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warriors being drowned. As these games hideous Ethiopian, the chief of the black are' stated to be from remote antiquity, we eunuchs) beckoned me to kneel down by may, if we please, conclude this regatta has her side, and examine the pulse of the Sulits derivation from the Naumachia of the tana. Having complied with this request, I Romans, and the bloodless war on the expressed a wish to see her tongue and bridge, from the Olympic games.”

countenance, but that, I was given to un'derstand, could not be permitted, as I must

obtain that information from the report of When at Rome, I attended the execution the chief physician. The most profound of four murderers and highway-robbers, silence was observed in the apartment, the brought from the neighbourhood of Terra- eunuchs and physicians conversing only by cina. This sight was really so shocking to signs. The Hazni Vekeli (black eunuch, humanity, and I was so sensibly affected, keeper of the privy purse) then took me by that it has made a very strong impression the arm, and turned me gently round, with on my mind ever since. The four unfortu. my face towards the door of entrance, over nate wretches were conducted in separate which was a gilded lattice, concealing the carts to a church, situated in the Piazza del Emperor Selim (III) who had placed himPopulo, where, after devoting a short time self there to witness the visit. to confession and

prayer, one of them, with a rope round his neck, was copducted into the centre of the square, where a temporary

His whole life seems like a splendid gallows had been erected. He was attended by several priests, all masked, and over his dream, for he was first a pirate on the Da

nube, in a small boat manned with nine desnow arrived at the gallows (which differ but manded. The courage and energy he diseyes wore a black handkerchief. Having peradoes, whose lives and fortunes he comlittle from those used in England), one of the priests ascended the fatal ladder with played in this avocation, proved an intro

duction to the Grand Seignor's favour, who him, uttering a prayer aloud to console him in his last moments; and keeping the cross appointed him Bairactar, or standard-bearer close to his face for him to kiss during the cha of Ruschuk, with an income of about

of Mahomet's green ensign, and finally, Pawhole time. Now comes the fatal catastro: 12,000l. sterling per annum.

The duties phe! Having fastened the rope to a large attached to his Pachalik were, to exterminail fixed at the top of the gallows, they nate his associates the pirates on the lower pushed the culprit off the ladder; by the Danube, and to keep in check his neighbour sudden jirk his neck was, no doubt, imme. the Pacha of Widdin, the far-famed Paswin diately broken: but the horror of the thing Oglou. For this purpose he had disciplined follows, when you observe two of the executioners jump on his body; the one fixing ries, chiefly Albanians. Gratefully attached

and kept in pay a corps of 40,000 janissahimself on his shoulders, the other pulling to selim, he, on the deposition of that illhim

by the legs, and suspended by them. fated prince, marched to Constantinople to By these means, disgusting as they appear, replace

him on the throne. The cruel murthe struggles of death are quite impercepti- der of Selim frustrated his generous intenble. In this manner the whole of the four tions, but he had the satisfaction of depowere executed; and afterwards, before a large concourse of spectators, their legs and sing Mustapha the fourth, and of elevating

to the throne Mahmoud the second, and of arms were cut off-a sight which made me being himself appointed Prime Vizier. He shudder, although I had witnessed all the died the death of a hero, by blowing himhorrors of a field of battle! These limbs self up in a powder magazine, after baving are afterwards hung up on a pole, on the been

betrayed at the disastrous feast of respot where the robbery or murder was como conciliation with the janissaries at Kiat mitted. The Romans are said to possess a Hane, on the 12th of November, 1808. taste for these horrible exhibitions. Some well-dressed females were present on this occasion.

It has been the constant policy of the Turks to encourage scientific Christians to

embrace their religion and enter their serThe following are extracted from Dr. Neale's vice. Renegadoes of this kind were for. Travels.

merly much more numerous than in later PROFESSIONAL VISIT TO THE SULTANA va- times. But their places have been supplied

by a class of adventurers chiefly French, After exchanging my shoes at the door like the Baron de Tott, who, without under: for a pair of yellow slippers, papouches, we going circumcision, or abjuring their relientered the royal apartments. On a mat- gion, have rebuilt their fortresses and ortress, or minder, in the middle of the floor, ganized their dockyards. The only renewas extended a figure covered with a silk gado who was at Constantinople in 1805, quilting, or macat, richly embroidered. A was an Englishman, named Baillic, whose female figure veiled was kneeling at the side Moslem title was Selim Effendi. This genof her pillows, with her back towards the tleman was, I believe, a native of Reading, door of entrance, and the Kistar Agassi (a in Berkshire, and had been in the service of





