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righteousness, to which he virtually bows down as to an object of adoration, considering it the source of all his hopes, for time and for eternity. In this image of his own perfection, his own self is the real deity; he has not two objects of worship,-one is represented in the other,--self is worshipped in the image of its own merits.

• The heart is deceitful above all things.'-A delusion such as we have here depicted finds, therefore, a ready reception ; but the immediate cause of the error is the false interpretation, leading astray or perverting the language of revelation ; causing the elements of the earthly system, or plan of salvation, as drawn from a literal or carnal view of the written word, to substitute an image of human fabric for the true object of worship—the Creator and Redeemer of the world.

$312. The action of the second beast is to place the worshipper (the elements of the earthly system spoken of as worshippers) under the dominion of the first beast, whose ten horns, or legal powers, are the instruments of enforcing his authority. It is the misinterpretation of the false prophet which places the disciple under the dominion of self, and puts him in the position of a worshipper of self, and consequently brings him back from bis position of freedom in Christ to a state of bondage under the law.

So the first beast is represented as making war upon the saints : a war probably of the same kind as that carried on in heaven between Michael and his angels, and the dragon and his angels; with this difference, that the war in heaven is a contest between the elements of redemption and those of accusation. The war on earth is between the true elements of redemption on the one side, and the elements of falsehood, of self-justification, and of self-propitiation, on the other.* The latter war, although said to be made by the first beast, is in fact carried on by the second beast ; the false prophet (misinterpretation) leading the elements of falsehood just spoken of to contend with those of truth, figuratively spoken of as the saints, or holy ones. This spirit of misinterpretation, ostensibly evangelical, and bearing the insignia of propitiatory power, comes from the earth : a literal and self-righteous origin. Its tendency is to bring into operation the whole power

of the law, and, like the letter which killeth, to destroy the opposite elements of grace, by re-establishing the dominion resulting from the power of condemnation.

Such is the action of the second beast; but this action is through the instrumentality of his two horns, or powers, the weapons of his warfarecarnal weapons—the opposites of those of which the apostle speaks, as

* The war in heaven may be considered equivalent to the contest in the nature of things between the elements of justice and those of mercy, figuratively represented as a division in the councils of the Most High; the war on earth is equivalent to a manifestation of truth resulting from this heavenly contest.

mighty to the pulling down of strong holds, (2 Cor. x. 4.) Such is the misinterpretation we may also say of the false prophet; which misinterpretation is effected, or put into operation, and made efficient, by the instrumentality of two doctrinal powers, or weapons ; two leading doctrines, bearing the appearance of something evangelical ; professing to advocate, no doubt, a system of atonement or propitiation, but in reality wresting the meaning of the sacred oracles in a manner to deceive even the very elect, (Matt. xxiv. 24.) The disciple, carried away by this misinterpretation, operating as it does by the means of these two doctrines, being led not only to worship, or serve something opposed to God, (self, but also to form in his own mind or heart an image of the moral perfection of self; which image, according to his system, he actually adores without being conscious of it. Such, indeed, is the effect; but we suppose here, as elsewhere, the immediate design of the Apocalypse to be, that of pointing out and illustrating the end to be repudiated, not that of designating literally a class of human beings eventually to suffer from it.

Nothing is said of the time allotted to the action of the second beast, but we take the term of forty-two months (verse 5) to be equally applicable to the predominant influence of both of these monsters ; the last cooperating with the first, or rather the first acting in, and manifesting itself in the last, from the beginning to the end of his career. The several operations of the beast from the sea, described in the first part of the chapter, are effected by the agency of the beast from the earth. The particulars related of both beasts, although described successively, are in fact coeval; the requisition of the work set forth in the seventeenth verse of the chapter, all being of as early a date, so to speak, as the worship of the dragon and of the beast, adverted to in the fourth verse ; and this worship, as well as the overcoming of the saints, and the subjugation of the dwellers upon the earth, being the result of the intervention of the false interpreter, with his signs and lying wonders, exhibited through the instrumentality of his two important, most prominent, and leading doctrinal powers.

