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should alter our minds we would send them you?-We doubt not but many of our white word. Some months after, a deputation brethren fear God, and ought to be trusted, of our brothers to the west visited us, offer. but how shall we find them? ing us a large tract of their land as a free Father--We fear that we have been degist, if we would accept it. We thanked ceived, and your predecessor imposed on. our brothers for their generous offer, and Strange things have come to our ears that promised, at some future time, to send men

our message to your predecessor, which we to view the land. The war took place the signed, was very different from what was next year-nothing more was done or heard read to us--that it said we were desirous of of by us, of this land, until the spring after leaving our seats here and going to the west the peace, when our brothers again visited --provided we obtained land to the westus, making the same offer. It never entered ward, we relinquished our reservation here. our hearts of leaving our present seats, and If any thing like this was in our message we going to the westward ourselves; but, as were basely deceived. We had but these there were many of the Six Nations in the objects in view, to inform our father, the western country, who had no seat to rest on, President, of this offer of our western bro. but was liable to be sold under them any thers, the opportunity that it offered for our day the owners chose, we rose up to con- scattered children-to obtain his approbasider the offer of our brothers, that we might tion and ansurance that the land should be provide for our scattered children. Through affirmed to us by the United States; any the assistance of our brothers Jones and thing more, except providing provision's Parrish, and another great friend, who ad- for our men while transacting the business, vised and assisted us, we laid our circum- was as base an imposition as ever was pracstances and views before our father, the tised. President of the United States, acquainting Father-We declare to you, we desire him with our offer--that, with his approba- you to publish to all our wbite brothers, that tion, we would accept this land, provided it is our fixed and determined purpose to live the United States would make it sure to us. and die on our present seats. It is sealed to Our father, the President, was pleased to us by the bones of our fathers. They ob. certify his approbation, and that the land tained it by their blood. Our bones shall should be made sure to us, agreeably to our lie besides theirs. It is the heritage of the request. On receiving this information from Almighty. He gave it us. He it is must our father, the President, we sent eight men take it from us. to view the land and take its dimensions. Father-We mean no threat by this. We Our brother, Captain Parrish, went with know we are in the hands of our white them to do the writing, that it might be brothers, they can destroy us with ease. made sure to už, according to the word of But they need not think to persuade us to our father, the President. Our men found part with our lands. As free men, we claim no land. Colonel Ogden (who is said to the right to choose between being killed hold the right to purchase our land), recom- outright, or a lingering execution, by being mended us to send to Detroit, and Governor driven a thousand miles into the wilderness. Cass would put us in a way to find our land. Where, father, where would our wbite bro. We sent six men to Detroit. Governor Cass thers have us go? The Indian claim to land informed our men, that in September there is put out for more than a thousand miles would be a large council of Indians, of dif- to the west, except little plots for particular ferent nations, met at Fort Meigs; the Six nations. Nations would do well to have a deputation Father We have confidence in you: you there; they would then douhtless find their

cannot see your red children, with their litland. We sent twelve men to Fort Meigs; tle ones, driven off their land by stealth instead of our western brothers having lands and fraud, leaving the sepulchres of their to give the Six Nations, they sold the seats fathers, their farms, their farming tools and from under those that were among them. cattle, dying by families on the road, through

Father-We are distressed. Captain Par. hardship and privation ; eschanging all their rish has informed us that we could now ex- advances to civilization, and all its comforts, change our lands for lands to the westward; for the hardships of the chase, without he advised us to do it, or we should certain house or friend. ly lose them, for it was the determination of Father-We have confidence in you: that the government of the United States, that if you see any device formed against us, the Indians should lose their present seats; you will frustrate it, and succour your red those that did not exchange them would lose children. We have deceived no man; we them.

have wronged no man. Our langua ge ha: Father-We are astonished and amazed! been one ; we choose not to part with our Our old friend, Colonel Ogden, has altered land. If we have been needlessly alarmed, bis address to us; he has for years talked to you will pity our ignorance, and forgive our us as a man that wished to purchase our childish fears. lands, if we were pleased to sell: He now Father. We have many things to say. writes to us how we shall conduct on his The character of our agent is of infinite imlands which we occupy.