the East-India Company. During the em- and I should be glad to know his name,"bassy of Sir Robert Ainslie, Baillie, and anos “ His name is Mr. T-; he is an eminent ther gentleman, on their return over land lawyer, and resides in Lincoln's-Inn-fields." from India, arrived at Pera, and took up Breakfast over, the party resumed their seats their residence at the inn. It was soon after- in the coach: soon after which, Sheridan wards made known by their landlord to the turned the discourse to the law. “It is," ambassador, that being in very distressed said he," a fine profession: men may rise circumstances, they had entered into a ne- to the highest eminence in the state, and it gotiation with the Porte, to embrace Maho- gives vast scope to the display of talent; metanism, and enter the Turkish service. many of the most virtuous and noble chaSir R. Ainslie had no sooner satisfied bimself racters recorded in history have been law. of the truth of this statement, than he sent, yers. I am sorry, however, to add, that for them, and very humanely extended to sone of the greatest rascals have also been them the pecuniary assistance which they lawyers; but of all the rascals I ever heard needed, together with many hospitable at. of is one I, who lives in Lincoln's-Inntentions, warning them, at the same time, fields.”—“ I am Mr. T-” said the genagainst the fatal consequences that might tleman.”—“And I am Mr. Sheridan," was attend such precipitancy. They promised the reply. The jest was instantly seen; to renounce their intentions, and in fact they shook hands; and the lawyer exerted soon after embarked for England. But, himself warmly to promote the election of within twelve months, Baillie returned to the facetious orator. Smyrna, and having embraced Mahometanism in due form, assumed the name of Selim. Repenting soon after the step he had taken,

Charles, who was naturally prodigal, obhe returned to England, but his friends now served no more economy at Bender than at refused to acknowledge him, and finding Stockholm. Grothusen, his favourite, and himself an outcast in society, be returned treasurer, brought to him one day an ac.

more to Turkey. Selim behaved count of fifty thousand crowns in two lines : kindly to him, created him Effendi, and af. "Ten thousand crowns given to the terwards an Emmera Hor or Equerry, and Swedes and to the Janizaries, by order of employed him as a civil engineer in the con- his Majesty, and the rest spent by myself.” struction of paper-mills and barracks. He

- That is frank,” said the king ; " and then presented him with a young Turkish that is the way I like my friends to make wife; but the poor man was miserable, and out their accounts. Mullern made me read tris unhappiness was increased by the

over several pages accounting for the sum

neg. lect he experienced after the death of Selim. of ten thousand franks ; I like the laconic In fine, being overtaken by bad health, and style of Grothusen better." narrowly watched by his Turkish attend- INTERESTING ANECDOTE OF S. ROMILLY. ants during the severe fasts of Ramazan, his The following anecdote of this revered indisposition took a fatal turn, and he died a and lamented man has come to us from a martyr to his new faith, and the reproaches, very respectable quarter. We give it pubprobably, of his own conscience; leaving licity with the more pleasure, that it only his name and memory as a fatal monument tends to illustrate the mournful circumand warning to his countrymen to avoid stances of bis, death, but casts an affecting such a career.

and ennobling light on the moral excellencies of his character. It will perhaps be asked what anecdote of his life would not tend to make his memory more esteemed,

and his loss more regretted ? He commenced As Mr. Sheridan was coming up to town his career at the bar, a young man liberally in one of the public coaches, for the pur- educated, with those high principles of hopose of canvassing Westminster, at the time nour, and that susceptibility of amiable and when Mr. Paul was his opponent, be found generous sentiment, which distinguished his himself in company with two Westminster life; but without paternal fortune, and still electors. In the course of the conversation, more, with both his parents dependent upon one of them asked the other to whom he his professional success. In this situation would give his vote? When his friend re. he became acquainted with a young lady, plied, “ To Paul, certainly; for though I the charms of whose mind and person won think him but a shabby sort of a fellow, I bis affections. His conduct was worthy of would vote for any one rather than that his head and his heart. He declared his rascal Sheridan.” " Do you know Sheri- sentiments to the object of his affections; dan ?” asked the stranger." Not I, Sir” but added, tbat he must “ acquire two foranswered the gentleman: “nor would I tunes” before they could be married : the wish to know him.”The conversation first for those to whom he owed his first duty dropped here; but when the party alighted -his parents; the second for her. The lady to breakfast, Sheridan called aside the other knew how to appreciate his merit and his gentleman, and said, “Pray who is that motives, and their vows were mutually very agreeable friend of yours ? He is one pledged to each other. He entered upon of the pleasantest fellows I ever met with, his career of profit and honour with tbat