" Which had the wound by a sword, and did live,'or, as it is in the Greek, by the sword. The first beast is mentioned in the third verse as having one of his heads wounded to death. In the twelfth verse he is spoken of as one whose deadly wound was healed; and here, in the fourteenth verse, as the beast which had the wound by the sword and did live. There seems to be a gradual development in the character of this wound. The animal appears at first as having been wounded only in one of its members—a wound deadly indeed to that member, but not so to the whole beast ; next, his wound seems to be alluded to as altogether mortal, a deadly wound of the beast itself; and lastly, we are informed by what in

righteousness, to which he virtually bows down as to an object of adoration, considering it the source of all his hopes, for time and for eternity. In this image of his own perfection, his own self is the real deity; he has not two objects of worship,-one is represented in the other,--self is worshipped in the image of its own merits.

• The heart is deceitful above all things.'-A delusion such as we have here depicted finds, therefore, a ready reception ; but the immediate cause of the error is the false interpretation, leading astray or perverting the language of revelation ; causing the elements of the earthly system, or plan of salvation, as drawn from a literal or carnal view of the written word, to substitute an image of human fabric for the true object of worship—the Creator and Redeemer of the world.

$312. The action of the second beast is to place the worshipper (the elements of the earthly system spoken of as worshippers) under the dominion of the first beast, whose ten horns, or legal powers, are the instruments of enforcing his authority. It is the misinterpretation of the false prophet which places the disciple under the dominion of self, and puts him in the position of a worshipper of self, and consequently brings him back from his position of freedom in Christ to a state of bondage under the law.

So the first beast is represented as making war upon the saints : a war probably of the same kind as that carried on in heaven between Michael and his angels, and the dragon and his angels; with this difference, that the war in heaven is a contest between the elements of redemption and those of accusation, The war on earth is between the true elements of redemption on the one side, and the elements of falsehood, of self-justification, and of self-propitiation, on the other.* The latter war, although said to be made by the first beast, is in fact carried on by the second beast; the false prophet (misinterpretation) leading the elements of falsehood just spoken of to contend with those of truth, figuratively spoken of as the saints, or holy ones. This spirit of misinterpretation, ostensibly evangelical, and bearing the insignia of propitiatory power, comes from the earth : a literal and self-righteous origin. Its tendency is to bring into operation the whole power of the law, and, like the letter which killeth, to destroy the opposite elements of grace, by re-establishing the dominion resulting from the power of condemnation.

Such is the action of the second beast ; but this action is through the instrumentality of his two horns, or powers, the weapons of his warfarecarnal weapons—the opposites of those of which the apostle speaks, as

* The war in heaven may be considered equivalent to the contest in the nature of things between the elements of justice and those of mercy, figuratively represented as a division in the councils of the Most High; the war on earth is equivalent to a manifestation of truth resulting from this heavenly contest.

mighty to the pulling down of strong holds, (2 Cor. x. 4.) Such is the misinterpretation we may also say of the false prophet; which misinterpretation is effected, or put into operation, and made efficient, by the instrumentality of two doctrinal powers, or weapons; two leading doctrines, bearing the appearance of something evangelical ; professing to advocate, no doubt, a system of atonement or propitiation, but in reality wresting the meaning of the sacred oracles in a manner to deceive even the very elect, (Matt. xxiv. 24.) The disciple, carried away by this misinterpretation, operating as it does by the means of these two doctrines, being led not only to worship, or serve something opposed to God, (self,) but also to form in his own mind or heart an image of the moral perfection of self; which image, according to his system, he actually adores without being conscious of it. Such, indeed, is the effect; but we suppose here, as elsewhere, the immediate design of the Apocalypse to be, that of pointing out and illustrating the end to be repudiated, not that of designating literally a class of human beings eventually to suffer from it.