portance to us. If any come to you for the Father. To wbom shall we go, but unto office, having our request to recommend



them, we wish to withdraw that request. INTRODUCTION

SILK-WORM INTO We see so little into white men, that we THE GREEK EMPIRE, DURING THE REIGN feel incapable of choosing for ourselves.- OF THE EMPEROR JUSTINIAN. We desire our father to choose a man that The frequency of open hostilities between he can trust, and we will confide in him. the emperors of Constantinople and the

Father-We trust that you will pardon monarchs of Persia, together with the inthe multitude of our words, and let none creasing rivalship of their subjects in the deceive you, that this is the voice of a few trade with India, gave rise to an event individuals, and not the voice of the Six which produced a considerable change in Nations. It is the united voice of the Six the nature of that commerce. As the use Nations in the State of New-York. The of silk both in dress and furuiture, became chiefs of Buffalo, Catarraugus, Gennessee gradually more general in the court of and Onondaga are now in council; we have the Greek emperors, who imitated and surthe message of Alleghana and Oneida with passed the sovereigns of Asia in splendour us, desiring that we should speak to our and magnificence; and as China, in which, father, the President, entreating him to according to the concurring testimony of consider and help us.

Oriental writers, the culture of silk was Our Father-Will not be deceived; our originally known, still continued to be the words will find his heart. He will receive only country which produced that valuable them. They are the words of truth and so- commodity: the Persians, improving the berness. We ask nothing but, wherein we advantages which their situation gave them have been mistaken, we may be better in- over the merchants, from the Arabian gulf, formed-wherein we may have been wrong- supplanted them in all the marts of India to ed, we may be righted—wherein we may which silk was brought by sea from the be in danger, we may be protected—and East. Having it likewise in their power to that our white brothers may know our fixed molest or to cut off the caravans, which, in purpose of living and dying on our present order to procure a supply from the Greek seats.

empire, travelled by land to China, through Father-You will pity us, you will forgive the northern provinces of their kingdom, us; your goodness and wisdom will succour they entirely engrossed that branch of comus. Speak, father, speak to your children, merce. Constantinople was obliged to dethat their minds may be at rest. Speak to pend on the rival power for an article which their council fire at this place. Let us hear luxury viewed, and desired as essential to your own words; send them by safe hands; elegance. The Persians, with the usual ra, for we fear liers-in-wait are watching to pacity of monopolists, raised the price of devour your words, they may not reach silk to such an exorbitant height, that Jus

tinian, eager not only to obtain a full and May the Great Spirit preserve you many certain supply of a commodity which was years a blessing to all

children. become of indispensable use, but solicitous

to deliver the commerce of his subjects
from the exactions of his enemies, en-

deavoured, by means of his ally, the ChrisIn his admirable poem on Reason, Super- tian Monarch of Abyssinia, to wrest some stition, and Infidelity, the great Haller says, portions of the silk trade from the Persians.

“ Vernust kan, wie der Mond, ein Trost in this attempt he failed; but when he least der dunkeln Zeiten, Uns durch die Craune expected it, he, by an unforeseen event, atNacht mit balbem Schimmer Citen; Dertained in some measure, the object which be Wahrheit Morgen-Roth Zeigt erst dic wahre had in view, A. D. 55. Two Persian monks Welt, Waun Gottes Sonnen-Licht durch having been employed as missionaries in unsre Dämmrung fällt.”

some of the Christian churches, which were Reason like the moon, a consolation in established (as we are informed by Coomas) dark times, can guide us with its faint rays in different parts of India, had penetrated through the dusky night. 'Tis, however, the into the country of the Seres or China. morning dawn of truth that shows the real There they observed the labours of the silkworld, when the light of the divine sun falls worm, and became acquainted with all the through our twilight.

