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of Inquietudes, shuffling the Malefactor Debating and Reporting of Cases in our
R. M. Barr :"
Animal. innocency, and guilt ignorant of its expia- DEAR SIR, tion. Whence I conceive by a just title, I have often wondered at the egotism to keep the World from Combats, and of that little thing called man, in locating the reward of vertue from Violation, the himself at the head of creation. Were wisest in all Ages have had the priviledge, he as comprehensive and astute as he not onely of prescribing, but of coacting would fain be thought to be, there is reathe orders of Regiment amongst others, son to believe he must soon be cut short who by necessary Complot have engaged of all his usurped plumes. Could the for observance; which somthing seems peal of that thunder, and the glare of that to repaire the loss ; yet so, as by our lightning, which impresses him with so Dianoeticks, we have opportunity enough much awe, be construed into the infuri. to see, and like the Satyre in the Fable, ated rage and dreadful roar of some mighty to feare, our Idæated Humanity, although living monster, how much more forcibly in a more sublime contemplation, it may would he appreciate bis insignificance ! fall out otherwise, in respect that the And should be extend his view a few steps Law of Essences are more certaine, and farther, and see in that tremendous aniof a far more facile direction, then those mal the very earth “in which we move of existency; which is so necessarily and have our being,” to what a calamientituled to infinite Incertainty, from tous depth of degradation will he have reApproximation of Accidents, that it would duced his high prerogatives! And has all now be an equal madnesse for the Govern- our philosophy then'arrived to this, that our to think he can, or the governed to man is but a mere animalcule, infesting, fancie hee should, constitute Laws, Adæ- with his brother tribes of the animal quate to humane Velleity, since the wills kingdom, the crevices and rugæ in the of no two Sons of Adam did ever Mathe- hide of that base creature whom we dematically concenter, nor were ever two nominate Earth! Even so doth appear to humane Actions shaped with parallel cir- be the truth. Our reasons for believing cumstances; which, as it seems necessa- the earth to be an animal are grounded tily to import the deficiency of the Rule, upon analogy,a species of evidence whích 80 also to imply the evident reason of we are told by an illustrious and approved
authority in these matters, furnishes "a lead to the inference, that this stratified rational ground of conjecture and inquiry," tegument underlays also the bosom of the differing from experience, that grand abut- deep, except where the latter communiment of our logic, only in degree. On a cates with the internal parts of the circucomparison of what may be termed the latory system. While attributes of the earth, with the charac
Each purple peak, each flinty spire ters of the animal kingdom, it would seem that this globe is deficient in no one par
Shooting abruptly from the dell
Its thunder-splinter'd pinnacle, ticular, and even possesses more than the common allotment of those distinctive are like the spines and processes on the properties which are said to be essential body of the little sea-urchin, the mere to animality. They have only this very prickles or tubercles jutting from her natural difference, that where they are surface! It is almost pitiable to abase developed in the earth, they are commen- in this way, by “one fell swoop,” all the surate with her magnitude. Yet they admired effusions of poetry and romance have escaped the piercing ken of human that have resounded, for so many ages observation ; our perceptions apparently past, their encomiestic strains o'er the being confined within a certain range of wondrous beauties of nature. Where objects, equally perplexed on the one then, too, are the mighty pyramids ! hand by immensity, or minuteness on the other. Has not the earth motion, one of
The cloud-capt towers, the gorgeous palaces!
The solemn temples ! the most prominent features of life? Who has not dwelt with admiring rapture on They are indeed “ like an insubstantial the almost immeasurable, yet impercepti- pageant,” and little doth it matter if they ble rapidity of her flight! She has the " leave not a rack behind.” Incomparavery tourbillon, the whirligig or rotatory bly less durable, and infinitely less magnimotion of many of the similarly-shaped ficent or vast, than the massive pillars of animals of the zoophytical tribe. Has coral reared by the pygmy labours of the she not blood-vessels? What are those polype in the bosom of the ocean, they mighty rivers, the Wolga, the Danube, are yet the proud and arrogant monuthe Ganges, the Indus, the Nile, the La ments of human exertion, and the sublime Plata, the Oronoko, the Hudson, the Mis- mansions of human habitants ! Neversissippi, and the St. Lawrence, with their theless, those objects that we so presumpinnumerable branches, but so many huge tively group together under the common veins that pervade and ramify the super- appellation of Works of Nature and Art, fices of her envelope! The ocean and can never entirely lose their influence the inland seas are so many receptacles upon the human intellect. Though dior sinuses, in which are concentrated the vested of much of their importance by circulating fluids previous to their admis- the light of analogy, they still retain cersion, probably, into a still larger set oftain unalienable relations towards ourvessels, wbich communicate with some selves that can never be undermined. central point in the dark recesses of her Thus their relations of magnitude, of interior. After all the boasted discove- proportion, of fitness, will, in all probaries of naturalists, their exfodiations have bility, remain immutable while the conscarcely penetrated into the bare corticle stitution of our mind preserves its susof her substance. As far as these re- ceptibility to beauty and sublimity. That searches have gone, however, it would part of the earth's coat which we call the appear, from the succession of stratą we alluvion, and which fills up the valleys meet with, that this crusty covering or and forms the banks and bottoms of lakes coat is, like that of most animals, of a and rivers, and lines the coasts of seas, laminated, or rather tunicated structure, appears to be no other than a deposition The fathomability of inland seas and lakes or secretion, like the adipose and cellujar matter of other animals, to give her The earth, too, perspires, and again a convenient and elegant rotundity of absorbs the fluids that she had emitted, shape.
