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them ; and the parts by baths, unguents, and plasters,
; which also make sudden impressions.
The third is, that the softening of the parts from without should be effected by things of kindred substance, things that impress, and things that close up. For things of kindred substance are kindly and readily embraced and taken in by the parts, and perform the proper office of emollients: things that impress not only act as vehicles for the virtue of the emollients, making it sink more easily and deeper, but themselves also expand the parts a little : while things that close up retain and keep in and fix for awhile the virtue of both the others, and restrain perspiration, which is a thing opposed to the softening process, because it lets out the moisture. And so by these three (but rather disposed in order and succeeding each other, than mixed together) is the thing accomplished. At the same time I would have it understood that the intention of the softening is not to nourish the parts from without, but only to make them apter to receive nourishment. For whatever is more dry is less active in
. assimilating. And so much for the Prolongation of Life, now newly assigned to medicine, as the third part.
We come now to Cosmetic, which has parts civil and parts effeminate. For cleanness and decency of body is rightly esteemed to proceed from a modesty of manners, and from reverence, first of all towards God whose creatures we are; then towards society wherein we live; and then also towards ourselves, whom we ought to reverence not less, but rather more, than others. But Chat adulterate decoration, which makes use of dyes and pigments, is well worthy of the deficiencies which always attend it; being neither fine enough to deceive, nor convenient enough for use, nor safe and wholesome enough for health. And I wonder that this depraved custom of painting has been by the penal laws, both ecclesiastical and civil, (which have been very severe against extravagance in apparel and effeminate dressing of the hair) so long overlooked. We read indeed of Jezebel, that she painted her face; but nothing of the kind is said of Esther or Judith.
Let us now proceed to Athletic. This I take in a sense somewhat larger than that in which it is usually understood. For to it I refer everything which conduces to tlie procuring of any kind of ability of which the human body is capable; whether of agility or of endurance. Agility has two parts, strength and swiftness; endurance has likewise two, patience of natural wants, and fortitude under torments. Of all which we often see remarkable examples, in the practice of tumblers, in the hard living of some savages, in the stupendous strength of maniacs, and in the constancy of some persons under exquisite tortures. And if there be found any other faculty not falling into the former divisions (such as the wonderful power of holding the breath, which is often seen in divers), I mean it to be referred to this art. Now that such things can sometimes be done, is very plain ; but the philosophy and inquisition of causes relating to them is almost neglectcd; the rather, I think, because it is thought that such masteries of nature are only attained either by a pecilliar aptness of nature in some men, which cannot be aught, or by continual custom fum boyhood, a thing which depends upon authority rather than upon teaching. Which though it be not altogether true, yet of
what avail is it to note defects in matters of this kind ? For the Olympic Games are over long since; and besides in such things mediocrity is enough for use, excellency in them serving for the most part only for mercenary ostentation.
Lastly I come to Arts of Pleasure Sensual, which are divided according to the senses themselves. The pleasure of the eyes is chiefly Painting, with a number of other arts (pertaining to magnificence) which respect houses, gardens, vestments, vases, cups, gems, and the like. The pleasure of the ears is Music, with its various apparatus of voices, wind, and strings: water instruments, once regarded as the leaders of this art, are now almost out of use. Of all these arts those which belong to the eye and ear are esteemed the most liberal; for these two senses are the purest; and the sciences thereof are the most learned, as having mathematics like a handmaid in their train. The one also has some reference to memory and demonstrations, the other to morality and the passions of the mind. The pleasures of the other senses, and the arts relating to them, are less esteemed; as being more allied to luxury than magnificence. For unguents, odours, the dainties and pleasures of the table, and most of all the stimulants of lust, need rather laws to repress than arts to teach them. It has been well obser ved by some that military arts flourish at the birth ann rise of states; liberal arts when states are settled and at their height; and voluptuary arts when they are turning to decline and ruin. And I fear that this our age of the world, as being somewhat upon the descent of the wheel, inclines to arts voluptuary. Wherefore let these things pass. With arts volup
tuary I couple arts jocular; for the deceiving of the senses is one of the pleasures of the senses.
And now having run over the doctrines concerning the body of man (Medicine, Cosmetic, Athletic, and the Art Voluptuary), I give this notice in passing; that whereas so many things come into consideration in the human body, parts, humours, functions, faculties, and accidents; and that (if it were a new matter) it would be fit that there should be a single body of learning touching the human body containing them all (like that doctrine concerning the soul, of which I shall soon come to speak); yet to avoid the too great multiplication of arts, or the transposition (more than need be) of their ancient limits, I receive the doctrine concerning the parts of the human body, — the functions, humours, respiration, sleep, generation, the fætus and gestation in the womb, growth, puberty, old age, fatness, and the like, - into the body of medicine ; not that they properly belong to those three offices, but because the human body is in everything the subject of medicine. But voluntary motion and sense I refer to the doctrine concerning the soul, because in these two the soul plays the principal part. And so much for the philosophy concerning the body of man ; which is but the tabernacle of the mind.
Division of Human Philosophy relating to the Soul into
Doctrine concerning the Breath of Life and Doctrine
Let us now proceed to the doctrine which concerns the Human Soul, from the treasures whereof all other doctrines are derived. The parts thereof are two; the one treats of the rational soul, which is divine; the other of the irrational, which is common with brutes. I mentioned a little before (in speaking of Forms) the two different emanations of souls, which appear in the first creation thereof; the one springing from the breath of God, the other from the wombs of the elements. For touching the first generation of the rational soul, the Scripture says, “ He liath made man of the dust of the earth, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life;" whereas the generation of the irrational soul, or that of the brutes, was effected by the words “Let the water bring forth ; let the earth bring forth. Now this soul (as it exists in man) is only the instrument of the rational soul, and has its origin like that of the brutes in the dust of the earth. For it is not said that “ He made the body of man of the dust of the earth,” but that “ He made man;” that is the