arts of man in working up its productions into such a variety of elegant fabrics. The

prospect of gain, or perhaps an indignant ANCIENT OPULENCE OF BRUGES.

zeal, excited by seeing this lucrative branch In the year 1301, Joanna of Navarre, the of commerce engrossed by unbelieving nawife of Philip le Bel, king of France, having tions, prompted them to repair to Constanbeen some days in Bruges, was so much tinople. There they explained to the emstruck with the grandeur and wealth of that peror the origin of silk, as well as the city, and particularly with the splendid ap- various modes of preparing and manufacpearance of the citizens' wives, that she was turing it, mysteries hitherto unknown, or moved by female envy (says Guicciardini) very imperfectly understood in Europe ; to exclaim with indignation, “ I thought that encouraged by his liberal promises, they I had been the only queen here, but I find undertook to bring to the capital a sufficient there are many hundreds inore !"

number of those wonderful insects, to whose








Jabours man is so much indebted. This 1570.-In Holland, at this time, they they accomplished by conveying the eggs smoked out of conical tubes of palm leaves of the silk-worm in a hollow cane. They plaited together. were hatched by the heat of a dunghill, fed 1575. First appeared a print of the plant with the leaves of a wild mulberry tree, and in Andre Thevet's Cosmographie. they multiplied and worked in the same 1585.-The English first saw the Indians manner as in those climates where they of Virginia use clay pipes, from which time first became objects of human attention and they began to be used in Europe.

Vast numbers of these insects were 1604.-James the first endeavored to abosoon reared in different parts of Greece, lish the use of tobacco, by very heavy imparticularly in the Peloponnesus. Sicily af- posts on it. terwards undertook to breed silk-worms 1610.--The smoking of tobacco was known with equal success, and was imitated from at Constantinople. To render the custom time to time in several towns of Italy. In ridiculous, a Turk, detected using it, was led all these places, extensive manufactures through the streets with a pipe transfixed were established and carried on, with silks through his nose. of domestic production. The demand for 1615.-Began to be cultivated in Holland. silk from the East diminished of course, the 1619.-James the first ordered no planter subjects of the Greek emperors were no to cultivate more than 100lb. longer obliged to have recourse to the Per- 1620.-Smoking first introduced into Ger sians for a supply of it, and a considerable many. change took place in the nature of the com- 1631.-first introduced into Austria by the mercial intercourse between Europe and Swedish troops. India.

1634.-Forbidden in Russia under the penalty of having the nose cut off.

1653.-First used in Switzerland. The VENUS, OBSERVED

magistrates at first punished those found

smoking, but the custom at last became too The first communication which this great general to be taken notice of. Pennsylvanian philosopher made to the 1690.-Pope Innocent XII excommunicaAmerican Philosophical Society, was a cal- ted all who should take snuff or use tobacco culation of the transit of Venus, as it was to whilst at church. happen June 3, 1769. He was one of those 1724.—Pope Benedict revoked the bull, appointed to observe it in Norristown town- as he himself used tobacco immoderately. ship, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. Since this time the use of tobacco 'has beThis phenomenon had never been seen but come almost universal. twice before by any inhabitant of our earth, and would never be seen again by any person then living. The day arrived, and there Mr. Argcula, of Golnitz, in Altenburg, has was no cloud in the horizon ; the observers, in his garden an apple tree, which in the in silence and trembling anxiety, waited for year 1816, bore 268 sorts of apples and other the predicted moment of observation. It fruits ; in fact, the tree has on it above 300 came; and in the instant of contact be. sorts, but those last grafted have not yet tween the planet and sun, an emotion of borne. This gentleman has effected this cujoy so powerful was excited in the breast of riosity for his amusement by inoculating and Rittenhouse, that he fainted.

grafting, and has fastened to every branch a little board with the name of the sort of apple it bears. The tree has a strange appear

ance, from the various shapes and colours The following facts respecting tobacco of the leaves, hlossoms and fruits. Some were taken from a work by professor Beck- years ago, the Russians bivoacked near this man, of Gottingen:

tree, and were surprised at the strange 1496.-Romanus Pane, a Spanish Monk, shape of it, and the number of little boards, whom Columbus, on his second voyage, that they did not injure it, though they cut left in America, published the first account down other fruit trees for firewood. of Tobacco, under the name of Cohoba.