Nothing is said of the time allotted to the action of the second beast, but we take the term of forty-two months (verse 5) to be equally applicable to the predominant influence of both of these monsters; the last cooperating with the first, or rather the first acting in, and manifesting itself in the last, from the beginning to the end of his career. tions of the beast from the sea, described in the first part of the chapter, are effected by the agency of the beast from the earth. The particulars related of both beasts, although described successively, are in fact coeval; the requisition of the work set forth in the seventeenth verse of the chapter, all being of as early a date, so to speak, as the worship of the dragon and of the beast, adverted to in the fourth verse; and this worship, as well as the overcoming of the saints, and the subjugation of the dwellers upon the earth, being the result of the intervention of the false interpreter, with his signs and lying wonders, exhibited through the instrumentality of his two important, most prominent, and leading doctrinal powers.

Which had the wound by a sword, and did live,'-or, as it is in the Greek, by the sword. The first beast is mentioned in the third verse as having one of his heads wounded to death. In the twelfth verse he is spoken of as one whose deadly wound was healed ; and here, in the fourteenth verse, as the beast which had the wound by the sword and did live. There seems to be a gradual development in the character of this wound. The animal appears at first as having been wounded only in one of its members—a wound deadly indeed to that member, but not so to the whole beast ; next, his wound seems to be alluded to as altogether mortal, a deadly wound of the beast itself; and lastly, we are informed by what in

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strumentality the wound had been inflicted, viz., by the sword.

This sword, according to our previous interpretation of the symbol. we suppose to represent the revealed Word of God, spiritually understood—the sword of the Spirit: the sword of the magistrate, when employed for the destruction of error ; that of the warrior, when engaged directly in the defence or promulgation of the truth.

Having supposed (by way of approximation) the beast from the sea to represent the element of self, or something of that kind, we suppose this element to be contemplated as having been alive under the legal dispensation ; self being then supposed to depend upon its own strength for the means of eternal life. Under the gospel dispensation it receives a mortal wound—a wound manifestly effected by the revealed word, properly understood. Wherever this word is so understood, there the beast (self) is wounded to death—manifested to be without life ;—that is, without the means of eternal life. Where this word, on the contrary, is not rightly understood, or where the Scriptures are taken literally, (carnally,) under a false construction, there the beast is alive again ; self-righteousness being then contemplated as the element of eternal life. So, in a system of doctrine, according to which the disciple is supposed capable of satisfying the requisites of the law by merits or by works of his own, the element of selfjustification prevails in full power ; the sword of the Spirit only being able to destroy the error.

V. 15. And he had power to give life Και εδόθη αυτώ δούναι πνεύμα το εικόνι unto the image of the beast, that the image του θηρίου, ίνα και λαλήση ή εικών του θηof the beast should both speak, and cause that as many as would not worship the Qίου, και ποιήση, όσοι αν μη προσκυνήσωσι image of the beast should be killed.

την εικόνα του θηρίου να αποκτανθώσι. . $312.And he had power ;'—or, it was given him to give life, or rather to give spirit unto the image. The word translated life here, (nveðu«,) is the same as that rendered spirit, as opposed to the letter, (rò yodéųure,) 2 Cor. iïi. 6; and in its adverbial forn, spiritually, (avevuvoixos;) Rev. xi. 8, it is to be distinguished from the term [wń, properly rendered life, John i. 4, and v. 26. The false prophet, or false interpreter, had power given him, (this office was assigned to him,) to cause the image of the beast to appear to have been created in accordance with the spiritual sense of Scripture, and to appear to speak the spiritual sense ; appearing to have life in itself—that is, appearing to possess in itself the means of eternal life. As we may suppose the advocates of self-righteous views to claim for these views a certain refinement of ethics, to which they apply the appellation of spirituality, or perhaps of spiritual mindedness; the appellation, nevertheless, being misapplied, and the views being in reality the dictate of the letter, and not of the spirit. This appearance

is a part

of the

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