assiduous energy which forms a chief fea- the voice of the Mollah was heard without; ture of genuine talent. In a comparatively upon this a box was given to the minister, short period he realized a considerable sum, from which he took a little opium, wbich and with it purchased an annuity for his the Persians use instead of a dram. The parents. Having put them in possession of various dishes, sweet and sour alternately, this provision for their lives, he formally did not indeed please our taste; no more did declared to them, that his obligations to the bread, which is a cake of four baked in them were now fulfilled, and he was about the sun: however, the wine was very good, to enter into other relations, which must and that of Ispahan much resembles Maexclusively govern them in their turn. He deira. After dinner we went to another began a second time with a fresh spirit- tent, where coffee, without sugar, and to: acquired “ a second fortune"-all within a bacco pipes, which are a very important very few years-settled it upon her on article in Persia, were presented to us. whom he had bestowed his heart, and mar- The ambassador had the kindness to give ried her. To lose Lady Romilly after an me the undeserved name of astronomer, attachment so formed, and after years flown upon which the minister invited me to come away in the tranquility of domestic joys, to him on the following day, as he was bimdisturbed only by the splendid pursuits of an self a great lover of the mathematics and ambition, synonimous with virtue, was one astronomy. The next day, accordingly, M. of those shocks which must be left, unde Nigri, the counsellor of legation, had the fined, to the imagination of such as know kindness to accompany me, as the usual inwhat it is to feel. [London paper.

terpreters would not have been able to translate such things. Knowing that the

Persians are very fond of astrology, I thought Stuck up in Charleston, South Carolina, and arrival of our embassy. It occurred to me

I ought to give some astroļogical turn to the copied from a publication fifteen years since.

that Jupiter stood now in the sign of the He is run away agin mine littel plack Scorpion; and I therefore first of all deborse, I rite him two days in mittle op te clared to the minister, that this planet renite, un ven

le vill not be stumping—he presented Russia in extent and splendour, stumps as te Deefel was in it-un he trows and that Asia was generally represented in me town-I have not sich fall since pefore l Europe under the sign of the Scorpion; and was pornt. I pye him of von Jacop Shintle as these were just now in conjunction, Clymer. It have five vite feet pefore met there was not the least doubt but that the oon plack snip on his nose, von eye vill friendship of these two nations was deterlook plue like glass. he is pranded met mined in heaven, and therefore agreeable to John Keisler Stranger on his pebind side py God. The minister agreed to what I said, his tail.

and affirmed that the Persian astronomers • Whoever vill take up said horse and had also found that the Russian embassy pring him to me top on mine house near had arrived under the most favourable signs. Cungeree, shall pay me two tollars reward,

A corpulent Persian, who was the only un if dey vill not pring mine horse agen, 'I vill put' te law in force ginst all te pee- the side of the minister, and held a great

one present during our conversation, sat at ples.

book before him, the leaves of which he

constantly turned over, and leered from PERSIAN AND DIPLOMANC ASTRONOMY ! time to time angrily at me under his great Russian Embassy to Persia.

black eyebrows. The minister recommendExtract from the Journal of Captain Lieu. believe that he was an astrologer, who was

ed him to us as a great mathematician, but I tenant Moritz Von Kotzebue.

to examine me. He turned over the leaves Mirza Awdul Wehab, the second minister with still more violence, and whispered of the Schach, invited us the following day something to the minister; upon which the to dinner, but which, on account of the fast latter asked me, whence eclipses proceeded? of Ramazan, could not take place before 8 I rose and walked round the corpulent astroo'clock in the evening. At an early hour loger, who looked angry and uneasy, and at he sent the ambassador a valuable present first could not conceive what I would have of Schiras wine, which sometimes resem- of him. But he was still more frightened bles port, but is lighter, and has a very pecu. when I stooped down behind him, and asked liar, agreeable, and aromatic taste. The the minister whether he could see me? The minister had the politeness to borrow for us astrologer was cory lent enough to cover chairs, and knives and forks, that the ambas. me entirely, and the minister therefore sador might not be under the disagreeable could not but say, no. Upon this I got up, necessity of eating with his fingers. The and asked the astrologer's pardon for havtables were very prettily laid out, and not ing made him act the part of our earth; but as in the Persian fashion, hundreds of dishes to the minister I said, that he represented in piled upon each other, but the dishes were this moment the sun, I' the moon, and the carried about, which was again another whole process, from which the astrologer mark of politeness in him. After we had could not yet recover himself, an eclipse of seated ourselves, nothing was touched till the moon. Hereupon I went between the VOL. IV.--No, Iv.