1535.—The negroes on the plantations in the West-Indies began to use it.

Periodical Journals and Newspapers pub1559.-Jean Nicot, envoy from France to lished in the Austrian Empire : -The numPortugal, sent some of the seeds to Paris ; ber of periodical journals (not newspapers) from him it acquired the name of Nico- published in the whole Austrian Empire, is tiana. When it was first used in France it 34. Of, these, 13 are published at Vienna, was called herbe du grand Prieur, of the 9 in Italy, 2 at Prague, 3 at Saltzburg, 1 at house of Loraine, who was very fond of it. Grätz, 2 at Pest, and 1 at Presburg : 20 It was also called herbe de St. Croix, from in the German language, 8 in the Italian, Cardinal St. Croix, who first introduced it 1 in the Hungarian, 1 in the Slavonian, 1 in into Italy. It obtained the name of Tobacco the new Greek language : -2 are dedicated from the Island of Tobago, from whence it to theology, 2 to jurisprudence, 3 to mediwas first obtained,

cine and surgery, 2 to natural philosophy:




1 to the military science, 2 to history and statistics, 1 to economics, 4 to the belles lettres, i to music, 10 to miscellaneous SIR, I'm an auld Highlandman, but I subjects, 1 for youth.- As literary journals, cannot help that : returning from a long rewe mention the admirable Biblioteca Ita- sidence abroad, I find that most of my liana ; the Hungarian journal, called Tudo. countrymen have disguised their names, as manyos Gyujtemeny; and the Chronicle if they were ashamed of them; maybe they of Austrian Literature.--In the whole mo- have reason, but I cannot help that neinarchy there appear 31 newspapers ; viz. ther. My present purpose in applying to 17 German, 7 Italian, 1 Latin, 2 Hunga- you, whose journal pleased me very much rian, 1 Bohemian, 1 Polish, 1 Greek, in Jamaica, is to ask you when and on what 1 Servian :-Of these, 7 are published in occasion it became unfashionable to use the Vienna, 2 in Bohemia, in Moravia, 4 in noble prefix of Mac. I see nothing now Hungary and Transylvania, 2. in Gallicia, but large Ms with little commas stuck up 1 in Styria, 1 in Carinthia, 1 in Salzburg, on their right shoulders, thus M', and very 1 in Tyrol, 2 in Illyria, 7 in Italy. With seldom a bit of a c, thus Mc; and would in. the exception of the Austrian Observer, the deed, sir, be glad to learn, why I should not, Wanderer, the Vienna Bohemian Gazette, without being odd, subscribe myself, as the Ephemerides Posonienses, the Magyaz ever, Kurir, the Servian Gazette, and the THAE

Your friend and servant, TPAPO2, these papers are chiefly read for

ALEXANDER MAC ALPINE. the advertisements and miscellaneous intel. Lime-Street, 2d June. ligence.



Report of Diseases treated at the Public Dis- ria Chronica, 6; Diarrhæa, 21; Leucor

pensary, New-York, and in the Private rhæa, 1 ; Amenorrhæa, 5; Cessatio MenPractice of the Reporter, during the month sium, 1; Plethora, 1; Hydrops,(Dropsy,) 2; of September, 1818.

