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levels of Lincolnshire, on the edge of the high countries, they find very great quantities of antediluvian timber-trees. for such I do not scruple to call them. The like is observed on the marshy grounds at the mouth of all great rivers, and generally in all boggy and moorish ground, all the world over. Likewise among these trees they frequently find great quantities of hazelnuts, acorns, and the like, crowded together on heaps. These appearances, as well as the stone before us, are, I suppose, not only a demonstrative proof of the veracity of the sacred records, whence we have the account of the Deluge; but likewise in my judgment, bring us to a very near approach to the time of the beginning of the Deluge; but different from what is assigned in Authors. I observe, they generally make the beginning of the Deluge to fall in winter. Scaliger fixes it to the 17th of November; Abp. Usher, the 17th of December; Whiston, the 28th of November; Shuckford, the 1st or 2d of November. The Sacred Historian says, it began on the 17th day of the second month. The first month they begin with the autumnal equinox, as if Moses reckoned time by exact Julian years. But according to the calculations I have made of this matter, I find God Almighty ordered Noah to get the creatures into the Ark on Sunday the 12th of October, the very day of the autumnal equinox that year, and on this present day, on the Sunday se'nnight following (the 19th of October) that terrible catastrophe began, the moon being past her third quarter. If we would know how it answers to this year, in order to understand the season; it is parallel to the 19th of September, when summer is over, and autumn begins. All the grain and fruits of the earth are now perfectly ripe, and fit to be gathered. The nuts began to drop off the trees, Holyrood day being past. The seeds of vegetables have all possible chance to escape in sufficient quantity, to cloath again the new world. Many trees were then torn up by the roots with the violence of the storm, hurried down from the high countries, and with the decreasing waters left in the mud, on the edge of the fens, mouths of great rivers, &c. where the turf has overgrown them. Along with them nuts and acorns were driven together in heaps, and are found at this day in their true form. The oil they abound with, and hardness of their shell, has enabled them to withstand a total change of parts, though the colour be lost, and the whole like dirt. They wanted the condition of the fruits in our stone, if such they be, which happening to fall into the cavity of a matter then beginning to turn into stone, by help of the petrifying juices, like insects in amber, have found a more durable tomb. It is just to suppose that, if the Deluge had begun at the latter end of November, or December, the nuts would have been sunk into the earth, which is generally soft in woods, or would have been eaten up by animals, or carried into their dens and holes by that time; and not so readily have been gathered together, to accompany the trees; as when beaten off the trees when first ripe, according to our assertion.

"This assignment of the beginning of the Deluge may possibly be a week earlier, or the like, but not later, and is attended too with this advantage : that the Ark rested on the top of Mount Ararat on Monday the 23d of March, and the earth generally appeared on the 5th of June; which answers to the beginning of our May, as to season. Here was the whole power of the summer's heat, to dry the earth, and call forth the benumbed vegetable world; and Noah went out of the Ark at the latter end of October, soon after the autumnal equinox, and there would be sufficient quantity of food for the creatures turned out. Whereas, by the other hypothesis, Noah quits the Ark at the very dregs of winter. Thus the flood began and ended at the time of year when the world was created, and in several respects there is a par ratio for it; though I believe God Almighty in this grand concern ordered it pursuant to many natural causes, and made use of the concurrence of all as far as they would extend; yet in the main it was purely miraculous; and to pretend to solve it by philosophical or astronomical principles is no less an impotent than an impious attempt; and among other things, has given a handle to the late sceptics, who doubt of the divine authority of the Scriptures; which, the more they are looked into, the more they discover their truth and beauties. I am, honoured and dear Sir, your most obedient and devoted servant, WM. STUKELEY."

