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July, 1841. The Doctor was one of the Commissioners of
How old you, George?
You savy who made sun, moon, and stars ; who made people in the world?
No; no savy that; Kroomen no savy that.
goes to God.
Where do they go to God?
* take him ;
God no take him. Where he go then ?
Him go up to another man.† Some Kroomen have palaver (talk) about it; some say, when one bad man die, moon take him up. I
Do Kroomen say there is one God only; or two or three gods
up above ?
How Kroomen savy that ? Kroomen no go up above to savy
that. Do Kroomen often make juju (perform religious worship) in their country?
• Another great one. The worship of these people is completely one of fear; and Dr. Madden observes, that its chief object is to propitiate the favour of their evil deities, whose leader is here called “another great one," with reference, probably, to his influence upon their minds.
† Another man. The heathens, without excepting the most polished amongst them, could form no idea of God as a purely spiritual being. With all of them he was “a man," and nothing more, till the disclosures of Revelation gradually insinuated themselves into their several systems, and he was recognized as a superior principle.
| Moon take him up. We should not have thought this item worthy of notice, as associated with the childish notion prevalent amongst ourselves, that the imaginary features of the full moon are those of a notorious transgressor, had not this singular analogy appeared to us something like a proof of the common origin of the white and black races.
Oh yes; make juju very much.
make juju? Kroomen go and take one cow to juju-man; him make great palaver over cow, then cut him throat. *
Why him cut his throat ?
Cut off cow's feet and some of the belly for himself, throw him head away,t head no good, Kroomen no chop (eat) head never ; then people come and take the rest, boil him meat, and eat the juju. What
do with the blood ? Let it run on the ground; no man chop blood. I Do women eat some of the cow when you make juju ?
Oh no; don't let women come near juju; keep women far off ; no good for women to make juju.
When women die in Kroo country, where your people say they go?
Where him go? (somewhat angrily) where him go for true. Where all men go-up.
That's good palaver, George. But why no women make juju with men, when cow is killed to make God glad, as you say; and to do good to men of Kroo country ?
* Cut him throat. Dr. Madden says, “The sacrifice of shedding blood and offering up the flesh of the slaughtered animal, prevails over the whole regions of Africa, wherever paganism has been found.” It is, in fact, universal,-a circumstance the more remarkable, as it is one of those practices which Nature could not have taught. It must have come from Revelation, through the medium of tradition.
† Throw him head away. The great palaver made over this sacrifice, probably consisted of imprecations upon this head, as in the case of the ancient Egyptians. Like the scape-goat, the head was then “sent away," being sold to foreigners, or thrown into the river. This accounts for the Kroomen's idea, head no good. The whole mode of sacrifice was evidently derived originally from the Jewish law.
No man chop blood, This is an ancient Jewish ordinance (See Lev. iii. 17, and vii. 26). It is even retained at the present day by that people, who will not eat meat killed after the ordinary method. This is another proof of the common origin of mankind.
Women mind picanniny (child), mind him house, don't know how to mind that thing.
A long time ago, have you never heard in Kroo country, that big waters come and drown all the world ?
No, we never hearie that palaver. We hearie long time ago very much (very long time ago), four Kroomen go away in canoe to go to other country; when fourteen days pass, big waters come and upset canoe, and four men just go down, when two porpoise come* and carry them ashore ; all Kroomen know that for true palaver.
SINGULAR EFFECTS OF INTENSE COLD. A singular phenomenon, connected with frosts of unusual severity, is noticed by Sir Edward Banks, in connection with the intense cold of the winter of 1798. On the 27th December in that year,
says, that one of his servants employed in valuing wood in a copse near Tattershall, heard noises, several times repeated, like the loud smack of a whip, which proved to be the riving of the branches of trees by the intensity of the frost. This singular effect is most probably occasioned by the rapid expansion of the sap in the act of freezing ; a circumstance which occurs only when the cold is considerably below zero.