Ascites, (Dropsy of the Abdomen,) 1; Vermes,

4; Calculus, 1 ; Syphilis, 6; Urethritis ViruFEBRIS Intermittens, (Intermittent Fever) lenta, 7; Paraphymosis

, 2; Hernia Humo7; Febris Remittens, (Remittent Fever,) ralis, 2; Tumor, 1 ; Contusio, 7; Stremma, 9; Febris Continua, (Continued Fever,) 27; (Sprain,) 3; Luxatio, (Dislocation,) 1; Febris Infantum Remittens, (Infantile Remit- Fractura, 1; Vulnus, 5; Abscessus, 4; tent Fever,) 8; Phlegmone, 4; Ophthalmia, Ulcus, 16; Ulcera Faucium, 1; Ustio, (Inflammation of the Eyes,) 9; Cynanche (Burn,) 3; Opacitas Corniæ, 1; Scabies et Tonsillaris, (Inflammatory Sore Throat) 6; Prurigo, 8; Porrigo, 3; Herpes, 1; ErupCynanche Trachealis, (Hives or Croup,) 2; tiones Variæ, 7. Catarrhus, (Catarrh,) 10; Bronchitis, (In- In September, the constitution of the atflammation of the Bronchiæ,) 3; Pneumonia, mosphere is generally very unequal; rapid 18; Pneumonia Typhodes, (Typhoid Pneu- fluctuations of temperature, fair intervals, mony,) 4; Pertussis, (Hooping Cough) 18; and violent storms, or boisterous weather, Mastitis, (Inflammation of the Female Mam- reciprocally succeeding each other. The ,) 2; Hepatitis, (Inflammation of the first six days of this month were warm, dry, Liver,) 2; Icterus, (Jaundice,) 1; Enteritis, and serene; from the 7th to the 13th, the (Inflammation of the Intestines,) 2; Nepbre- heats intermitted, and there fell a small tis, (Inflammation of the Kidney,) 1; Rheu- quantity of rain, which greatly refreshed matismus, 4; Hydrothorax, (Dropsy of the the parched earth, and gave to the decaying Chest,) 1; Cholera, 12; Dysenteria, 23; verdure of the fields a temporary renovaErysipelas, (St. Anthony's Fire,) 2; Urti- tion. On the 14th, warm weather returned caria, (Nettle Rash,) 2; Rubeola, (Measles) again, with southerly and southwesterly 2; Dentitio, 3; Convulsio, 1.

winds; and the 15th and 16th, were the

hottest and most sultry days in the month, Asthenia, (Debility,) 9; Vertigo, 3 ; Ce- the thermometer reaching to 81 and 820 iu phalalgia, 6; Dyspepsia et Hypochondria- the shade. To this oppressive heat there sis, 13; Hysteria, 3 ; Colica et Obstipatio, succeeded a sudden depression of tempera8; Paralysis, 2; Palpitatio, 1; Asthma et ture, which continued, with little variation, Dyspnea, 3; Bronchitis Chronica, 5; to the end of the month, the winds blowing Phthisis Pulmonalis, 8; Rheumatismus almost incessantly between the north and Chronicus, 12; Pleurodyne, 2; Lumbago, southwest; and the Equinox was ushered in 3; Nephralgia, 1; Epistaxis, 1 ; Hæmopty. with boisterous or tempestuous weather, and sis, 2; Hæmorrhois, 3; Menorrhagia, 1; a severe northeasterly storm on the 19th ; Dysmenorrhæa, 2; Dysuria, 2; Dysente. after which there were several frosts, and


fires were agreeable, particularly in the fraught with much mischief, even in the mornings and evenings. Rain fell, in great most simple forms of the disease. The er or less quantities, on the 7th, 811, 9th, phantom debility, still haunts and enslaves 17th, 19th, and 20th; the whole, amounting the minds of many medical practitioners. to rather more than three and an half inches So long as there is universal excitement, in depth.--The Barometrical range is from cordial and stimulating medicines cannot 29.03 to 30.15 inches. The highest tempe- fail to add to the febrile heat and irritation, rature of the mornings, at 9 o'clock, was and, instead of arresting, hasten on, the de. 68°, lowest 43°, mean 590 ; highest at 2 bility they were intended to counteract. o'clock, P. M. 829, lowest 58°, mean 71°; The abstraction of every extraordinary highest at sunset 78°, lowest 569, mean 66'. stimulus, and the more free use of active Greatest variation in 24 hours, 170 Mean evacuants on the onset of the disease, would, temperature of the whole month, 65o. we are convinced, not only diminish the There was an Aurora Borealis on the even- number of deaths, but the “ sickening specing of the 20th.

