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validity of their rights, it is all-important that they should each establish a character for veracity; so here the champion is represented to be going forth to a contest (a contest in effect between truth and error) with the important qualification of a character of fidelity and truth—so much so as to be known especially by the title, “Faithful and True.”

* And in righteousness he doth judge and make war.'—Or with, by means of (iv) righteousness or justice, shall he discriminate and contend ; for it is a polemical exhibition that is about to be made; as it is said, Is. xxviii. 17, “ Judgment also will I lay to the line, and righteousness to the plummet.” As the plummet in the hand of the architect, so is righteousness with this combatant the instrument or means of discrimination—not only of judging, but of manisesting judgment. The effect of exhibiting the character and nature of true righteousness, is to show the deficiency of all that comes short of it; so, by showing the extent of that righteousness which the law requires, the impossibility of fulfilling this legal requisition by human merits is exhibited, and the call for bringing in an everlasting righteousness is made manifest.

§ 431. His eyes (were) as a flame of fire.'—The figure of the champion is here identified with the form of the Son of man seen in the midst of the golden candlesticks, Rev. i. 13; his eyes of flame ($ 30) indicating instruments of trial : the eyes of Him that looketh upon the heart—of Him who trieth the motive of the action, as well as the deed itself.

· And on his head (were) many crowns;' or rather, diadems, (5$ 272, 294 ;)—the word translated many signifying not merely several, but a large number, a multitude. The dragon bore seven diadems, the beast ten, the rider of the white horse a multitude. The two first had certain limited tokens of sovereignty ; the tokens or evidences of supreme power of the last are unlimited, infinite. A warrior going forth upon his charger could not be spoken of as seated upon a throne. In place of this figure, therefore, the infinite number of his diadems sets forth his attribute of sovereignty ; and this attribute is one of the weapons by which he maintains the contest, and obtains the victory: he could not do either without it. So, without a just exhibition of the sovereignty of God, the truth of salvation by grace cannot be manifested, nor the errors of self-justification overcome.

And he had a name written, that no man (no one) knew but himself.'Not his own name, but a name perhaps peculiarly cherished and known only to him. His own name is expressly announced in the next verse. The diadem was a band or fillet, capable of having a name embroidered upon it. We suppose, although it is not so expressed, this name to be written upon the multitude of diadems—the same name upon all of them ; as the beast from the sea had the one name of blasphemy upon his seven heads. The

name blasphemy, was characteristic of the pretensions of the beast : the name upon these diadems must characterize something intimately connected with these numerous evidences of sovereignty. There may be an allusion to this name in the prediction, Isaiah lxii. 2,3 : “And thou shalt be called by a new name, which the mouth of the Lord shall name;" the wearing of this name in the diadem being also a figure equivalent to that indicated by the expression, Is. xlix. 16: “I have graven thee upon the palms of my hands.” So the high priest was to bear not his own name, but the names of the children of Israel upon his two shoulders, (Ex. xxviii. 9–12, and 21.) There

may be also an allusion to the same name, Jer. xxxiji. 16, as the name granted to the peculiar object of divine favour. As the name, however, is declared to be known only to Him who knoweth all things, we cannot be expected to define it. On the other hand, we do not suppose the mention of it to have been introduced without the design of encouraging our investigations with respect to it. The name, as well as its opposite, that of the beast, must remain for the present untold.

$ 432. “And he was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood.'—Some light may be thrown on this passage by comparing it with a corresponding picture presented by the prophet Isaiah, (Is. Ixiïi. 1-4.)

“Who is he that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah? This that is glorious in his apparel, travelling in the greatness of his strength ?

"I that speak in righteousness, mighty to save.

" Wherefore art thou red in thine apparel, and thy garments like him that treadeth in the wine-fat ?

“ I have trodden the wine-press alone; and of the people (nations or Gentiles, röv étrõv, Sept.) there was none with me : for I will tread them in mine anger, and trample them in my sury; and their blood shall be sprinkled upon my garments, and I will stain all my raiment. For the day of vengeance is in my heart, and the year of my redeemed is come.”

