillity, and the politeness, of this quently diverted in a very beneficial manner. unfortunate family, a stranger could not help I saw this whole family again assembled saying to my guide, “Where then are the at table. Unhappily it was still too numeinsane?". " Wherever you turn your eyes," rous, notwithstanding the frequent and daily answered he. The peace, the regularity, cures which annually restore a great number the good temper which you witness here, of its members to the state, to their relaare the fruit of vigilance, of order, of a tions, to the arts, the sciences, and huskilful combination of the different methods manity. The bread, the wine, the meat, of promoting health, and of the happy ap- the soup, all the aliments, were wholesome, plication of the means pointed out by medi- of good quality, well prepared, and well cine, moral philosophy, and a profound served up: tranquility, order, silence, were knowledge of the human mind.

every where observed ; but it was then In more than one kind of mental de that I first became sensible in what kind of rangement, the difficult art of administering a place I was. The continual agitation of medicines, and above all, that of prescribing the insane, the motion of their muscles, the use of them, must occupy the first rank. which is not interrupted in their moments Hospitals for the insane governed like places of rage, the animal bont which in many of of confinement, or, like prisons, destined to them is much increased, the extraordivary secure dangerous patients who must be energy of their strength, sometimes excito sequestered from society, are calculated in them an extraordinary voracity; and it but to multiply the kinds of victims whom was such, in some of these unfortunate they contain

persons, that they devoured their food like In this hospital the ancient rigorous treat- ferocious beasts, appearing insatiable, whatment »,f the patients has been happily re- ever quantity the kind Director set before placed by tender and affectionate cares, by them. Their physiognomy, their gestures, the admirable art of gaining the mind, and their secret murmurs, which would cause by a mild and pliant firmness. Experience them to be taken less for men than for has soon demonstrated the advantages of brutes, evidently proved that in these mothis system, and every body acknowledges ments they were deprived of reason, and that it was inspired, not by the blind empi- governed by instinct alone. A melancholy picism of ill judged pity, but by, profound and painful sight, which cannot be beheld a knowledge and enligtened reflections on the moment without exciting the most sorrowcause of madness and the means of curing ful reflections on the dreadful erils which it.

assail humanity. [The writer here gives an account of two Full of these gloomy reflections, I left eminent physicians, who came to begin a Aversa to be in the evening at Naples, in,

VIENNA,

us.

HAIL.

tending to visit the next day the Royal Es- hidden meaning in the piece, which, like a tablishment for the Poor.

melancholy bass, accompanies the full and

pure harmony of the whole, in many places 1

is clearly heard, and in most, nay nearly in

all, is felt. It is long since any dramatic production votaries happy; that the divide gist of poesy

This is the idea, that art does not make its (perhaps not excepting even the Schuldt places those endowed with it on a solitary itself*)' has excited so much interest here eminence, far from the pleasures and joys of as the tragedy of Sappho, by the author humanity, nay, even far from the purer of the Abfrau. And what is still more un blessings of friendship and of love. This is common, the approbation it obtained is evident, from the melancholy complaints of almost universal, notwithsanding without Sappho, who, with her exalted feeling, is a the violent disputes which his first piece stranger in the world by which she is surexcited. Sappho is the general topic of rounded from Phaon's excuse for preferconversation; but little is blamed, the great ring the simple Melytta to the great poetess er part enthusiastically praised. The plan is extremely simple. At the Olympic games,

To gods be rev'rence, and to mortals love where Sappho had gained the prize, she be- and from numberless other passages. An comes acquainted with a young and beauti- afflicting remark, if it were true ; but as exful Phaon, who has been long prejudiced in perience and reflection convince us of the her favour by her reputation and the charms contrary, our minds receive a melancholy of her poetry, and who has come to Olym- impression, that the poet has drawn, not so pia for the sole purpose of becoming ac- much from observation as from his own quainted with her whom his enraptured wounded heart, that heavenly flame which soul has long represented as the model of beams inspiration_his work, painfully confemale dignity. He now sees her no longer sumes himself, and that he suffers, while we indeed in the bloom of early youth, but still revel in the enjoyment which he procures attractive enough to realise his ideal for a moment. She is charmed with his beauty, his homage; she attaches herself to him with all the ardour of her soul, takes him to Sestos, and desires to share with him The learned and ingenious doctor Hook whatever she possesses. Phaon soon finds gives the followiug, account of a wonderful that he is out of his place : he feels himself shower of hail, which fell in London, in the oppressed, and like a stranger. In these year 1680. moments of mental struggle, he sees the