tacle of a lingering convalescence, where To children under two years of age, this the shattered powers of the system can month has been less fatal than the preced- scarcely rally themselves even with all the ing; but as it respects adults, the general appliances of permanent and diffusible stiquantum of disease bas rather increased. muli,” would also be in a great measure The sudden Auctuations of temperature, avoided. together with the inclement and boisterous state of the weather at the equinoctial pe- The New-York Bills of Mortality for Sepriod, has made a strong inflaminatory im- tember, give the following account of deaths pression, so that in addition to the usual from different diseases : endemic complaints of the season, such as Abscess, 1; Apoplexy, 3; Asthma, 1; Choleras, Dysenteries, Diarrhæas, and Fe. Burned or Scalded, 2; Cancer, 1 ; Casualty, vers of different kind, there bas been an 3; Chlorosis, 1 ; Cholera Morbus, 12; Conunusual number of diseases of the class sumption, 57; Convulsions, 10; Diarrhea, Phlegmasiæ. In the latter part of the 9; Dropsy, 5; Dropsy in the Chest, 6; month, Peripneunonies, Rheumatisms, Dropsy in the Head, 11; Drowned, 6; Ophthalmies, and Erysipelatous swellings Dysentery, 49; Dyspepsia, 1; Fever, 11; were quite frequent; and many persons Fever, Biliqus, 1; Fever Puerperal, 1; Fewere affected with Coughs, Corizas, and in- ver, Typhous, 25; Flux, infantile, 23; flammatory sore throats

. Owing to this Hæmorrhage, 2; Hæmoptysis, 1; Hives, 2; state of the weather, Hooping Cough has Hooping Cough, 28; Inflammation of the also assumed a more aggravated character, Brain, 2; Inflammation of the Chest, 8; the pulmonic irritation being much in Inflammation of the Stomach, 2 ; Inflamcreased; and in two instances, the Reporter mation of the Bowels, 4; Inflammation of has seen the disease terminating in Cy- the Liver, 1; Insanity, 3; Intemperance, 2; nanche Trachealis or Croup.

Jaundice, 1; Locked Jaw, 1; Lumber AbTyphus has somewhat increased during scess, 1; Marasmus, 2; Measles, 3;_old this month, and in many instances has been Age, 9; Palsy, 2; Scrophula or King's Evil, complicated with sub-inflammatory affec. 3; Sprue, 10; Still-born, 12; Suicide, 1; tion of the Bronchiæ and lungs, together Tabes Mesenterica, 10; Teething, 7; 'Unwith severe pain in the head, and much dis- known, 5; Worms, 3.-Total 358. turbance of the sensorium. These varia. Of this number there died 4 of and untions in the character and features of the dis- der the age of 1 year; 71 between 1 and 2 ease have demanded corresponding changes years; 28 between 2 and 5; 7 between 5 in the mode of treatment, and have espe- and 10; 17 between 10 and 20; 29 between cially required a more strict adherence to 20 and 30; 40 betiveen 30 and 40; 18 bethe antiphlogistic plan, with the employ- tween 40 and 50; 22 between 50 and 60; ment, sometimes, of the lancet. The ad. 11 between 60 and 70; 8 between 70 and ministration of wine, and other cordial and' 80; and 7 between 80 and 90. stimulating remedies, in the early stages of

JACOB DYCKMAN, M.D. typhus, though a common practice, is New-York, September 30th, 1818.

ERRATA. Page 63. The first line of the extract from the tenth Elegy of Arden's Ovid, being incorrectly printed in some of the copies, should read thus: I have a bark to urge along

her way

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