thus keeping good the round of circulaThe lofty pine, “ fretted by the angry tion, as seen in “clouds, and vapours, gusts of heaven,” to the humble daisy and storms." If she has no distinct that just lifts its head from the ground, mouth at either of her poles, it is probaare the hairs and down, of various figure, ble that her nutritive functions are perand strength, and size, that embellish and formed entirely through the medium of mat over the face of this globe. It is her natural pores. It is difficult to say among these puny bristles, and on this why she has been put, by some, in the soft pubescence, that the little animalcule femenine gender. Man “plays such fantastic tricks;" and But our topic becomes too unwieldy to makes the shaggy forests and pimple be dwelt upon in so small a compass. It mountains of old Earth re-echo'with his swells too rapidly to be long gazed upon clamours! Were it compatible with my with steadiness. Hear the loud crash of limits, I could here expatiate on the mul- her voice in the thunder “ bellowing o'er titudes of other and larger animalcules, the deep!” Hark, while she rolls along that nestle and procreate like a sort of epi- the sky with her sister spheres ! It is zootic or parasitic vermin, in the hairs the tremendous earthquake that ever and and dandriff of old mother Earth. I anon shakes the foundations of her frame, might tell of those who, like Taenias, and and giving vent to her dreadful fury, Lumbrici, and Hydatids, roll about in her pierces with deafping din the remotest very blood, and revel upon her vitals! regions of eternal space! The sea-serpent, with his terrific contor
Yours, &c. tions, would dwindle into the microscopic
TRISMEGISTUS. eel, and the monster Kraken and the spouting whale form but larger species of
Pronunciation of the Latin Language. the same contemptible race. She is too immeasurably great, however, to evince The following is' extracted from the the reaction of sensibility from the insect Gentleman's Magazine, published in stings and musquito turmoils of a class of London. The cause of complaint, existences so piteously insignificant! But which is the chief subject of the article, let us recall to our reflection for a mo- exists also in the United States; and the ment the countless myriads again that proposed remedy has frequently been sugbarbour in the substance of these very gested to several professors and learned beings!
gentlemen in this country. In fact, it is What a boundless field of inquiry here inconsistent to say that the Latin lanpresents itself! Do we then see the guage is the universal language of the links, can we mark the progression of learned, so long as its true pronunciation that chain, whose extremes are concealed is not universally adopted. in awful mystery! Is creation, then, but The rhymes of an angliciser or English an involuted series of germs! This is cer- latinist, are no rhymes to the latinist who tainly correspondent to the ordination of pronounces the language correctly. Howthings, and even to that arithmetical or ever, in the remarks below, the subject graduated action, if I may so call it, of is presented in a proper point of view; the human mind itself. The doctrine of and while we offer it to the attention of equivocal generation rests upon a cause- our learned readers, we would also urge less base, a supposition at which the soul its importance.
K. N. of man recoils with chilling horror! It is, besides, an idle and useless fantasy, if “ I would observe respecting the nait be true that the earth itself is an tional disadvantage, that while the latinanimal
ists of all the other countries of Europe,
(notwithstanding some slight varieties of conclude on the subject, I would (with pronunciation) can mutually understand all due deference to those to whom defeeach other; the Englishman, when in rence is due) beg leave to ask company with foreigners, finds himself Is it not matter of serious regret, that placed in the awkward predicament of the British youth, who devote so consibeing unable either to understand their derable a portion of their best days to the Latin, or to make them understand his. acquisition of the Latin language, are
This serious disadvantage chiefly re- not taught to adopt that very simple and sults from his persevering refusal to com- easy pronunciation which might render ply with the universal practice of the it useful to them in those situations where rest of Europe in the pronunciation of it would prove most useful? I mean, in the first three vowels, A, E, and I, as if foreign European countries, whose verhe were determined that the old descrip- nacular languages they do not undertion
If once the heads of our universities - penitus toto divisos orbe Britannos,"
were to issue their mandate for the adopshould "for aye,” (A E 1,) hold good, tion of the continental pronunciation of even in language, as well as in Geogra- the A, E, and I, the example would be phical position.