On the 19th May, says he, “ at about young blooming and modest Melytta, Sap- half an hour after ten it began to grow pho's female slave, who is only fifteen years very dark, and thundered, and soon after of age. An attachment takes place between there began to fall a good quantity of hailthem ; Sappbo's jealousy is excited ; Pha- stones, some of the bigness of pistol bulon's ingratitude rends her mind; her passion lets, others as big as pullets eggs, and carries her too far, she forgets herself and

some above two inches and a half, and some ber dignity, and gives to her situation a de- near three inches over the broad way; the gree of publicity, which must injure her in smaller were pretty round, and wbite like the eyes of her countrymen and of the chalk, the other of other shapes. Breaking world. This rouses ber from her stupor; many of them, I found them to be made up she exalts her mind by the contemplation of of orbs of ice, one encompassing another; her glory, forgets a passion which was un- some of them transparent, some white and worthy of ber, pardons Phaon and Melytta, opaque. Some of them had white spots in unites them, soas's once more to the gods in the middle, others towards the sides. Those a sublime Ode, and then, in the sight of the which exceed in bigness were formed by an people, throws berself into the sea from the additional accretion of transparent icicles, promontory of Lincali.

radiating every way from the surface of the The most profound passion and the ten- white ball, like the shooting of nitre or Herest feelings, the dignity of tragedy and toothed sparre. These in some stood, as it the charms of the Idyl, alternately delight were, separate, in distinct icicles, which us; the three unities are strictly observed; were very clear and transparent, and had the two famale characters, Sappho and Me

no blebs or whiteness in them. Others were lytta, though in the strongest contrast with all concreted into a solid lump, and the ineach other, both excite a powerful interest terstices filled up with ice, which was not so each in its own peculiar manner; and a clear as the Stiriæ, but wbiter, and the one dignified language and beautiful ingenious side, which I suppose was the uppermost, imagery complete the charm,

was fat, and the radications appeared to This is the general sketch of the whole as proceed from the ball in the middle; the it appears to every spectator. But to me it edges and top were rough, and the ends seems that there is a more profound, a more of the Stiriæ appeared prominent. From

the manner of their figure, I conceive * For a particular account and critique of this their accretion was formed by a conge. interesting tragedy, see Literary Gazette, No. 4. lation of the water as it fell, that the small white globule in the middle, was the first great numbers, in Great Lincoln's-Ian-fields, drop that concreted into hail; this, in on the 19th May, 1680, one of which a serfalling through the clouds beneath, con- vant brought me in bis hand, as large as a gealed the water thereof into several coats turnip, and of the same shape, which I inor orbs, till they came to the size before stantly measured with a string, and found mentioned." Upon this curious passage the compass of the widest part to be above Mr. Derham has affixed the following note. thirteen inches. I did this with great care

"I myself, says he, saw them falling, iñ and could not be mistaken."

ART. 13. REPORT OF DISEASES.

ACUTE DISEASES.

Report of Diseases treated at the Public Dis- ' blowing a continuat gate, and with sucts

pensary, New-York, and in the Private impetuous force as to be productive of cowPractice of the Reporter, during the month siderable damage to the shipping. The sueof December, 1818.