"HONOURED AND DEAR SIR, Stamford, Dec. 29, 1730. "I received your Letter with a very particular pleasure, because therein I flattered myself that I perceived you had a favour for me, in a matter you will guess by the station I am now in. My Living here is worth 2001. per annum; and I have lately had a salary of 251. per annum settled on me by the Bishop of Lincoln *, as I ain Governor of an Hospital at Stamford by virtue of my Living. And I have a further expectancy of a Living in our neighbourhood; but it will be some trouble and charge to vindicate the Bishop's intended favour to me, which I should save, as well as the time I could employ better, if you should please more plainly to encourage my hopes; and then I should think only of pushing my future fortunes in a different quarter of the world. Our common friend Mr. Gale, who well knows all my views, can explain this, if you please to ask him about it. All I have to say in my own favour is, that no one in life had a greater respect for Sir Hans Sloane than myself, or has upon all occasions more endeavoured to vindicate his honour, when I lived in town; and the doing it has cost me some friendships, which I never regretted. I could mention in particular, that it bred a great coolness in a neighbour of mine of Ormond-street †. As I always espoused your interest cordially, so I shall be more engaged to do it when you are my Patron, and shall be more enabled to do it, when fixed nearer the Thames, for which I shall willingly enough change my present station, though a very plea

* Dr. Reynolds.

+ Undoubtedly by Dr. Mead.


sant one. I should then be set more in the eye of the world, and could be then a constant Member again of the Royal Society, and should endeavour to be an useful one. I have some Discourses which I wrote in town, with a view of sheltering them under your name. They are considerable curiosities in Botany, never yet taken notice of. I might then have opportunities of improving them, so as not to be unworthy of your patronage. I hope you will excuse the freedom I here take, in confidence of the long acquaintance have had with you. Nor would I have it thought that I have done any dishonour to the profession of Physic, by taking another gown. The first Founder of the College did the same, Dr. Linacre I mean, and died a Dignitary of the Church; and one of my views in it, under direction of the Archbishop of Canterbury, was to combat the Infidel spirit that prevails so much in this generation, for which I have made some preparation, and may perchance do it more effectually, when I come to enter the lists, than some others have done, that were altogether bred up in Divinity studies.—I drank your health yesterday at the Duke of Ancaster's. The Dutchess and Marquis of Lindsey are now under my care. I have some curiosities in my Collection, though few yet very remarkable, which I should think honoured by being added to your valuable Museum; and have had some thoughts about that, which I should be glad to communicate, if you have not better settled it yourself: so as to be a most noble monument of your fame, and learning, and industry, &c.—I heartily pray, dear Sir, for your health and happiness, and for the prosperity of your family in all its branches; and am, with great truth, dear Sir, your most obliged and obedient servant, WM. STUKELEY.

"Pardon haste.-I expect to be in town in February."

"HONOURED AND DEAR SIR, Stamford, April 14, 1733. "Our friend Mr. Gale acquaints me that Dr Wallis has sent a Letter to the Royal Society against my Discourse about the Goutails t. I perceive his facts are false, and his intent ungenerous and malicious. I desire you would please to order me a copy of that Letter, and the Society shall hear further from me.

"I am, with heartiest wishes of your health and happiness, and with greatest respect, dear Sir, &c. WM. STUKELEY." Stamford, April 28, 1723.


"I suppose it would be reckoned very inhuman and illegal, when a prisoner stands upon his trial, to deny him a copy of his indictment. Such, indeed, is the practice of the Spanish Inquisition and such is refusing me a copy of a paper read publicly against me at the Royal Society. I insist upon demanding a copy of it; and am, with great respect, &c WM. STUKELEY." "HONOURED AND DEAR SIR, Stamford, Jnly 7, 1733. "Last year, on June 29, the gout seized me; it lasted three or four months; nay, I cannot say I was well till I used Dr. Ro

* Dr. Wake. See before, p. 784.

+ See before, p. 25.


gers's oils, which was December 11. Just seven days earlier this year it seized me again very violently. Upon using the oils, the pain ceased in a day, but the swelling rose as high as ever. In nine days I buckled on my shoe, and walked out. I mean my ordinary shoe. In a fortnight I am perfectly well, and that not without greatest joy and amazement. I laugh at them that fancy either a repelling, or a returning of the humour; it kills it perfectly as fast as it comes, as much as an antidote does poison; and it is as specific a remedy as any in the whole compass of the art of Physic; the greatest discovery ever made in the art in our own country. During that week of operation, I wrote a second Letter to you, wherein I shall give the world the true history and cure of the Gout. We have received accounts daily of the success of the oils, from all parts of the kingdom, and not one failure. The Gout is really a poison, and this is the proper antidote for it.-I am, honoured and dear Sir, with heartiest wishes of your health, your most obedient servant, WM. STUKELEY." GOOD SIR HANS, Grimsthorp, July 4, 1735.