A REAL PHILOSOPHER. I must needs acknowledge that when, with bold telescopes, I survey the old and newly-discovered stars and planets that adorn the upper region of the world ; and when, with excellent microscopes, I discern, in otherwise invisible objects, the inimitable subtlety of nature's curious workmanship; and when, in a word, by the help of anatomical knives and the light of chemical furnaces, I study the book of nature and consult the glosses of Aristotle, Epicurus, Paracælsus, Harvey, Helmont, and other learned expositors of that instructive volume, I find myself oftentimes reduced to exclaim with the psalmist, “How manifold are thy works, O Lord; in wisdom hast thou made them all!” And when I have been losing myself in admiration of what I understand not, but enough to admire, and not to comprehend, I am often obliged to interrupt or break off my enquiries, by applying to the works of God's creation, the expression used by St. Paul, of those of his Providence, "O! the depth of the riches, both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out.”—Hon. R. Boyle.
* Two porpoise come. Probably an obscure tradition respecting Noah, who was worshipped by the old heathens as the man-fish.
GOD AND HIS CREATURES. “HE that planted the ear, shall he not hear? He that formed the eye, shall he not see ?--that is, he that imparts a faculty or an excellence to the creature, shall not he himself much more eminently possess it? And, in effect, the most unblemished created beauties are but faint shadows, or trulier, foils of His. Those drops of prettiness, scatteringly sprinkled amongst the creatures, were designed to defecate and exalt our conceptions, not to inveigle or detain our passions ; for God did never intend them to terminate our love
but only by our eyes to exalt our faith above them, and by the beauties our sight can apprehend, to raise us to a confidence that there is in their author more than we can either see or comprehend. Like Elijah's fiery chariots, though they be pure and bright, and consist of the noblest and gloriousest materials, they are meant by God but to carry us up to Him. And as the patriarch's steward was furnished with so sumptuous an equipage to court Rebecca, not for himself, but for Isaac, so all the loveliness imparted to the creature is lent it, but to give us some more large conceptions of that vast confluence and immensity that exuberates in God.-Boyle.
THE LIGHT AND THE SUN. Those who have observed how plants appear to owe their origin and growth to the heat of the sun, might very possibly think that luminary was their creator. But the Scriptures shew üs, that the earth was clothed with herbs and plants of all kinds before the sun itself was made ; that so we might see how all things emanate from God alone.
It pleased the Great Operator to create the light before he
reduced it to the form it now assumes in the sun and the stars, because He wished us to understand that these grand and magnificent luminaries, which we are ready to regard as divinities, did not possess in themselves either the beauty or brilliancy of which they seem to be composed, or the admirable form to which they are now reduced. -Bossuet.
HE THAT HATETH SURETYSHIP IS SURE. If thou be bound for strangers, thou art a fool; if for a merchant, thou puttest thy estate to learn to swim; if for a churchman, he hath no inheritance; if for a lawyer, he will find an evasion by a syllable or word, to abuse thee; if for a poor man, thou must pay it thyself; if for a rich man, it need not; therefore, from suretyship, as from a manslayer, bless thyself.—Ralegh.
THE TRIUNE CREATOR. “ LET US make man.” God speaks to himself: He speaks to some one who acts with Him-to some one of whom man is at once the creature and the image; he speaks to another himself; he speaks to one by whom all things have been made ; to Him who says in his gospel, “All that the Father doeth, the same doeth the Son likewise.” (John v. 19). In speaking to his Son, or with his Son, he speaks at the same time with the Almighty Spirit, equal and co-eternal with both.
In the language of Scripture, no one but God ever speaks of himself in the plural number, “ Let us make.” Even God himself speaks thus but twice or thrice; and this extraordinary phrase is first used when the creation of man is in contemplation. -Bossuet.
WINE IS A MOCKER. ANACHARSis says " the first draught serveth for health; the second, for pleasure; the third, for shame; the fourth, for madness :" but in youth there is not so much as one draught permitted, for it putteth fire to fire.
ISHMAEL. ABRAHAM has always been famous in the East. It was not only the Hebrews who looked upon him as their father : the