ceeding day was also cloudy, windy and sometimes a little rainy. The weather was

afterwards clear and pleasant until the 17th,

; ver, 23; Ephemera, 1'; Infantile Remit- Towed in the night by about two inchies of tent Fever, 5' ; Phlegmon, 4; Ophthalmia, snow. The winter now set in with a se. 3; Inflammaton of the Ear, 1; Inflamma- verity and uniformity of cold dry weather, tory Sore Throat, 5; Malignant Sore seldom before known to have occurred sa Throat, 1 ; Hives or Croup, 1; Catarrh, 13; early in the season; and snow fell again in Bronchitis, t; Pneumonia, 23; Pneumonia- smait quantity on the morning of the 16th. typhodes, 3; Hooping-Cough, 4; Inflamma- and about two inches in the night of the tion of the Liver, 1; Jaundice, l; Rheuma- 23th. The concluding part of the months tismus Acutus, 4; Erysipelas Phlegmonodes, was of a more moderate temperature, and 1 ; Varicella, 1; Rubeola, 2; Hæsnoptysis, the two last days were attended by a little 1; Vornitus, 2; Dysenteria, 1; Convulsio, rain. The whole quantity of rain that has 2; Spasmi, 2; Dentitio, L.

fallen and of melted snow does not amount

to more than one inch on a level: and inCHRONIE AND LOCAL DISEASES.

đeed tbe rain not only in this interval, but Asthenia, 3; Vertigo, 5; Cephalalgia, 6; for several months past has been so scanty Dyspepsia et Hypochondriasis, 7; Gastro- that many springs, wells and ponds never dynia, 5; Colica et Obstipatio, 10; Hyste before known to fail, have become dry. ria, 2; Patsy, 2; Asthma et Dyspnea, 3; The thermometrical range has been from 13 Catarrhus Chronicus, 9; Pulmonary Con- to 519. Mildest day the 5th; coldest the sumption, 7; Chronic Rheumatism, 12; 17th. Highest temperature of the mornings Pleurodyne, 2; Lumbago et Sciatica, 4; 42°, lowest 11°, mean 26°; highest tempeHæmorrhois, 2; Menorrhagia, 1; Dysme- rature of the afternoons 5°, lowest 199, norrhea, 3; Amenorrhæa, 4; Hysteralgia, mean 33> ; highest temperature of the 1 ; Graviditas, 4; Cessatio Mensium, !; evening 44o, lowest 20°, menn 31. ArePlethora, 2; Leucorrhoea, 3; Dysenteria rage temperature of the whole mouth 30-.. Chronica, 2; Anasarca, 3; Ascites, 2; Ver. Greatest variation in 24 hours 189. Baro.. mes, 5; 'Fabes Mesenterica, 2 ; Syphilis, 8; metrical range from 29. 22 to 30. 63 inches Urethritis Virulenta, 7; Phymosis, 2; Her- From the extensive range, and sometimes nia Inguinalis, 1; Fistula in Ano, t; Amat sudden fluctuations, of temperature experosis, i ; Tumor, 2; Contusio, .4; Stremma, rienced during this period, an increase of (Sprain,) 3; Luxatio, 1; Fractura, 3; Vul. indisposition might have been naturally esnus, 5;'Ulcus, 7; Abscessus,. 2; Ustio, 5; pected'; yet, owing perhaps to the generat Pernio, (Chilblain,) 2; Scalies et Prurigo: dryness of the weather, the results do not 4; Porrigo, 3; Erythema, I ; Psoriasis, I; appear to have been unpropitious to liealtlig Lepra, 1; Aphtbæ, 2.

at least not in a degree proportionate to the The weather of December having derived extremes of atmospheric temperature, which its principal character from S.W.W., N. W., has affected not so much the quantum as the and northerly winds, has consequently been character of diseases. Of aš the obvious dry, and in point of temperature has parta- qualities of the atmosphere, cold is certaiisken of the mildness of autumn, and the ly productive of the most extensive catacold of extreme winter. The month com- logue of evils ; but universal experience menced with a fine pleasant day, and in the shows that it is much less pernicious when evening a few dashes of lightning were attended by a dry, that when accompanied observed. On the afternoon of the 4th the by a moist constitution of the air. "The heavens became obscured by a succession occurrence of frosts affects more especially of clouds from the south, and the night of the organs of respiration, and accordingly the same day was marked by a southeast catarrhal and pulmonary disorders have storm of the greatest violence, the wind been frequent, and next to these febrile com