It seems strange that He who thus speaks of himself as mighty to save, should immediately afterwards declare bis determination to destroy, and this with vengeance and fury; while, at the same time, the reason given for this exhibition of wrath is, that the year of the redeemed has come. We can adopt no other construction than that of supposing this vengeance to be directed, not against the sinner, (the subject of redemption,) but against the principles of error misrepresenting the work of this redemption; and thus throwing a stumbling-block in the way of disciples, and robbing God of the glory especially due to Him as a Saviour.

This appears more distinctly by referring to a previous passage, (Is. lix. 14-17,) where the prevalence of error is particularly the subject of complaint; and seems to be assigned as the cause of a manifestation of truth, of the same character as that under consideration. “ And judgment,” it is said, “is turned away backward, and justice standeth afar off: for truth is fallen in the street, and equity cannot enter; yea, truth faileth, and he that departeth from evil maketh himself a prey,” (“is accounted mad,” margin ;) “and the Lord saw it, and it displeased him that there was no judgment:"because there was no discrimination between truth and error, öri o'x iv xvíois ; and therefore, apparently, it is added, “ he put on righteousness as a breastplate, and a helment of salvation upon his head,” &c. The exhibition of the means by which God's work of salvation has been wrought, being the weapon for overcoming and destroying the errors in contemplation.

As the name Edom signifies red, earthy, or bloody,* and as Bozrah was a city of Edom, we suppose the figure of coming from Edom to be equivalent to a coming from man's position under the law; the position of the sinner obnoxious to the penalty of the broken law. To come from Edom with garments dyed red, must be equivalent to bearing the evidence of having endured this penalty. The prophet, accordingly, is supposed in spirit to be addressing the Redeemer subsequently to the completion of his propitiatory work : a work performed by him alone—a work in which no element of human merit, no Gentile power, had a part. As he says of the nations, or Gentiles, there was not a man with me, tov étrov oủx xoriv avie uer' {uov, (Sept.) And yet it would appear that these very Gentiles, or self-righteous principles, claimed the glory of the work ; and for this reason are represented as making war against the Redeemer. Therefore it is, that after having trodden the wine-press alone, the year of his redeemed being come, when the truth of salvation by grace is to be manifested, the Author of that salvation now goes forth to vindicate the truth ; putting on for this purpose the garments of vengeance for a clothing, and being clad with zeal as a cloak ; exhibiting at the same time his dyed garments as the evidences wherewith to vindicate his title to the glory of the only Redeemer. We suppose the circumstances, and attributes, and object of the Rider of the white horse, in this passage of the Apocalypse, to be parallel with this representation of the prophet. The work of redemption has been accomplished ; the vesture dipped in blood bears testimony to it. But the nations, (the Gentiles,) the elements of self-righteousness—pretended powers of human merit—these claim the glory of the work of salvation for the beast, (self.) They have arrayed themselves under his standard, and, led by their ruling principles, (the kings of the earth,) they are now set in order of battle on the field of Armageddon against the Lord, and against his Anointed. The

* Edom bing Rufus, sive terrenus, aut sanguineus, (Onomas. Leusden.)

very peculiarity of the array—the enemy being summoned by unclean spirits from the mouths of the accuser, the beast and the false prophet, and, as we shall find, being headed by the beast-affords evidence that the object of the expedition now describing, is to vindicate truth and to suppress error.

$ 433. “And his name is called the Word of God,' (ó 2.6yos zoū Jsov.) » — This appellation, as we have already noticed, ($ 147,) is peculiarly

adapted to a personification of the Deity; the Word of God being put for the decision of the divine mind, as the word of man expresses the decision of the human mind. The going forth of the Word of God may be put for the act of execution, or for that of revelation. By the word of the Lord were the heavens made, and all of the host of them by the breath of his mouth : here the word went forth in its execution—the work of creation :as it is also said, Heb. xi. 3, The worlds were framed by the word of God. There is a like going forth of the mind of God in the works of his providence, upholding all things by the Word of his power. “He sendeth forth his commandments, and his word runneth very swiftly.” So, in the work of redemption, the same Word went forth, when He who was the express image of the Father was made flesh, and dwelt amongst us ;—when he died for our sins, and was raised for our justification. Or, rather, this was a going forth in the work of manifestation : the Word of God virtually going forth in the work of redemption, in every instance in which his righteousness is imputed to the objects of his mercy for their justification.