immediately followed in all our public Hence, when continental scholars hear and private schools; and the rising genehim speak Latin with his insular pecu- ration of English latinists would soon be liarity of pronunciation, we need not be qualified to hold converse with the lasurprised if they should suppose bim to tinists of any other country, to which be speaking in some barbarous, unintel- business, pleasure, or accident, might ligible jargon;-or, on the other hand, if conduct them. they suspect that he seriously aims at If ever the subject should come under speaking real Roman Latin, they must consideration, the T I before vowels (as very frequently be at a loss to unriddle in Oratio, Gratia, &c.) may also reasonahis meaning: how, indeed, can it be other. bly claim attention; for although the T, wise, when they necessarily mistake his in such positions, is by some nations proA for E, his E for I, bis Vale for Veli, nounced as T S, and by others as the soft Rarum for Rerum, Dearum for Dierum, S or C, the Englishman would be more Bene for Bini, Spero for Spiro, Verum readily and certainly understood 'by fofor Virum, Veto for Vito, &c. &c. &c. ?- reigners in general, if he pronounced it for it were an endless task to notice the as simple T (Ora-ty-o, Gra-ty-a) than as almost innumerable misconceptions like- SH; because, in the former case, his ły to arise from his pronunciation of these hearers would at least know what letters two vowels alone, the A and the E. were intended, and thus would at once
But the evil ends not here, The I, as catch the sense, independent of the pronounced by him in Divus, Vivo, &c. sound. is another source of embarrassment, In the mean time, I do not conceive though not (I grant) of immediate mis- that this innovation, or rather, this restoconception; because foreigners in gene- ration of the genuine sounds, can be liaral can have no conception of what is ble to any valid or serious objections from intended by that sound, which is un- those who are the most deeply interested known to their ears; except indeed, that in the question-our classical scholars, a German (having a similar sound in the I mean ; though it might perhaps prove diphthong E I in his own language) may not altogether palatable to another de. be able to guess at the Englishman's scription of our fellow citizens who might meaning
be disposed to consider it as an odious I say nothing of the U, though, in some Shibboleth, furnishing a too ready critecases, to be mistaken for I U: but, to rion to distinguish the real latinist from Vol. IV,No. IT.
the unlatined pretender, who attempts the length of the arc, at the extremities to quote or read Latin words or phrases of which the pole is higher at one extrewhich he does not understand.
mity than at the other, by one degree, is always esteemed the length of a degree
on the surface of the earth. The lati. Observations on the Latitude, the Earth tude found by the pole’s altitude agrees
being considered as a spheroid ; by W. exactly with another method by which MARRAT, A. M. Teacher of Naviga- we ascertain the zenith distance, and then tion, 39 Fulton-street, New-York.
add or substract the sun's declination as is
shown in books of Astronomy. This laAs the drawing the parallel through the titude also agrees with the other celestial 45 degree of north latitude, which is in- arcs or angles, and from it, the azimuths, tended to be the boundary line between times, &c. are deduced without any error. the United States and the British settle
Astronomers make use of the terms ments, is become a matter of dispute, the reduced latitude, and corrected latitude following rema may serve to elucidate (see Delambre); but these have no referthe subject. It would appear from the ence to the observed geographical latistatements made by gentlemen engaged tude under consideration. The latitude in the operation, that the latitude found of the Observatory, at Greenwich, was by observation is not the true latitude. In found by more than one hundred observabooks of navigation and geography, the tions of circum-polar stars, to a fraction of earth is generally represented as a globe a second; and who ever imagined that or sphere; and, according to Dr. Mackay, this was not the true latitude? Or who “ the latitude of any place, is that por- will dispute that the latitude of the Obtion of the meridian of that place which servatory at Paris, is not truly found; or is contained between the equator and the that the French astronomers have taken given place.” Dr. Bowditch calls it“ the a false for a true latitude? The reduced angular distance from the equator mea- latitude is sometimes called the true latisured on its secondary, or the meridian tude, and it is so; and the observed latipassing through it.” These definitions tude would give wrong results when rehave no reference to the earth as a sphe- ferred to certain astronomical operations : roid; but the latitude is, and always must it is also true in reference to the spheroidbe found, in practice, on the earth's sur- al earth; but no more so in the latter face;
and the figure of the earth is not a case than the observed latitude: both are globe, but an oblate spheroid. Others true. Whatever the exact figure of the say, that“ the latitude of any place on the earth may be, that is, whether we use earth, is equal to the altitude of the pole the eccentricity found by Sir Isaac Newabove the horizon of that place, measured ton, La Place, or the more correct one on a meridian passing through the zenith of Dr. Adrain, the reduced. latitude is of the place and the pole.” La Place easily determined; but in every case it (Exposilion du systeme du Monde) says, will come out a different quantity. Adopt* La distance à l'équateur, depend de ing that discovered by Dr. Adrain, the l'angle compris entre le zénith et l'équa- parallel required to be drawn, would be teur céleste, et cet angle est evidemment in a parallel 12 1–4 miles to the north of the égal à la hauteur du pôle sur l'horizon; parallel passing through north latitude 45° cette hauteur est ce que l'on nomme lati- 5' 22" 8-10. But is this the latitude as tude, en géographie.” In the very deli- comm
nmonly understood by astronomers and cate operations for determining the length navigators? and if the new latitude were of a degree on the earth's surface, the adopted, should we not be under the neheight of the pole is always determined cessity of reducing the latitudes of every at each extremity of the measured arc, other place upon the earth, to correspond with the greatest possible accuracy; and with the latitude of the above parallel,