plaints have held the most conspicuous rank the doctrines of that so much dreaded dein the class of acute diseases of this month. bility. Inflammatory Sore-throats and Hives have Having in these reports completed the from their number also excited some atten- period of another year, it may not be imtion. Rubeola and Varicella have been met proper to subjoin a few general remarks on with only in sporadiac cases; but Pertussis the state of the weather and diseases. still proves fatal to a few children, and the The year set in with fine weather, though deaths from Phthisis, as recorded in the we had in January and February occasional Bills of Mortality, are numerically, higher falls of snow, bail, and rain; yet, on the than has occurred in any other month of the whole, the winter was dry, and at times exyear. This latter complaint being in general tremely cold. The 9th, 10th, and 11th of the sequela of some previous disorder, its February, were the most severe days, the ipcrease of victims in the present instance mercury in Fahrenheit's thermometer fall. may be considered as one of the disasterous ing to within two degrees of Zero. March effects resulting from the many cases of Ca. , commenced with stormy weather, and, intarrhal and Bronchial disease that have oc- deed, with the exception of the last ten curred in the last two months.

days of May, the whole spring was cold, Considering the season, rheumatic affec- wet, and cheerless. The summer season tions have not been numerous; but in a few was characterized by the prevalence of a cases the disease has been observed in its temperature more elevated than usual, and must acute form, where the patient appear the months of June and July were very dry. ed be tied it were to a bed of torture, On the three last days of June the thermio uneasy in every posture, and yet afraid to meter ranged from 90 to 93 1-2 degrees ; stir from the excruciating pain produced by and a heat the most ardent prevailed from the slightest movement. In these, after large the 8th to the 17th of July inclusive, the and repeated abstractions of blood, the most temperature on one of these days being as favourable results were obtained from the high as 98°, or according to some observause of calomel combined, as recommended tions, 100e in the shade. These excessive by Dr. Armstrong, with opium and antimo. heats continued, with little alteration, until ny in proportions sufficient to allay pain and towards the close of August. In Septemexcite a gentle perspiration. Mercury, by ber we had also some hot sultry days; but, its very general and steady action upon the in general, the constitution of the atmos: system, and more especially upon the ex. phere was very unequal, rapid fluctuations treme vessels,by wbich all the secretions and of temperature, fair intervals, and stormy or excretions are promoted, is certainly a most boisterous weather, reciprocally succe ng powerful remedy in equalising the circula: each other. In Detober and November the tion and excitability, the equilibrium of weather was in general pleasant and scawhich is evidently destroyed in rheumatic sonable, but remarkably dry; and the temas well as in other febrile affections.

perature continued sufficiently mild until Typhus has increased in frequency not towards the middle of December, when the withstanding the reduction of external tem- winter set in with great severity. perature, but in most cases the infectious From a review of the state of diseases origin of the disease could be clearly traced. during the past year, we consider the city Active purgatives in the first instance are to have been, on the whole, healthy. The still found to be among the most efficacious number of deaths, indeed, as recorded in remedies in arresting the progress of this the New-York bills of mortality, amounts to fever; and in the inflammatory and con- several hundred above the aggregate of the gestiva forins of the disease we have in preceding year; but this may in some measeveral instances eroployed the lancet with sure be accounted for by the great increase decided advantage. Active depletions, how. of population, and particulariy the influx of ever, and more especially abstractions of foreigners, many of whom being unaccusblood, are to be had recourse to only in the tomed to the occasional heats of our cli. early stages of the complaint. We are far mate, were suddenly cut off, and contrifrom asserting that bloodetting is proper in buted to swell our bills of mortality. Small. every form of typhus, or that the evacuent pox also carried off a few in the beginning process alone is the main pivot on which re- of the year; and pertussis was epidemic medial agency must turn. There is even rea- amoug children during the summer and son to fear that the practical indications ari- autumn; added to which, typhus fever has sing out of the pathological principles of ma- extensively prevailed, and within the last py modern writers may lead to dangerous year has proved fatal to not less than 263 extremes in vascular depletion ; but at the persons. Besides these, the prevailing dissame time it is much to be regretted that the eases have been such as are ordinarily opposite mode of treatment is yet pursued connected with the different seasons of the by some, that Brunonian Escitation still year. has its advocates, and that all ideas of vas

JACOB DYCKMAN, M.D. cular or local irritation and organic disturbance are too often merged in attention to New-York, December 31st, 1818.

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