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"I am now attending the Dutchess of Ancaster in an hysteric colic. Mrs. Newton, housekeeper there, has been troubled with an inflammation in one of her eyes for a twelvemonth last past *. Every thing has been done for her that can be thought of, and without any effect. I fancy an external application may be serviceable. If you would be pleased to send her a small phial of your eye-water, I hope it would do her good. I am sure it would be kindly taken by the family here.

"They have printed a very elegant Edition of my book of the Gout in Ireland, with some addition. I doubt not but you have scen it. Our oils continue to meet with great success in Gout, Rheumatism, and Sciatica, all the kingdom over.



Stamford, Feb. 3, 1739-9.

"After my hearty thanks for your kind assistance to me, I thought it necessary to acquaint you with my present state, and ask your further advice. The Erysipelous Fever still continues, and is never quite off. It had a bad symptom, an asthma in the night, which is for the most part gone off, upon a critical discharge of humour on my late weakened feet. I cannot call it gouty, because it has not the pain and manner of the gout, rather of a dropsical swelling; and in a morning my head is a good deal out of order, the distemper seeming still to lie upon the nerves. My appetite is pretty good; and I sleep pretty well.I chiefly want your opinion whether or no I should take the bark

* Sir Hans Sloane was frequently consulted on disorders of the Eyes, a subject in which he was particularly well skilled. See his advice on the case of the young Marquis of Lindsey, p. 789; and I have now before me the following letter of advice from him for a daughter of Dr. Z. Grey in 1748 :

"I would have you every morning and evening let Miss's eyes be washed with cold spring water, or collyrium; and when they bleed have leeches applied to her temples, to draw from thence four or six ounces of blood, and to use the ointment whenever they grow worse. HANS SLOANE." for

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for the fever. I have no great thirst, or febrile symptoms more than mentioned. I most heartily pray for the continuance of your health; and, with my service to the gentlemen on Thursday at your house, remain, honoured and good Sir, Your most obliged, &c.





Whaddon Hall, near Fenny Stratford, Bucks, August 9, 1720. "Meeting the other day with a ballad containing some history of a famous person of both your names, I here inclose it, to divert you. I see in some part of the copy he is called Stutley, which I conceive to be a corruption or vulgar pronunciation of Stukley; for our town in sight of this place that bears your name is by the common people always called Stutley, and so I think are the two Stewkleys in Huntingdonshire. I hope your heat of stock-jobbing is a little abated, and that you have got enough in traffic to buy our Stewkley, and so are at leisure to come down and see it. If you see Mr. Becket, remind him of his promise to give me some account of Dr. Roger Gifford, M. D. Precentor of St. David's, and President of the College of Physicians, who died 1596. I wish I could tell where he was buried. The Register of Christ Church, London, is burnt, and so I cannot be informed whether buried at Christ Church from thence.

"I am now all alone, my wife and family being gone to the Bath for a month or six weeks, and have only with me three servants, otherwise a clear house, fit for the reception of a Recluse, or Antiquary Friend, especially yourself, who would be very welcome to your most humble servant, B. WILLIS."


Revesby, June 6, 1722.

"Good cousin Gale has been so kind as to give me two Letters of how the world goes, &c. to this place, barren of intelligence. I have not confidence to ask him for more, since I can make no return; but beg you will of the tenders of my best solicitude; and wish he was here with you. I would shew you a sight of eight Religious Houses, very great ones, in twelve miles riding, in the nearest road from my house to Lincoln, all within 200 paces of the road; Revesby Abbey, Tatteshall College, Kirkshead, Stickswould, Axholme, Bardney, Stanfield, and Barlings, Abbeys; which shew you what fine folks we have been formerly. And pray tell us when we may hope to see you, being we are for going soon to some Spas to play. And pray a little news, since I dare ask Mr. Gale for no more, unless of his own good will. I think you told me you had a sketch of all the drawings, &c. in East, West, and Wildmore Fens, on North side of Boston:

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