Besides this, the Word of God goes forth in every revelation made of the decision of the divine mind. The promulgation of the glad tidings of salvation is a going forth of the Word of God. The peculiar inspiration with which prophets and apostles have been favoured, is a going forth of the Word of God. The editing and circulation of the sacred Scriptures—from the line first committed to writing, to the stereotyped millions of copies which now cover the earth—are a going forth of the Word of God. So the exposition and development of the true meaning of these Scriptures, wherever these are made, and whatever may be the instrumentality, are a going forth of the Word of God. This last we suppose to be more especially that going forth contemplated in this representation of the Apocalypse ; the development of the peculiar truths of the mystery of redemption constituting that going forth of the Word, which is here represented by the action of the Rider of the white horse.

We must judge of the nature of the going forth by the occasion on which the figure is employed. Here, the occasion is a contest with the beast and false prophet, and the forces under their command ; a contest between truth and error. A peculiar revelation of the decision of the divine mind, in reference to the plan of redemption, is the display of sovereign power here called for. The work of salvation has been accomplished; it remains only to manifest its truth by a development necessarily resulting in the destruction of every opposing error.

Vs. 14-16. And the armies (which Και τα στρατεύματα τα εν τω ουρανό were) in heaven followed him upon white svohoigri uito éq' Innois derzoìs, čr8:8vhorses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean. And out of his mouth goeth a

μένοι βύσσινον λευκών καθαρών. Και εκ sharp sivord, that with it he should smite του στόματος αυτού εκπορεύεται ρομφαία the nations: and he shall rule them will οξεία, ένα εν αυτή πατάξη τα έθνη και a rod of iron; and he treadeth the wine- αυτός ποιμανει αυτούς έν άβδω σιδηρά, press of the fierceness and wrath of Al- και αυτός πατεί την ληνόν του οίνου του mighty God. And he hath on (his) vesture and on his thigh a name written. Iruoù vis ógyis toù Itoù toù nuvtoxpéKING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF τορος. Και έχει επι το ιμάτιον και επί τον LORDS.

μηρόν αυτού όνομα γεγραμμένον· βασιλείς βασιλέων και κύριος κυρίων.

$434. “And the armies,' &c.—As the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world, the Word of God accomplished the work of redemption alone. What we have now to contemplate, however, is not the work itself, but the revelation of it. In this revelation all the powers of heaven are represented as being engaged. All the elements of the representation of divine government, figuratively termed heaven, co-operate with the going forth of the Word in the manifestation and vindication of evangelical truth. Both the leader and his armies are sustained by the same exhibition of divine righteousness ; the auxiliary elements of gospel truth depending upon the principle of salvation by imputed righteousness for their own efficacy and power, as the warrior depends upon his horse.

So too they appear clothed in the same imputed perfection ;* the exhibition of this raiment being to them an armour or means of defence; as every element of doctrine belonging to God's plan of salvation depends for the evidence of its verity upon this characteristic, that it tends to exhibit the interposition of divine righteousness in behalf of the sinner, as the efficient instrument of justification.

The Leader is arrayed in a blood-red garment, while his followers are clothed in white robes. So Christ assumes the penalty, and wears the garb of the transgressor, in order that his followers may be clothed in the white robe of bis righteousness; as it is said of the multitudes spoken of, Rev. vii. 9,-15, These are they who have washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb ; and as, on the other hand, Jesus was arrayed by

* The heavenly armies are arrayed pot merely in fine linen, but in fine linen white and clean, or white clean. The term (1.evrov za Jagór) is not so significant of resplendent transparency, as that applied to the array of the wife of the Lamb, (laungov xa Japóv ;) and which is also employed in describing the attire of the seven angels from the temple, Rev. xv. 6; although their pure and white linen (1.lrov,) is not the fine linen (Búooivor) said to be the righteousness of the saints, (Rev. xix. 8.)

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