minister and the earth, and said to him, that fills up all the space which is between alb the astrologer had now no more the happi- visible and invisible bodies": or else how ness of seeing the sun, and consequently an could comets arise? These are the true eclipse of the sun was now taking place on purifiers of the wind; they fly about and the earth; but I could not represent a total burn every thing which might lessen or deeclipse, because the astrologer was a little stroy the power of the wind, for the wind is too corpulent. The sun laughed, and the a beneficial gift of God!" earth murmured. Thus it is impossible to The last opinion in the hot climate of please every body.

Persia, where without the wind all the inhaAfter the two gentlemen had played such bitants must perish, is very natural. In the flattering parts, they became proud, and meantime he had himseif tumbled over the affirmed that every thing seen in the hea- leaves of his book like the wind, and at last vens was only a meteor, because Jupiter, dwelt with pleasure upon a page upon which Saturn, and Venus, were the only stars were painted a number of globes, and at the which they recognized as bodies, and these, top a hideous figure." What do you think they said, were far more happy than our of the motions of the bodies? Does the sun earth, as they were much nearer the sun stand still, or does it move?”. 6. It stands than we, and were therefore much warmer. still,” answered I. 16 There we have it! "With respect to Venus,” said I, “ you are Do not you know the effects of the power right, she is much nearer to the sun than we of nature, which is singular in its kind ? are, or else we could not see her pass over Nature gives to every thing only one power, the sun once every hundred years; but with never two at once, otherwise she would be respect to Jupiter and Saturn, they are unjust, and that she cannot be; if this power much further from the sun than we are, and has once acted, nothing is able to increase can therefore never be seen between the or lessen its action, and much less to add a sun and us.

second to it. If you suppose that the earth The astrologer, was already afraid that I turns round its axis, that is already one might begin again the ceremony of an power; it cannot consequently turn at the eclipse, agreed to every thing, and then same time round the sun ; but if you suppose opened in his book a large leaf, on which that the sun revolves round the earth, then was painted a great he-goat with bierogly- the earth does not turn round its axis.” phics: after he had looked at it several “ In this manner," said I, “ Nature has given times with a pleased countenance, he asked to the earth the power of standing still !”. me very seriously, what was, according to 6 Right; that is what we Persians affirm. our opinion, behind the stars - I told him You affirm the same of sun, and are that our astronomers were not agreed; but wrong. Every thing is created for the pleamost probably behind the last stars which sure of man and the Schach; we are with we could discover, there were other stars the earth in the centre look gratefully on. without end, and if there were an end, Upon this he shut his: book, and said, this end was joined to a beginning which That these matters were of a sublime nahowever was without an end.”

ture, and it was proper to spare the underHere the goat fell out of his hand; he standing for a future opportunity ; meanlaughed with an, air of triumph and wisdom, while he would speak of things of less puzand observed, that such things were too zling import, as, for example, of the mathedifficult for the Europeans. He picked up matics." Now he showed me how to meahis great book much pleased, and said, sure distances beyond a river, how to measmiling, still turning over the leaves, “We sure the elevation of remote objects, &c. will now say no more on this subject!" upon which the minister said, that the Who could be more pleased than 1, for Schach had once given him such a commiss without beginning and without end” was, sion, which he executed wonderfully: I am sure, more unintelligible to me than to He seemed very much surprised on hearhim.

ing that in Europe the little boys began He laid his hand on a page which was geometry with such operations. Upon this full of dots, and a million of little devils I began to demonstrate a trigonometrical seemed to be painted between them; be problem, but this the astrologer did not asked, “What is wind?" I began an expla- comprehend, and seemed in general to nation of the more subtile and denser strata have no idea of Logarithms. of air, which being more or less warmed by At the end I was obliged to relate to the the sun in different places, might be put into admiring company various particulars of iny a kind of undulation, which would probably voyage round the world,* of which two produce wind, wbich most likely arose only things seemed quite impossible to them; in our atmosphere, because farther off there first, that I had been once their antipode, was a thinner air which we called æther, and that there existed finer countries in the and What nonsense you talk,” cried he world than Persia! aloud; "that is the way of the Europeans, The minister thanked me for the agreethey always puzzle themselves about causes reasons, and thus lose sight of the sub

Captain Moritz Von Kotzebue accompanied ject itself.-Wind, said he, is a substance Captain Krusenstern in his voyage round the which exists and acts in and for-itself, and world.-ED.

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ahle conversation, ordered refreshments to general on the subject of the widow's wishes be presented, begged that I would often would come with more propriety from her visit him, and we parted from the corpulent husband than from herself, she would in. astrologer as good friends.

mediately repair to his excellency, and pro. cure permission for her introduction to him, when she might plead her own cause, which

her eloquence could not fail to give due ANECDOTE OF A SPANISH WIDOW. effect. For this purpose ber Grace quit the One day (said a foreigner of distinction) As the Duke de Sante P was at this while I was on a visit to her excellency the time confined with the gout, Madame was beautiful and charming Duchess de Sainte pleased at having an opportunity of affordP-, Madame de S, the widow of an ing him a little amusement at the expense officer of the Walloon guards, came with a of the widow ; compensating, however, fór petition that she might be admitted by her so doing, by first obtaining a promise from Grace to the honour of an audience. The her husband, that he would embrace her Duchess, on receiving this message, appear- cause. Having prepared her lord for the ed to hesitate on the answer she should re- smiles, and tears, and melancholy graces of turn, which induced me to request that I the afflicted relict, the Duchess returned to might be no impediment to her granting the conduct her to his excellency, who had with interview solicited; on which an assent was him, when Madame de Sentered, the immediately given, and soon after the lady minister at war, and another nobleman of appeared, dressed in the deepest mourning, the court. The widow, after gracefully and veiled from head to foot. This shade, bending to the Duke, repeated, with still however, she raised as (with an air of incon- stronger expressions of grief and agitation, solable grief) she approached the Duchess, the request which she had before addressed and informed her that she had within a few to her Grace. Various questions ensued on days experienced the greatest of misfortunes the part of the Duke, the answers to which in the loss of the best of husbands; adding, were so well seconded by the fine bedewed while a torrent of tears bathed her face, eyes of the widow, that, turning to the " as you must be sensible, Madame, nothing minister of war, he requested, as a favour to can be more deplorable than the situation of himself, that he would forward her wishes a poor officer's widow, since the queen and The ininister, with great goodness, assured the Duke of Ripperda have persuaded the the petitioner he would instantly dispatch king to suppress their pensions. I am actu- the required order to the Marquis de Spially in danger of wanting bread, unless your nola, and was taking his leave to perform excellency will take compassion on me, and this promise, when that nobleman most oprelieve my distresses by marrying me to the portunely arrived to inquire after his excellieutenant-colonel of the regiment.” This lency's health. The inspector-general was petition was closed with sobs and sighs. well acquainted with Madame de S;

"! pity you most sincerely,” replied the but not suspecting the business which had Duchess, “but I am quite at a loss to under- brought her to the Duke's, accosted her stand by what means I can effect your with compliments of condolence on the wishes, and oblige the lieutenant-colonel to irreparable loss she had so recently sustainaccept the hand you are so willing to be- ed, an officer for whom he expressed the stow on him.”

highest esteem. This address again roused "By the easiest in the world, Madam," all her distressed feelings, and she poured eagerly returned the widow, "you have them forth with such lively expression of only to order the Marquis de Spinola, in- sorrow that the Marquis de Spinola, who spector-general, to grant me a formal per- was not, like the other spectators, in the semission to marry the lieutenant-colonel." cret of her real feelings, was quite overpow

The Duchess then inquired whether any ered by his own, till the minister of war, attachment subsisted between her and the seeing calm succeeding to this last burst of officer with whom she wished to be united. lamentation, thus addressed the sympa« Ab! Madame,” exclaimed the petitioner, thising inspector :-" The dead husband, with great animation, “I have long enter- Monsieur, is no longer in question; on the tained for him a great affection, and I have contrary, the subject under consideration is no reason to doubt that he returns it, and the procuring a living one, through whom will readily consent to be united to me the disconsolate widow may be restored to when he knows it was my husband's wish, happiness and comfort. To you she looks who knew of my partiality, that I should for effecting this change in her present formarry his friend."

lorn situation; and for this purpose solicits It was impossible for the Duchess to pre- your permission that she may marry the serve her gravity at this artless avowal of lieutenant-colonel of the regiment to which the fair mourner's plans and feelings; but, her deceased husband belonged when livquickly softening her laugh into a smile, she ing." graciously assured Madame de S-of her The Marquis de Spinola replied, “ If the willingness to serve ber; but feeling, she lieutenant-colonel solicits my consent, far added, that the speaking to the inspector- be it from me to throw impediments in the

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